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我们都知道公共空间,可“公共”到底意味着什么?第1张图片

日本东京涩谷人行道|World-recognized Shibuya crosswalk in Tokyo, Japan. Image © Sean Pavone

公共空间并不适用于所有人
Public Spaces Aren't Really Available for Everyone

由专筑网李韧,王雪纯编译

说到公共空间,人们常常会联想到“公园”,园中有着快乐、放松的人群。但事实上,这样的公共空间同样是受限的。一位年轻女士并不会像位穿着西装的白种人或是不受当地人欢迎的移民者那样,在拂晓时穿过寂静的街道。你有没有过在公共空间感受到拘束的时候呢?

在本次的编辑讨论中,来自洛杉矶、圣保罗、阿根廷、乌拉圭的编辑们都各自表达了自己对于公共空间的观点。

When we talk about public space, we often imagine a park with happy, relaxed people on a sunny day. In actuality, this is a very restricted approach. A young woman does not cross a deserted street at dawn in the same way as a white man wearing a suit or as an immigrant who may not be welcomed by local citizens. Have you ever felt discriminated while visiting a public space?
In this edition of Editors’ Talk, editors from Los Angeles, São Paulo, Argentina, and Uruguay share their views on defining public spaces for everyone

我们都知道公共空间,可“公共”到底意味着什么?第2张图片

哥本哈根以色列广场|Israels Plads Square / Sweco Architects + COBE. Image © Rasmus Hjortshøj

我们都知道公共空间,可“公共”到底意味着什么?第3张图片

哥本哈根以色列广场|Israels Plads Square / Sweco Architects + COBE. Image © Rasmus Hjortshøj


Nicolas Valencia:我们热内公共空间就是公园或是广场,那么购物中心或是私人文化中心也算公共空间吗?你对于“公共”两个字怎么理解呢?

Victor Delaqua:“公共”的意思是属于大众,属于人民。对我来说,“公共”的主要定义是,所有人都可以使用,没有社会阶层、性别、肤色、取向等等。如果在商场或是私人中心,那情况就不一样了,虽然它们同样面向人们开放,但是其本质上并不是公共空间,因此有些人会由于身份原因无法进入。

Eric Baldwin:广义来说,我认为公共的意思就是联系,它开放并且可进入,它也可以是虚拟空间,也可以是物理空间。它可以存在于建筑的周围范畴,例如景观、城市设计、室内设计等等,我认为重要的是其具有联系性。

Clara Ott:对我而言,公共空间是民主、无限制、自由进入的空间,独立于私人场所。但是我挺喜欢Eric的观点,因为我还从没想过虚拟的公共空间。

Nicolas Valencia: We assume public spaces are parks or squares, but can shopping centers and privately-owned cultural centers also be public spaces? What do you understand as “public”?
Victor Delaqua: Public is what belongs to the people; to all of them. For me, the main definition of the public is if all people, without any exception of social class, gender, color, sexual orientation, can use the same space. In the case of malls or other private centers, this is not true, so I would say that although it is open to people, it can not be considered a public space in its essence, since many people are barred or are invited to leave the place according to their identity.
Eric Baldwin: Broadly, I think public implies connection. It’s open and accessible; it could be virtually or by means of physical space. While it can happen in or around architecture —landscape, urban design, interiors, etc—I think more generally it’s connection and exchange.
Clara Ott: For me, public spaces are those who allow democratic, non-restrictive, and free access, independently of who is the owner of the place itself. But I like Eric's point of view, I had never thought of the virtual aspect of public spaces.

我们都知道公共空间,可“公共”到底意味着什么?第4张图片

© Preliminares 2013 [Flickr], under license CC BY-SA 2.0. ImageReconversion of Minhocão Highway into a public space was a huge win for the people in São Paulo

Victor Delaqua:我也认同Eric的观点,但是我相信重要的应该是物理空间,每个人的个人特点会使得他在空间中交流的感受体验不同。具体来说,一位年轻女士并不会如同穿着西装的白种人或是不受当地人欢迎的移民者那样,在拂晓时穿过寂静的街道。首先,我相信公共空间是有冲突的地方,并且需要体现城市与公民的意义。

Eric Baldwin:是的,我认为公共空间也可以拥有不同的功能与特征。无论是抗议还是庆典,这里都是开放的,没有例外。关于建筑及其安全关系,或是空间拥有者,已经有很多人进行过讨论与研究。这与城市的特征,以及人们的使用感受与关系直接相关。

Victor Delaqua: I also agree with Eric's point of view, but I believe it is important to say that in physical public spaces, existing connections and exchanges will always be different experiences according to the person's identity. For example, a woman does not cross a deserted street at dawn in the same way as a man or as an immigrant who may not be welcomed by local citizens. Because of this, first and foremost, I believe that public space is a site of conflict responsible for establishing the meaning of what the city and its citizens are.
Eric Baldwin: Yes! Victor is dead on. I think public space can also lend itself to a number of different uses and identities. Whether space for protest or a festival, it remains open, often without a prescription. There has been a lot of talk about architecture and its relationship to security, who owns what, and the private-public divide. This is directly tied to the identity of a city and its citizens and their relationship to how they feel they can use public space.

我们都知道公共空间,可“公共”到底意味着什么?第5张图片

纽约多米诺公园|Domino Park is a privately-owned public space in Brooklyn, developed by real estate firm Two Trees Management. Image © Barrett Doherty

Nicolas Valencia:所以,公共空间由是否可进入和使用者来定义?

Clara Ott:我认为是看是否可进入。也不是说每个人都能随时进入公共空间。我理解其中可能存在着安全甚至是法律问题,例如公园大门,或是开放或是关闭的时间,但是开放空间是平等于每个人且没有成本的场所。

Paula Pintos:我同意,但是那是另一个问题了。公共的基本定义是不应该受到你说的这些内容的影响的,意思是,我们知道的公共空间应该有基本的安全,人人都可入内。但是,除了空间的自身因素之外,这些概念也比较理想化,因为其中还包含有很多诸如文化、城市特点、公共策略、政治、安全等问题。

Eric Baldwin:David Ruy曾经问过:“我们唯一要做的事,是不是取消权力?”他就是在讨论建筑评论,但是我认为,这涉及到了许多方面。当我来到洛杉矶时,我对公共空间的理解有了很多不同,在这里,餐车让许多废弃空地焕发活力。场地人人可进,但是归属感只是其中的一部分内容,它们常常能够决定你会在什么情况下使用某个空间。在回到Ruy之后,我就受到了启发。通过新想法能够激发全新的联系与交流。无论如何,公共空间本质上与城市相连,与公众相连。公共空间与众不同于乡村田地,不是吗?

Nicolas Valencia: So, is it defined by access or ownership?
Clara Ott: For me, access. This does not mean that anyone can access public space anytime. I understand security or even legal issues might dictate this, such as gated parks, or ones with opening/closing hours, but as long as the access does not have a cost and is equally available to everyone, it constitutes a public space.
Paula Pintos: I agree, but it's a different discussion. The basic definition of the public should not be affected by these things you mentioned, meaning that public spaces as we know should be safe and free access to everyone. Of course, this doesn’t happen, but not necessarily because of the space itself, but because of other issues that are part of city life (culture, city identity, public policies, politics, security, etc).
Eric Baldwin: David Ruy once asked, “Is demystifying power the only thing left to do?” He was talking about architectural criticism, but I think it extends to many aspects of our field. When I moved to Los Angeles, I understood public space and experimentation in a very different light; food trucks could turn an abandoned lot into a lively public space. The lot was accessible, but ownership is part of it, as they often determine under what conditions you can access or use a space. But going back to Ruy, I’m inspired by experimentation. By new or reimagined ideas that can spark new connections and exchanges. Anyways, public space is inherently tied to the city, and in turn, to its citizens. Public space is very different when talking about a rural farm field, no?

我们都知道公共空间,可“公共”到底意味着什么?第6张图片

西班牙马德里太阳门广场,Demonstrators gather to protest for economic equality during #15M movement in Puerta del Sol Square in Madrid, Spain. Image © Pedro Rufo

Nicolas Valencia:Eric说得很好,这么说来,我们为什么需要城市公共空间?为什么公共空间与城市相连,而不是与乡村相连?

Eric Baldwin:因为城市空间能够共享。你可以在乡村农田中拥有“公共空间”,但是这也意味着共同拥有。这也是哈德逊城市广场会受到如此严厉的批评的原因,这只是有钱人的游乐园。它只是为了分享而分享。而对比高线公园,它虽然也有缺点,但是它就能给人城市公共空间的感受。

Victor Delaqua:也许在希腊广场出现之前,一座城市中的交流空间是这里的基本要素。这是让大众能够了解自己想法的场所,因此这里能够构成诸如抗议、政治讨论、市场等文化活动。

Eric Baldwin:可以给出一个有趣的定义:创造文化的空间。

Clara Ott:公共空间实际上就是城市的唯一物理空间,这里能够保证每个人的健康社交活动,给人们带来社会化发展。

Nicolas Valencia: Good point, Eric. In that case, why do we need public spaces in cities? Why is public space tied to cities, not to rural farm field?
Eric Baldwin: Because cities are shared. You can have "public spaces" in rural farm fields, but they imply shared ownership. That's why Hudson Yards is so severely criticized (and rightly so). It's a billionaire's playground. It only tries to give an image of being shared. While the High Line has its faults, it feels like a public space for the city.
Victor Delaqua: Since from the Greek Agora —and perhaps even before it— the space of encounter and discussion is fundamental in a city. A place where society can understand itself and from there create part of its culture through protests, political discussions, parties, markets.
Eric Baldwin: A nice definition: a space to create culture!
Clara Ott: Public spaces are actually the only physical spaces of the city that enable healthy socialization processes for everyone, by ensuring those connections, exchanges and interactions with anyone that is a part of the city just as you are.

我们都知道公共空间,可“公共”到底意味着什么?第7张图片

Luis Herra's Tortigrafia Playótica is a methodology tool for mapping LGBTQ displacements through San Jose during the last 30 years. Image © Luis Herra

Nicolas Valencia:哥斯达黎加建筑师Luis Herra曾经解释说,城市由霸权主义而建立,因此LGBTQ社区人群只有必须承认自己的正确取向才能受到欢迎。这个项目说明了真正公共空间是个理想化场所,除非女性和少数民族都能得到平等对待。你认为呢?

Victor Delaqua:我完全同意这一说法。社会需要民众的行为,而除此之外的大众却在遭受着不同方式的暴力。我们应该扪心自问,我们如何使用公共空间?我们要知道,个体是具有政治性的,我们的身份、穿着、行为、说话方式、肤色、性别、取向意味着许多内容,其中任何一个元素都有可能受到压迫或是抗议。

Clara Ott:Nikos Salingaros曾经说过,当前的公共广场是纯粹非个人空间的案例,这里可以有很多人聚集,但是不属于任何人。几个世纪之前出现的不规则广场有着完美的聚集环境,同时也不鼓励控制他人。我认为,这对于质疑我们当前的公共空间来说是有积极的意义。

Nicolas Valencia: A Costa Rican architect, Luis Herra, explains that cities are built by a hegemonic discourse, so the LGBTQ community is welcomed only when they act as heterosexualized people. That idea also implies that truly public space will be a dream until women and minorities will be part of the discussion. What do you think of that?
Victor Delaqua: I fully agree with this statement. Society demands a certain behavior of its citizens and those who are outside this norm suffer the most diverse violence. We should always be asking ourselves how we occupy public space. We always need to remember that our body is political, the way we identify, dress, move and speak, our color, gender, and even sexual orientation means a lot in any space and it can serve as resistance or oppression against normality.
Clara Ott: Nikos Salingaros stated that the current public square is an example of a completely impersonal space to gather everyone, but ends up by representing nobody. Alternatively, irregular squares from earlier centuries provided the perfect setting to gather people without encouraging control or the feeling of being controlled. I think that's a good point to start questioning our current public spaces.

我们都知道公共空间,可“公共”到底意味着什么?第8张图片

哥本哈根停车场乐园|Park ‘n’ Play / JAJA Architects. Image Courtesy of JAJA Architects

Paula Pintos:我同意。但是我认为,最好的办法是鼓励女性和少数民族多和外界接触,利用现有公共空间说出自己内心的想法。我认为世界的妇女节就是个好例子。

Eric Baldwin:我也认为,我们需要听到各方的声音。在明尼阿波利斯批准2040年的分区规划项目之后,整个美国都在期待着未来的发展。城市领导者也想知道这是否能够成为整个国家的城市设计模式。种族平等在明尼阿波利斯2040规划中成为了共同的特点,首先要理解城市的历史和某些不公平现象,才能做到真正的平等。分区规划是历史上针对歧视的工具,但是这也与官方规定相关。那么空间的限定方式则应该听到城市的多方意见。

Paula Pintos:
I agree. But I think the best way to start improving this is by encouraging minorities and women to get out there, using the existing public space to speak up. I think Women’s Day protests around the world are a great example.
Eric Baldwin: I would say, too, that we need to increase the pathways for voices to be heard! After Minneapolis approved their 2040 rezoning plan, the entire United States is now watching to see what happens. City leaders are wondering if it could become a national model for urban design. Racial equity appears as a common thread in several parts of the Minneapolis 2040 guidelines, and it came about by understanding the history and injustices of the city and opening up pathways for more voices to be heard. Zoning was historically a tool for discrimination, but this relates to prescription; how prescriptive should a space or process be (or not) to encourage more voices and citizens of a city.

我们都知道公共空间,可“公共”到底意味着什么?第9张图片

哥本哈根停车场乐园|Park ‘n’ Play / JAJA Architects. Image © Rasmus Hjortshøj

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