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灾难之后的新风貌丨墨西哥乡村小学第1张图片


Rural Primary Schools / Gutiérrez Arquitectos + Escobedo Soliz

由专筑网李韧,王雪纯编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:发生于2018年9月19日的地震造成的主要受灾区位于San Felipe Ayutla Puebla,国家中部的城市与小镇都受到了重大的影响。在Puebla有超过200所公共学校受损严重,而这些学校大部分都在乡村地区。

在地震过后的几个月,Gutiérrez Arquitectos + Escobedo Soliz事务所受到IENOVA和GDI公司的邀请,为Santa Isabel Cholula与 San Martín Tlamapa社区的乡村小学进行设计工作,这些学校已经被地震摧毁。而这些公司是这两个项目的投资方。

Text description provided by the architects. As a result of the earthquake of September 19th in 2017, with the epicentre in San Felipe Ayutla Puebla, cities and towns in the center of the country were seriously affected. Only in the state of Puebla more than 200 public schools were severely damaged, most of them rural.
A couple of months after the event, we received an invitation from the IENOVA and GDI companies to design the rural primary schools of the communities of Santa Isabel Cholula and San Martín Tlamapa, where the schools had been destroyed. These companies were donors of both projects.

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这个项目的设计与施工时间有限,因此建筑师决定采用工业模块化体系。建筑的结构为镀锌钢板框架,模块尺寸为3X3X3米,这样能够抵御一定程度的地震,同时满足空间的使用需求。这种结构能够适应不同的场地规划、地形条件。建筑师在墙体中应用了预制轻质GRC混凝土面板,这样能够加速施工速度,另外还应用了能够交换使用的门窗体系。外部的屋面由镀锌钢板和夹层玻璃建造而成,这让室内空间有着充分的自然采光。在内部建筑师应用了木制面板和PVC隔热材料,让空间既温馨又明亮。

与场地的关系、建筑朝向、风向、景观、视线、几何形态、场地特征,这些都是设计的重要内容。建筑师通过兼具门廊功能的宽阔走廊来实现由外至内的空间过渡。室内空间就物理层面与心理层面而言,其规模都符合孩子们的特征,同时与花园和院落相互结合。

The project and construction needed to be carried out in a very short time, which led to the decision to design it with industrial modular systems. A galvanized steel structure is used as a skeleton, with a module of 3 x 3 x 3 meters, resistant to earthquakes of large magnitudes and usable for all the spaces, including circulation elements. It is adaptable to the different programmatic, geometric and topographic conditions of both sites and is replicable for new projects as well. In the walls, prefabricated lightweight GRC concrete panels were used to speed up and facilitate the assembly, having an interchangeable system for doors and windows. The roofs on the outside are of galvanized steel sheets and laminated glass in the peak of the roof, providing the necessary light for the proper functioning of the spaces during the day. The inside is of wood panels and thermally insulated foamed PVC, providing a warm and bright atmosphere.
The relationship with the site, the orientation, the prevailing winds, the landscapes, the visuals, the vegetation, the topography and geometry of the terrains, were fundamental aspects of the design. There is a transition from the exterior to the interior spaces through wide corridors that function as porches articulating the project. The interior spaces are physically and visually related to the scale of the children, with gardens and courtyards that weave the buildings together.

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生物气候研究能够保证空间的舒适度。材料的选择、空间自然交叉通风的被动式系统、天窗照明等设施,都能够有效地减少建筑的电力使用,通过生物气候研究,建筑师们得出了许多高效的结论。在这两座小学中,屋面上的雨水都得以回收利用。

Bioclimatic studies were carried out to make the spaces comfortable during the majority of the time and throughout the year. The choice of materials, the proposal of a passive system of natural cross ventilation in the spaces, skylight and lateral window lighting minimizing the use of electrical energy during the day, were all derived from these studies. In both schools, the rainwater that falls on the roofs is recovered.


JOSé MARIA MORLEOS小学

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学校位于Santa Isabel Cholula,而曾经的学校也位于此,建筑师利用原有建筑的位置来定位新建筑,同时利用现有院落作为整个项目的轴线。西北向的朝向有利于建筑的交叉通风。

周边没有景观视线,因此教室环绕着大型中央庭院而排布,连接着图书馆,构成了项目的核心。

服务设施部分与现有院落和通道之间的位置相平行,从而减少了步行的所需时间。

现存建筑经过改造而有了新功能,例如行政区和计算机室。

PRIMARY SCHOOL JOSé MARIA MORLEOS
Located in the municipal seat of Santa Isabel Cholula, the new school was built on the same property as the previous one, aligning the new buildings using the trace of the buildings that were affected, and using the axis of the existing court as one of the compositional axes of the whole project. The north-west orientation favours the cross ventilation.
Because of not having relevant views in the surroundings, the classrooms were arranged around a large central courtyard, articulated by the library to create the heart of the project.
The service facility building was arranged parallelly between the existing court and the access courtyard in order to lessen the presence of the court roof in the walkthrough experience.
The buildings that remained standing were adapted for multiple uses, the administration and the computer rooms.

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MIGUEL NEGRETE小学

该建筑位于San Martin Tlamapa,隶属于Santa Isabel Cholula,这座建筑的场地原先就为新学校而准备。

这座建筑充分地应用了场地优势,例如地区特有的农业景观。

PRIMARY SCHOOL MIGUEL NEGRETE   
Located in the town of San Martin Tlamapa, belonging to the municipality of Santa Isabel Cholula, the project was built on a site destined for a new primary school.
This circumstance favoured the location by taking advantage of the view towards the characteristic agricultural landscape of the region.

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建筑长边朝向东北方向,能让人们更好地欣赏景观。教室由两个模块组成,它们通过花园所分隔,因此每个教室都有着花园视角。

行政和服务区域分布在场地之中,将场地分成三个公共区域,即入口庭院、公共广场、足球场。

The building is placed longitudinally pointing to the northeast to favour the views of the landscape. The classrooms are grouped in blocks of two modules and these are separated by gardens so that all the classrooms have views towards them.
The administrative and service buildings are located across the width of the terrain to section the terrain in three common areas: the access courtyard, the civic square and the soccer field.

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建筑设计:Martín Gutiérrez, Pavel Escobedo, Andrés Soliz
地点:墨西哥
类别:小学/中学
建筑部分:Gutierrez Arquitectos + Escobedo Soliz
面积:2380.0 m2
项目时间:2018年
摄影:Rafael Gamo, Arturo Arrieta
制造商:Saint Gobain – Glass
项目团队:Maximiliano Animas Rueda, Daniel Aguado, Mario Espinosa, Martín Gutiérrez Córdoba, Alberto Caldelón
客户:SEP Puebla
投资方:IENOVA, GDI
施工方:GDI
钢结构:JAZA
预制面板:DUREZZA
水利用工程:Sistemas Pluviales S.A de C.V
结构工程:Ramón Abud
电力设计:Ricardo Lepe
景观设计:Fritz Sigg
José María Morleos小学:建筑面积1144平方米,翻新面积252平方米
Miguel Negrete小学:建筑面积984平方米

Architects: Martín Gutiérrez, Pavel Escobedo, Andrés Soliz
Location: Santa Isabel Cholula, Pue., Mexico
Category: Elementary & Middle School
Architectural Project: Gutierrez Arquitectos + Escobedo Soliz
Area: 2380.0 m2
Project Year: 2018
Photography: Rafael Gamo, Arturo Arrieta
Manufacturers: Saint Gobain – Glass
Project Team: Maximiliano Animas Rueda, Daniel Aguado, Mario Espinosa, Martín Gutiérrez Córdoba, Alberto Caldelón
Client: SEP Puebla
Donators: IENOVA, GDI
Builder: GDI
Steel Structure: JAZA
Prefabricated Panels: DUREZZA
Water Usage Project: Sistemas Pluviales S.A de C.V
Structural Project: Ramón Abud
Electrical Project: Ricardo Lepe
Landscape Project: Fritz Sigg
Primary School José María Morleos: 1,144m2 construcción; 252m2 remodelación
Primary School Miguel Negrete: 984m2 construcción

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