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“协作共享”才是空间本质——Jadgal小学第1张图片


Jadgal Elementary School / Daaz Office

由专筑网小R编译

项目历史——一个名为“Iran-e- Man”的非政府组织公开呼吁建设一座可持续发展的学校,该组织致力于学校建设工作,距离Chabahar 大约100公里的Seyedbar-Jadgal村的当地人民也希望在村庄有一座学校,因此建筑设计团队便开始了设计过程,起初项目小组在该地区进行了长达几个月的建筑与社会调研,希望通过这种方式来明确地区和使用者的真实需求,以及当下的不足与潜能,同时也确定了项目设计的优先顺序。

Project History - The project is a public call for the Construction of a school with a sustainable development approach by a non-governmental organization called Iran-e- Man, which has been working in the field of school construction for several years and on the other hand, the request of the people and youth of Seyedbar-Jadgal village (100 km from Chabahar) from this institution to build a school in their village. As a result, the architectural design team and project facilitators voluntarily began designing and supervising the project construction process. Initially, the team carried out architectural and social studies in the village and the region for several months. In a participatory way, the needs and shortcomings, potentials, and capacities of villages and indigenous peoples were identified, themed, and prioritized.

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该项目的预算有限,并且只能通过民间的捐赠进行建设,而建筑师却选择了一种更加具有参与性的建设策略,从而促进社会的可持续发展,并且保证社会、经济、文化基础设施的建成,因此这座学校的目标是成为当地社区的发展中心,学校成为孩子们的学习场所,同时也是当地人的聚会交流场所。

Considering that this project had a limited budget and was to be built only by people's donations, we did not plan "a build and donate" scenario and instead opted for a participation method of Construction that would promote sustainable development and produce social, economic, and cultural infrastructures. As a result, we designed a school with the idea of becoming the village and its dependent communities' development center. In this way, the school was a place of education for children and a point of gathering and learning for everybody in the village.

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为了实现这一概念,项目团队和社会发起者共同合作,诸如小组工作、邀请村民保持村庄的清洁、建造化粪池等一些基础工作得以展开,除此之外,团队还建立了针线工作坊和名为@Banook的INS账号,用于展示和销售相关产品,这样村里的女性也能够参与到社会活动中来,从而提升她们对于村庄发展的贡献,也促进了社会发展的效率,另外,村民们为了增强社会的参与性,他们也成为了学校建设的劳动工人,这不仅仅是他们的全部贡献,因此他们也改善了家庭的经济发展,或者通过针线作品来获取一些盈利,就这样,学校在大众的参与与支持下得以建造,每个人都有参与感。

In order to materialize this idea and in cooperation with social facilitators, some fundamental works such as doing group work, inviting villagers to maintain the hygiene and cleanliness of the village, building septic sewage, and setting up a needlework workshop and an Instagram page -called @Banook to showcase and sell needlework products- were undertaken. In this way, the women of the village were engaged in social activities. However, it also promoted their presence in the social and economic realms of the village and helped women to be socially seen as more effective. In addition, in coordination with the social participation method of development, people of the village helped by working as site laborers to build the school. But that was not all they did as the village families contributed financially and helped by selling needlework for the school to materialize. This way, the school was built by public participation and gained the goodwill of everyone in the village.

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就目前而言,学校不仅仅只有教育功能,在节假日与夜晚,这里还是儿童的游乐区、村民的聚会场所、观影区、足球场、图书馆,以及旅游目的地,村民和教师团队共同维护与管理学校,相关费用来源于旅游与针线售卖品的收入,因此这座学校在全民的支持下建造和运营。

At present, apart from the educational function, this school has other functions such as a children's play area on holidays and nights, a gathering place for villagers and their families, a place to watch movies and football in groups, a library, and a tourist residence. The school is managed and maintained by a team of villagers and teachers, and part of the income from the tourism and needlework sections is spent on its maintenance. In this way, the school is built with the participation of the villagers and is eventually maintained.

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项目描述——Seyedbar村学校的一层面积为470平方米,包含有4个小学班级,这些班级能够相互组合与叠加,另外还有一个图书馆、一个多功能厅,这个多功能厅可以用作会议室、工作站,亦或是考场,除此之外还有一些游乐场所,建筑的设计目标便是成为村里的社区中心,服务于全体村民。

Project Description - Seyedbar Village's school, covering 470 sqm in one floor, consists of four elementary classes with the ability to combine and overlap with each other, a library, a multi-function hall working as a conference room, workshop, or exam hall, and main and secondary play yards that are designed while aiming to become the village's community center and educate its whole population.

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考虑到学生与老师的人数比例,以及学校的建设规范,小学需要有4间教室,在设计过程中,建筑师将大小不同的教室相互结合在一起,在面积较大的教室里,有一个中央空间,让低年级的学生也能够来到大教室,充分利用教师资源,这样做的原因是考虑到当地教师人数的限制,同时也让低年级学生和高年级学生有着一定的互动。

Considering the population of the students in relation to teachers in this village, and through adhering to school renovation codes, the school needed four classes. In designing the classes, each two-class varying in size were connected to each other. In the largest category, there is an intermediate space that enables the younger students to join the larger class, taking advantage of the training of one single teacher, necessary due to the limitation of teaching personnel, as well as giving them a space to engage with senior students.

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材料、施工、技术——建筑师根据伊朗当地法律机构以及学校建设管理部门所定制的学校改造规范,同时满足抗震结构需求,建筑结构应用了ICF策略和隔热混凝土面板,其中应用了聚苯乙烯面板(EPS)、镀锌铁材料,以及钢筋混凝土,由于整体空间的曲线形态,结构中并没有应用柱子,其完成面可以算是当地的材料,由混凝土和当地生土构成,这种材料名为“Simgel”,它能很好地避免生锈,并且和周围的色彩和肌理相呼应,如果后期开裂,人们也可以轻松地将其进行修复。

Material, Construction, And technology - In alliance with the school renovation codes by the Legislative Institution and Control of School Construction in Iran and the necessity of building earthquake-resistant structures, the school's structure was constructed with the ICF method, Insulating Concrete Formwork. By utilizing polystyrene panels (EPS), galvanized iron profiles, and reinforced concrete, the structure was constructed without any columns- thanks to the design's curvilinear forms. The final coating layer that was applied is a semi-local material consisting of cement and local soil called Simgel that prevents rusting due to floods and excessive rain and creates harmony with the surrounding colors and textures. And In case of destruction or cracking, it can be easily repaired by the villagers.

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项目意义与影响——学校的圆形形式和班级的布局方式呼应了教育的核心概念,即“协作共享”,这里没有等级制度,班级布局的旋转,同时在角落处进行连接,这让每个班级空间更加通畅,同时也构成了一些活动场地,这里可以进行团队合作以及户外活动,除此之外,结合了空间分析,建筑师在学校中构成了一个小型场地,这里是学生与居民的聚集场所,在教室周围有一个圆形空间,这也存在于厚重的墙体、教室,以及私人院落之间。

Project Significance and Impact - The circular form of the schoolyard and the way classes are arranged formed with the focal concept of education, meaning "learning together"- void of hierarchical systems and in a democratic style. The rotation of the class layout while connecting them on their corners allows for air circulation between the classes and produces small secondary yards for doing some group work and outdoor activities. Consequently, with this spatial diagram, we gained a central primary yard in the middle of the school as an assembly point for school children and village residents, a circular space around classes and between the thick penetrated wall and classrooms, as well as private yards.

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一般而言,墙体的概念可以理解为保护、分隔,比如砖石结构,但是在这个项目中,通过独特的设计策略,学校位于相对平坦的场地上,那么墙体就如同一个有趣的外壳,墙上的开口让人们可以看到周围的场地,这些形态各异的开口让学生们可以自由进入,除此之外,建筑师通过墙体的应用,给建筑增加了一些诸如小卖部、门卫,以及储藏室等功能,同时也增加了主入口的深度,更加吸引人群。

The concept of a surrounding wall is traditionally understood as protector, separator and generally stands for a masonry-built guarding device. In this project, however, through the school's unique location, being in the middle of a relatively flat vast field, the school wall was treated as a penetrated inviting playful shell. The openings within the wall are arranged so that from the point of view of a seating person in the class, the extension of the surrounding plain can be seen. Having various sizes and shapes, these openings provide students with multi entrances to arrive at the school. Moreover, by increasing the thickness of this continuous yet penetrated wall, some essential functions of the building such as a tuck shop, a school guard's room, and a storeroom were housed while the main entrance was emphasized, gaining depth and inviting people within.

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在学校的设计中,建筑师把教育看做是辩证、双边、参与性共同构成的概念,传统学校空间则成为了这些理念的表达平台,学校墙体从分割区域变成了外壳结构,这便成为了无边界式的空间表皮,似乎在邀请人们聚集于此,促进社区文化的融合与发展,强调了人与人之间的沟通和交流,这样的目的是为了削弱等级制度,强化独立的文化,从而表达学习的基本含义,即“协作共享”,总体而言,建筑师的目标是设计一座包含创意、自由,以及批判性思维的学校。

In designing this school, we envisioned education as a dialectic, bilateral, participatory driven concept, and accordingly, the conventional school spaces that act as platforms of these ideas were transformed in this manner: converting school wall from "separator" to a shell structure that performs as a penetrated borderless playful skin that invites people to gather and encourages the community culture while reinforcing communication between people. This transformation was performed in order to destroy hierarchy and strengthen questioning culture, shining a light on the most basic meaning of going to school, which is "being together". In conclusion, we aimed to create a school that is a nest for nurturing creativity, freedom, and critical thinking.

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该项目从始至终都致力于改善村民的知识水准和社会阶层,给农村妇女一定的权力,创造大众参与性,同时也打造学校的建设杠杆,这个社会曾经由暴政统治,建筑师挑战了边界的政治与社会概念,而这种概念存在于自由与强迫之间,这能够覆盖大多数村民的内在意图,因为他们一开始反对建造边界墙体,同时将学校构思成为社区的中心,这种逐步向民主过渡的方式对建筑的设计产生深远的影响。

The project started with an effort to change the villagers' intellectual and social layers, empower rural women, create public participation, and turn it into a lever in building a school. Finally, by challenging the political and social concept of the boundary (The Wall) between free will and coercion in the presence of the school - in a society traditionally dominated by tyranny - it was able to overwhelm the mental majority of most villagers - who initially opposed the Construction of the wall and make the school the center of the neighborhood and gathering of all residents. An exercise to influence architecture in the transition to democracy.

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建筑设计:Daaz Office
类型:中小学
面积:480 m2
时间:2020年
摄影:Deed Studio
主创建筑师:Arash Aliabadi
客户:Iraneman Organization
项目建筑:Mahsa Hosseini, Nazanin Mojahed
社会发起者:Mina Kamran
结构设计:A. Giahi
项目管理:Mehran Goodarzyar
承包商:A. Noghrehkar
机电:A. Delavar
建筑设计:Daaz Office
城市:Seyyed Bar
国家:伊朗

SCHOOLS, ELEMENTARY & MIDDLE SCHOOL
SEYYED BAR, IRAN
Architects: Daaz Office
Area: 480 m2
Year: 2020
Photographs: Deed Studio
Lead Architect: Arash Aliabadi
Client: Iraneman Organization
Project Architects: Mahsa Hosseini, Nazanin Mojahed
Social Facilitator: Mina Kamran
Structure Design: A. Giahi
Project Manager: Mehran Goodarzyar
Contractor: A. Noghrehkar
Mechanical And Electrical: A. Delavar
Architects: Daaz Office
City: Seyyed Bar
Country: Iran

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