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小规模的迷你住宅,为何总是如此受欢迎?第1张图片

弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特流水别墅. © User:Euelbenul - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link. Image Fallingwater House, iconic project designed by Frank Lloyd Wright back in 1939

Why Do Architects Love Designing Houses?

由专筑网李韧,王雪纯编译

家是我们的港湾,是我们的私人空间。但在诸如东京、上海、圣保罗等城市化空间之中,建筑已经变得愈来愈小,价格也愈发高昂。如果你有幽闭恐惧症,那么Marie Kondo就是你寻求大空间的最好伙伴。私人后院已经成为了奢侈品,但是研究显示,独立住宅仍然是各个网站中很受欢迎的项目,这是为什么呢?独立住宅似乎与城市的发展趋势并不协调,为什么一些高校仍然将别墅作为学生们的训练作业?在小型空间中进行空间设计不是更具挑战性与创新意识吗?在这样大的范围中设计建筑是否能解决实际问题?

在本次编辑之间的谈话中,我们讨论了建筑师与客户之间的沟通,其中包括迷你住宅的设计自由,以及当代人对于公共空间的期待。

Home. Our shelter. Our private space. In an urbanized world with dense megalopolises like Tokyo, Shanghai, and São Paulo, homes are getting smaller and more expensive than ever. If you are claustrophobic, Marie Kondo is your best ally in the quest to earn some extra space.  And even though private backyards have become a luxury for most, our data shows that single-family houses are still the most popular project type on ArchDaily. Why is this? (Especially when it seems incongruous given the reality of today’s crowded cities.) Why do some universities still insist on designing and building houses as academic exercises? Wouldn’t it be more creative—and more useful—to develop architecture in small-scale spaces? Would it be more rewarding to develop solutions on bigger scales?
In this edition of our Editor's Talk, we discuss negotiations between architects and clients, freedom in the design of tiny houses, and what Generation Z’s expectations reveal about public spaces.

小规模的迷你住宅,为何总是如此受欢迎?第2张图片

法国巴黎艾瓦别墅/Villa dall'Ava, designed by OMA in Paris, France, back in 1991. Image © Peter Aaron (OTTO)

Nicolas Valencia:根据数据报告,别墅是ArchDaily中最受欢迎的类型,那么这是为什么呢?

José Tomás Franco:我觉得这是极少数的建筑类型,这种类型能够真正满足每个人的需求。它将很多东西都简化了,这只是人们的私人空间,人们也许能够在这里真正体验到自己的存在?

Maria Erman:我认为住宅项目真正满足客户的需求,建筑师们会来ArchDaily寻找灵感与设计方案。

Fabián Dejtiar:我相信住宅是人们最为重要的经济投资,因此收集案例是激发灵感的行为。

Matheus Pereira:在设计住宅的时,建筑师也许能够尽量满足客户的需求,同时更好地控制项目,另外,住宅也属于城市的一部分,因此需要考虑如何与城市周围关系产生对话。

Nicolas Valencia: According to our data, single-family houses are the most popular category on ArchDaily. Why do you think this is still happening?
José Tomás Franco: I think it's one of the few types that really resonates with every person, anywhere in the world. It symbolizes many things: it's the greatest dream of the contemporary citizen, it's our private space par excellence, and maybe the only space where we really are who we are.
Maria Erman: I think housing projects are probably the most demanded ones among clients, and architects come to ArchDaily for inspiration and, ultimately, design solutions
Fabián Dejtiar: I believe the house is the most important financial investment people make in their lives, so it's natural to collect examples to get inspiration.
Matheus Pereira: When designing homes, architects can have greater control of the project by trying to satisfy all of the clients' requirements. Also, designing a house is to build a small part of a city and that implies to think about how it dialogues with the rest of the urban fabric.

小规模的迷你住宅,为何总是如此受欢迎?第3张图片

墨西哥,Reforma 27住宅楼/Reforma 27a, residential tower designed by Alberto Kalach in Mexico City back in 2010. Image © Yoshihiro Koitani

Nicolas Valencia:那这是不是意味着在简化的规则之中进行设计呢?例如,如果建筑师只和一部分人进行沟通,他的设计会更自由一些,对他们而言,设计住宅有什么吸引力吗?

José Tomás Franco:我不确定。我认为建筑师对于项目没有太多的自由。媒体上展示出来的东西才是真正重要的东西,这不是全部内容。建筑师这个职业有些过于理想,念书的时候,“草原住宅”意味着周围没有其他建筑,那时候就奠定了我们未来的设计上限。

“住宅,作为一个有着挑战性的建筑类型,需要为人们提供最为私密的场所,对于设计师来说,这是一项艰巨的任务。”

Nicolas Valencia:那么为什么我们如此痴迷住宅呢,我们什么时候能在大规模建筑中形成更大的影响?

Maria Erman:一座建筑能够给你自由,这与场地有关。在设计公寓的时候,场地就那么大,甚至还要受到规范的限制。而在设计住宅时,你会更自由一些。

José Tomás Franco:正如Maria所说的那样,公寓的室内设计也有着类似的挑战,但是也有一些具体的问题,例如,与城市、街道的联系与朝向,以及对于集体生活的作用。另外,你并不了解未来的客户对象,因此整个空间呈现标准化,这并对每个人适用。

Nicolas Valencia: It seems that designing a house implies fewer rules, the negotiation includes fewer people and you can design more freely. Does is it more attractive to architects rather to design apartments?
José Tomás Franco: I'm not so sure about that. I think that architects do not have much freedom to choose the projects that we want to work on and develop. What is shown in printed magazines or digital media is a significant part of what it's being built, but it is not everything. Our profession is a little bit idealized. So, when we get into university, the "house on the prairie," that home without any other buildings nearby, becomes the greatest achievement we could achieve, from day one.
“Nevertheless, housing as a category provides a unique challenge —nothing less than designing the most intimate space of a person or a family. It's an immense responsibility.”
Nicolas Valencia: So why do we focus on houses, when we can have a bigger impact on a bigger scale?
Maria Erman: Maybe because a house gives you a fair amount of freedom in relation to the site. When you design apartments, the scale is limited by, say, four walls, but larger scale projects are controlled by stricter limitations ruled by local authorities. When designing a house, an architect probably has more freedom to shape it.
José Tomás Franco: Regarding what Maria said, apartments provide similar challenges when it comes to interior design, but have very specific problems as well: the connection with the city, the relation with the streets, orientations, and how to trigger a collective life and make it work. In addition, you are often designing without a known user, so the spaces become "standard" and adapted for “everyone” after the fact. This can be dangerous.

小规模的迷你住宅,为何总是如此受欢迎?第4张图片

By Carol M. Highsmith - U.S. Library of Congress, Highsmith Archive, Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-highsm-04118, Public Domain, Link. ImageIt's highly likely you had seen this iconic project on university: The Farnsworth House, designed by Mies van der Rohe in 1951

Nicolas Valencia:你是否认为高校应该把独栋别墅当做学生的设计作业?

Maria Erman:设计一座住宅的时候,建筑师需要了解使用者的生活习惯,但是有些情况下,连使用者自己或许并不了解所有的细节。相比起公共空间的设计,这是一项很好的练习,因为公共空间是大同小异的。

“Matheus Pereira:我认为这个练习结合了许多东西,首先,我们了解空间的使用对象,并且在空间中实现自己的想法,然后我们还能学会布局的优先、材料的选择、热舒适方案等等。”

Fabián Dejtiar:学校里设计住宅的作业是一种探索生活方式的练习,对于这样的练习,针对诸如迷你住宅和共享空间等趋势时,你可以将其复杂化。

José Tomás Franco:一方面,我认为这是对于建筑理解的最好开端,因为建筑设计就是为人们而服务,另一方面,如果没有面向的对象,那么这就有些冒险,因为这是在构思各种建筑风格的拼贴画。

Nicolas Valencia: Why do you think colleges still use the single-family house as an exercise?
Maria Erman: When designing a house the architect is responsible for understanding the best way for people to live in and use it, while the people themselves may not understand it at all. So, it seems like a good exercise versus the design of public spaces, where you have building codes that cannot really vary that much.
“Matheus Pereira: I think this exercise synthesizes many things as a process. First, it teaches us to understand who space is intended for and to materialize our ideas. Then, it teaches us how to prioritize the layout, choose materials, determine thermal solutions, and so on.”
Fabián Dejtiar: Designing a house in college is a complex exercise for exploring new ways of living nowadays. You can always go further in your response to an exercise by complicating it, especially if you consider current trends such as tiny houses and shared spaces.
José Tomás Franco: On the one hand, I think it's the best exercise to begin understanding architecture as a discipline, where our skills are at the service of people. But on the other hand, you don't have a real user, so it could be a risky exercise of creating a collage with fashionable architectural styles.

小规模的迷你住宅,为何总是如此受欢迎?第5张图片

HB6B,2013年创意翻新公寓/HB6B, a creative refurbished apartment designed by Karin Matz in 2013. Image Courtesy of Karin Matz

Nicolas Valencia:去年,Maria Francisca Gonzalez推出了一篇文章,内容是对于面积小于538平方英尺(约50平方米)的住宅的讨论,这也成为了ArchDaily当时最受欢迎的文章。那么我们为什么要设计迷你住宅?原因是市场压力?奢华程度?还是说建筑密度?

Matheus Pereira:人们与建筑师都逐步开始了解,一座好住宅并不只有大面积。两年前,在圣保罗,一家房地产公司推出了10平方米的公寓单元。那么就这个方面而言,房地产商利用这种现状,提出了一些具有争议的方案。

同样地,几个月前,我发表了一篇文章,主要解释微型住宅的发展趋势所揭示的当代人们的行为。在小空间中生活与工作,会驱使使用者在白天外出,从而感受公共空间。

José Tomás Franco:迷你住宅在过去的几年里一直是流行话题,但是人们好像始终觉得这是一种永远无法居住的小空间。如今,家庭的生活方式在不断改变,如果家里只有一个小孩,那么住大房子便有些不经济。

“迷你住宅或是小型公寓能够让你拥有自己的家,你不需要不断地租房。另外,现代人也许比较喜欢在公共空间里打发时间,这是迷你住宅的设计原则,你的花园是周边的公园。”

Nicolas Valencia: Maria Francisca Gonzalez published an article about houses under 538 square feet, becoming one of the most popular articles last year on ArchDaily. Why are we designing tiny houses? Market pressure? Luxury? Density?
Matheus Pereira: I think people and architects have begun to understand that a good house doesn’t mean having a big footprint. For example, in São Paulo two years ago a real estate company launched a building featuring expensive 10m2 apartments. From this perspective, real estate developers have taken advantage of this situation by creating unfeasible and sometimes controversial proposals.
In the same vein, a few months ago I published an article explaining what the micro-housing trend has revealed about Generation Z's behavior. Living and working in small spaces forces you to going out by day and experiencing the public space.
José Tomás Franco: Tiny houses have been a recurrent buzzworthy topic in the past few years, but it kind of seemed like “pretty little houses where I could never live." Nowadays, families' ways of living are changing, and having a huge house is not always justified (or economical) if you only have one child, for example.
“Tiny houses or small apartments still give you the peace of having your house and let you avoid an endless system of paying rent or a mortgage. In addition, new generations seem to value spending time in public space, and this is one of the principles of small houses: your garden is the neighborhood park.”

小规模的迷你住宅,为何总是如此受欢迎?第6张图片

四次元口袋屋,一个33㎡的房子/Yojigen Poketto, a 362 square feet apartment designed by Madrid-based elii in 2017. Image © Imagen Subliminal

Maria Erman:市场压力和建筑密度肯定有影响,但是“微生活”实际上一直是建筑师们的挑战。例如像柯布西耶的住宅单元那样,每个人都想要知道自己能否在小空间中满足各项需求,因为其中有着财务等限制。一般来说,建筑师们会做减法,但是空间自身并不是个例外。

José Tomás Franco:我认为住宅仍然是建筑师需要解决的问题,但是必须注意前提条件,各个条件能够帮助好建筑的形成。

不要只通过作品来进行思考,多倾听使用者的意见,了解他们的需求,这样才能够设计出理想的空间。

Maria Erman: Market pressure and density certainly play a role, but “small living” has actually always been a very popular challenge among architects. Maybe, for example, as with Le Corbusier’s cabin and housing cells, everyone wants to see if there are more ways to fit everything you need in a very tiny space (because of financial limitations, etc). Generally, architects tend to reduce lots of their projects’ aspects. Space itself is not necessarily an exception.
José Tomás Franco: I think that housing will remain the problem to be solved by architects, but we must be careful not to move forward or even draw a line without asking all those necessary questions that will support a good architectural project.
Don’t just design by thinking about your portfolio: learn to listen to the user and observe their behavior so that our proposals can shape the space they always dreamed of.

小规模的迷你住宅,为何总是如此受欢迎?第7张图片

广州49号住宅/House 49, project designed by Atelier Waterside in Guangzhou, China. Image © Chao Zhang

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