网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第1张图片


Fired Up: 5 Textured Buildings With Terracotta Screens

由专筑网郑善廷,李韧编译

“Terracotta”在意大利语中的意思是红陶,是一种传统的陶瓷,通过在特殊的窑炉中高温烧制得到。制作这种陶瓷的粘土由于其延展性,可以塑造成各种形状,再通过加热变硬定型。红陶最初用于制作陶器和雕塑,工匠们后来意识到它用于建筑中的潜在价值,于是开始制作红陶砖、幕墙以及瓦片。

如今,制造工艺的创新让传统的材料焕发了新光芒。工匠们将生土灌在一块块金属模具中,将它们拉长成统一的长条形,通过传送带送进窑炉中。这些有着许多孔洞的陶板是制作雨幕和轻质遮阳板极好的材料。这种材料有着可定制化的外形,以及多种颜色的珐琅釉可供选择,这就不难理解为什么建筑师依旧对红陶兴趣盎然。

Terracotta, which means ‘baked earth’ in Italian, is a traditional ceramic created by firing clay in special furnaces, called kilns, at high temperatures. The malleability of the unfired clay allows it to be hand-molded into intricate shapes, which harden significantly when heated. Although terracotta was initially invented for pottery and sculpture, craftsmen soon realized its potential as a building product and began producing terracotta bricks, cladding and roof tiles.
Today, innovations in the manufacturing process have breathed new life into this ancient material. Now, slabs of raw clay are passed through metal dies, extruding them into long, uniform shapes, which are then fed into kilns by conveyor belts. These hollow extrusions are perfect for creating resilient rain screens and lightweight brise soleils. With customizable profiles and an assortment of colorful enamel glazes to choose from, it’s easy to see why architects still get fired up over terracotta.

陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第2张图片


陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第3张图片


陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第4张图片


纽约州立陶瓷学院艺术与设计学院/Ikon.5 Architects/美国,纽约

陶瓦来源:Boston Valley Terra Cotta

纽约州立陶瓷学院艺术设计学院是“一个存放着艺术品和光线的巨大的瓷器”。受到这个项目以及纽约北部丰富的制陶历史的启发,这个设计展现了一个大量红陶管组成的不规则的立面,它们包裹了整个建筑上部,将立面变成了一座雕塑。

由Boston Valley Terra Cotta生产的穿孔管并没有上釉,并应用灰白色的颜料进行上色,在烧制之前就混合在粘土中。这种未经处理的表面和随机的排列让人想起学生时期作品的搁板。这些陶管同时也是遮阳板,为南向展廊挡住了光线的直射。这个遮阳策略也帮助这个项目在完成后获得了LEED白银认证。

School of Art & Design at New York State College of Ceramics by Ikon.5 Architects, Alfred, N.Y., United States
Terracotta by Boston Valley Terra Cotta
The School of Art & Design at New York State College of Ceramics was conceived “as a large ceramic container for holding art and light.” Inspired by both the program and Upstate New York’s rich history of manufacturing ceramics, the design features an irregular screen of terracotta tubes, which wraps around the upper floors, transforming the façade into a work of sculpture.
The hollow tubes, produced by Boston Valley Terra Cotta, are deliberately unglazed and colored only by an off-white pigment, which was mixed into the clay before firing. Their unfinished appearance and haphazard arrangement brings to mind the racks of student projects being worked on inside. The tubes also function as a brise soleil, protecting the south-facing galleries from direct sunlight. This shading strategy helped the project achieve LEED Silver certification upon completion.

陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第5张图片


陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第6张图片


陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第7张图片

Photographs of the Nembro Library via Ceramic Architectures

Nembro图书馆/Archea Associati/意大利,贝加莫

陶瓦来源:Sannini

Nembro图书馆由两座相邻的体量组成,一座是后期翻新的老建筑,1897年建造时是一座幼儿园,然后改造成了市政大厅,此后荒废了几十年。另一座是由红瓦围合的新建筑。建筑师将这座新建筑设想成“三倍高的书架”,有着大片的“红陶书”层叠覆盖。

这个帷幕由喷涂成红色的钢制框架支撑,瓦片通过钢管串起,并旋转了不同的角度。瓦片都上了胭脂红色的珐琅釉,与周围的屋瓦交相辉映。红陶是由一家意大利的公司Sannini生产,过去的一个世纪,这家公司一直为周边提供陶制建筑产品。为了保留这个当地特色,每片瓦都有一个抽象的N-E-M-B-R-O标志,也正是这个镇的名字。

Nembro Library by Archea Associati, Nembro, Bergamo, Italy
Terracotta by Sannini
The Nembro Library is housed in two adjacent structures: a renovated building from 1897, which was first built as a kindergarten and was later converted into the town hall before being abandoned for several decades, and a contemporary addition shrouded in red tiles. The architects imagined this new building as a “triple-height bookcase,” with large expanses of glazing shaded by a screen of “terracotta books.”
The screen is supported by a steel frame, painted red, with the tiles threaded onto rods and rotated to different angles. The tiles were finished with a carmine red enamel, which resonates beautifully with surrounding clay-tiled roofs. In fact, the terracotta was manufactured by Sannini, an Italian company that has been supplying the area with ceramic building products for over a century. In keeping with this local theme, each tile has an abstract N-E-M-B-R-O, the name of the town, extruded through it.

陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第8张图片


陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第9张图片

鳍状陶板节点/Detail of terracotta fins, image via BKSK Architects

One Madison门房/BKSK Architects/美国 纽约

陶瓦来源:Boston Valley Terra Cotta

这座低调的建筑藏身于这一排历史建筑之中,是一座185米的超高层建筑的入口。这个看上去有些拘谨的入口的立面设计是为了在住户回到高耸入云的家中之前,给他们一种亲切感。石灰华材质的幕墙和青铜节点完美地结合,没有去故意模仿古典建筑风格,它却和边上石灰岩立面的建筑十分协调。

鳍状陶板充满韵律地排列在一起,形成了美妙的幕墙立面,目光随着陶板向上,便能看到顶端矗立的玻璃塔。每个陶板都由三个部分组成,一个突出的尖端和两个L形的盖板,盖板遮住了下面的铝结构。制造商Boston Valley Terra Cotta给每个陶板上了一层米色的釉,让整个幕墙在每天的晨曦中散发着微光。

Gatehouse to One Madison by BKSK Architects, New York, N.Y., United States
Terracotta by Boston Valley Terra Cotta
This modest building, discreetly located among historic row houses, is actually the entrance to a contemporary skyscraper, which soars 618-feet above the city streets. The restrained Gatehouse façade was designed to give residents “a sense of arriving home,” before ascending to their sky-high apartments. Its travertine cladding and bronze details blend in nicely with the neighboring limestone buildings, without feigning classicism.
Protruding from this façade is a rhythmic screen of terracotta fins, whose verticality draws eyes up toward the glass tower. Each fin was assembled from three pieces, a pointed end and two L-shaped caps, which conceal their aluminum substructure. The manufacturer, Boston Valley Terra Cotta, finished the fins with a cream-colored enamel, custom specified to shimmer in the morning sunlight.

陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第10张图片


陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第11张图片


陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第12张图片

Albion地区图书馆的立面和庭院/Exterior and courtyard of the Albion District Library, photos via Archdaily

Albion地区图书馆/Perkins+Will/加拿大,多伦多

陶瓦来源:NBK Architectural Terracotta

Albion地区图书馆位于加拿大多伦多郊区,是混凝土和沥青围绕的乏味单调的环境中的一片绿洲。建筑师试图寻求一种既有活力、也耐久的立面材料,而NBK Architectural Terracotta生产的陶土板成为了这座图书馆幕墙材料的选择。陶土板镀上了一层明亮的釉,从而可以防水、防老化、防止刮痕和涂鸦。

这个建筑立面由上釉的陶板排列组成,形成雨幕,而这些陶板则固定在一层没有上釉的陶板上,之间夹着一层绝缘板。立面上的陶板起到了遮阳作用。正如Perkins+Will事务所的设计主管在一个采访中说的那样:“这个设计将一个封闭的墙面自然地转化成了开放的、由竖向的彩色陶管组成的立面。这个立面围合了庭院,形成了架空的入口空间。陶板将建筑虚化成为连续悬浮的帷幕。”

Albion District Library by Perkins+Will, Toronto, Canada
Terracotta by NBK Architectural Terracotta
The Albion District Library is a colorful oasis in a monotonous landscape of concrete and asphalt on the outskirts of Toronto. The architects, searching for a façade material that was both playful and durable, decided to clad the library in terracotta baguettes, manufactured by NBK Architectural Terracotta. The terracotta was finished with brightly colored glazes which make it resistant to water, sun fading, scratches and graffiti.
The solid portions of the building envelope are clad in a rain screen of glazed baguettes, fastened to a layer of unglazed baguettes, with boards of insulation sandwiched between them. Where more transparency is needed, the screen becomes a brise soleil. As the design director of Perkins+Will explained in an interview with Architizer: “The façade effectively transitions from a solid wall to an open screen of vertical colored tubes that enclose the courtyards and entry canopy. The terracotta baguettes allowed us to create that continuity as the building dematerializes from a mass to a floating veil.”

陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第13张图片


陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第14张图片


陶瓦编制体系:闪耀的立面空间第15张图片


Forfatterhuset幼儿园/COBE/丹麦,哥本哈根

陶瓦来源:Creaton

Forfatterhuset幼儿园位于丹麦哥本哈根历史街区,围绕在一片红砖建筑群中。建筑师希望“尊重场所的风格,但同时也希望创造不一样的作品”,他把这座幼儿园设想成曲线型“砖村落”。不同体量的空间由竖向的陶砖带统一起来,这些带状的陶片只有薄薄的一层,包裹着这座幼儿园,也围合出许多室外活动空间和郁郁葱葱的屋顶平台。

这些陶片由Creaton公司生产,在生产的过程中,工人们采用了一种叫KERALIS的专利工艺。构件需要在2200华氏摄氏度的温度下烧制,从而得到一种高强防水的保护层。同时,建筑师与Saint-Gobain工程师一起合作,设计了灵活的结构,可以在支撑陶片的同时贴合独特的曲线造型。

Forfatterhuset Kindergarten by COBE, Copenhagen, Denmark
Terracotta by Creaton
Forfatterhuset Kindergarten is surrounded by old brick buildings in a historic Copenhagen neighborhood. The architects, wanting to “understand the area’s characteristics … but at the same time create something new and contrasting,” envisioned the school as a village of curvy brick “houses.” The various volumes are unified by ribbons of vertical terracotta bricks, known as lamellae, which wrap around the school, fencing in playgrounds and lushly planted green roofs.
The lamellae were custom fabricated by Creaton, using their patented KERALIS method. This involved firing the terracotta at extreme temperatures, nearing 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit, to create an extraordinarily high-strength and waterproof finish. The architects also worked closely with Saint-Gobain engineers to develop a flexible substructure, capable of supporting the lamellae while conforming to the uniquely curved buildings.

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

建筑 (10643 articles)


建筑立面 (25 articles)


材料 (157 articles)


红陶砖 (4 articles)


钢材 (955 articles)


混凝土 (2500 articles)


设计案例 (764 articles)