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巴洛克式立面的现代表达 | 柏林Humboldt Forum修复扩建项目第1张图片


Humboldt Forum / Franco Stella

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:这座前柏林皇宫(Berliner Schloss)建于1443年,作为勃兰登堡王子的住所,在18世纪初部分改造为君主的巴洛克式宫殿,这位君主在1701年成为普鲁士国王,1871年成为德国皇帝。柏林皇宫在第二次世界大战的轰炸中受损,最后在1950年被民主德国的政治权力持有者由于意识形态的原因夷为平地,它是普鲁士军国主义的象征。

Text description provided by the architects. The former Berlin Palace(Berliner Schloss), constructed since 1443 as the residence of the Brandenburg princes, was partially transformed at the beginning of the 18th century into the baroque palace of those same sovereigns, who in 1701 became kings of Prussia and in 1871 also German emperors. Damaged by the Second World War II bombing, the Berlin Palace was lastly razed to the ground for ideological reasons- as a symbol of Prussian militarism -in 1950 by the holders of political power of the GDR.

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作为柏林历史性纪念中心的城市和建筑主管部门所在地,该中心建于18世纪和19世纪,虽然在第二次世界大战的破坏后大部分已被重建。林登山上的纪念性轴线,一条不间断的公共和私人建筑序列直到勃兰登堡门,然后抵达宫殿。它的“欢乐花园”(Lustgarten)在19世纪被改造成了博物馆,随着五座大型艺术博物馆的修建,宫殿前的Lustgarten部分成为普鲁士国家的“四国广场”,包括宗教(大教堂)、军事(兵工厂)和文化(博物馆,现在的阿尔特斯博物馆,由辛克尔设计)象征性建筑,它的希腊神庙柱廊正好与宫殿相称。

He was the urban and architectural director of the historic-monumental Centre of Berlin, built during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, which still exists, although largely rebuilt after the devastation of the Second World War. The monumental axis Unter den Linden – the almost uninterrupted sequence of public and private buildings that reaches the Brandenburg Gate– had begun and then had found the point of arrival in the Palace; its 'garden of delights' (Lustgarten) was transformed during the nineteenth century into the Museum Island, with the construction of five great art museums; the portion of the Lustgarten in front of the Palace became the 'Square of the Four Powers' of the Prussian state, with the construction of the symbolic buildings of Religion (the Cathedral), of the Military (the Arsenal), and of Culture (the Museum , now the Altes Museum, designed by Schinkel), whose Greek temple colonnade is explained by its being opposite the Palace.

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巴洛克式立面的现代表达 | 柏林Humboldt Forum修复扩建项目第4张图片


前市中心以城市历史教科书的身份重现

为了重新发现宫殿在柏林中心建设中的作用,对其立面的重建至关重要。由于其城市形状随时间的推移保持不变,立面比任何其他元素都更能传达宫殿原始建筑的年代,以及与城市建筑的关系。

The former director of the City Centre returns as a teacher of urban history
To rediscover the role of the Palace in the construction of the Berlin Centre, the reconstruction of its facades is of fundamental importance, because the facade, by virtue of its urban exposure and the permanence of its shape over time, is the element that more than any other communicates the age of the original construction of the Palace, and therefore its relations with the other buildings of its urban context.

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柏林皇宫是新旧和谐的结合体  

新的柏林宫殿(Berliner Schloss - Humboldt Forum)是一座单一、巴洛克风格和现代风格的建筑,是“世界文化的会议场所”,献给Humboldt兄弟。它结合了重建的巴洛克宫殿(辛克尔称之为一个“欧洲巴洛克杰作”)和现代增加的一部分建筑。

The Berlin Palace as a harmonious combination of Old and New
The new Berlin Palace (Berliner Schloss - Humboldt Forum) is a unitary, baroque and modern building, conceived as a "meeting place with the cultures of the world", dedicated to the Humboldt brothers. It appears as a harmonius combination between the reconstructed baroque part of the lost Palace (a "masterpiece of the European Baroque" in Schinkel's words) and a modern added part.

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2002年,德国议会决定对巴洛克式宫殿(即宫殿的一部分,由Schlüter和Eosander于17世纪末/18世纪初重新设计)和Stüler 19世纪圆顶的立体测量和立面进行“忠实于原貌”的重建,并通过2008年的竞赛决定了方案。新项目由五座建筑组成:一座位于文艺复兴时期宫殿区,另四座位于主要内部庭院Eosanderhof区。宫殿、城门、广场和剧院是建筑和城市的绝佳场所,它们激发了新旧的结合,这种结合体现在外面,也体现在建筑的城市形象中,体现在里面,也体现在三个庭院的建筑中。

The 'faithful to the original' reconstruction of the stereometry and facades of the Baroque Palace - that is, the part of the Palace, redesigned at the end of the 17th / early 18th century by Schlüter and Eosander - and of  the Stüler's 19th-century dome, was decided by the German Parliament in 2002 , and confirmed by the 2008 Competition program. The new construction consists of five new buildings: one outside, in the area of ​​the Renaissance Palace, the other four in the area of ​​the main internal courtyard, the Eosanderhof. The Palace, the City Gate, the Piazza and the Theater are the excellent places of architecture and the city, which inspire the combination of Old and New: both outside, in the urban image of the building, both inside, in the architecture of its three courtyards.

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宫殿建筑包含五个大门作为城门,三个庭院作为广场

新建筑作为重建巴洛克式建筑的“第四翼”,完成了施吕特最初的想法,即仿效意大利文艺复兴和巴洛克式建筑,将宫殿改造成一座单一的建筑。立面的大小和象征性原则与重建的三个翼楼相似,由于其窗户开口的特殊尺寸,特别是超过一米的深度,使其正面看起来像“凉廊的正面”,这也体现了建筑的公共性。

The Palace as a building with five portals as City gates and three courtyards as Piazza
The new building facing the Spree, is intended as the 'fourth wing' of the reconstructed Baroque building, completing Schlüter's original idea of ​​transforming the Palace into a unitary edifice, following the example of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque ones. The size and the figurative principles of the façade are similar to those of the three reconstructed wings: by virtue of the extraordinary size of its window openings, in particular their depth of over a meter, the front on the Spree looks like a 'facade of loggias' , which suggests the public character of the building.

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新建筑的四个内部部分构成了作为剧院广场的Schlüterhof,并形成了连接两个与重建为城门的大门相关的新庭院广场的Schloss通道,其新的“带柱廊的道路”致敬了古罗马的一个讲坛,以及唤起剧院的Große门厅。重建后的凯旋门作为“场景正面”,新的画廊作为观众场所。新的柏林宫殿可以说是一座“宫殿式的城市”,为来自世界各地的数百万游客和成千上万市民的日常生活而设计。在柏林市中心这个宏伟的公共空间里,外部广场通过开敞的大门与内部庭院融为一体。

The four internal pieces of the new costruction complete the Schlüterhof as a theater-square and realizes two new courtyard-squares in relation to the portals rebuilt as a City gate: the Schloss-Passage, whose new 'colonnaded way' remember an ancient Roman forum, and the Große Foyer that evokes the Theater, with the reconstructed triumphal arch’-portal as the ' scene front' and the new galleries as the lodges for spectators. The new Berlin Palace can be described as a 'city in the form of a palace', designed both for millions of visitors from around the world and for the daily life of thousands of citizens. Through its always open portals, the external squares mixes with the internal courtyards in a grandiose public space in the heart of Berlin.

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墙和柱的立面  

现代建筑和巴洛克风格的立面通常呈现出墙与墙的结合列,巴洛克风格和现代风格的墙是三层结构:钢筋混凝土建筑支撑墙、隔热墙和外墙。巴洛克风格的一面是砖墙,平均厚度为65厘米,建筑采用了一种自支撑结构,而不是悬挂的“表皮”,保证了立面没有明显的接缝;现代的混凝土板是用水泥和清水混合加固的预制板制成的砂岩巴洛克式的柱子和门楣,通过添加与原柱子尺寸、形状和材料相同的天然石头来重建;现代的柱子和门楣都是预制的,用水泥和砂岩加固。

The facade of Walls and Columns
The modern one as well as the baroque facade often presents the combination of walls and columns.Both walls, baroque and modern, are a three-layer construction: a reinforced concrete building-supporting wall, a thermal insulation, and the facade-wall. The baroque one is a brick wall with an average thickness of 65 cm: a self-supporting construction (and not a hanging 'mask'), which guarantees a facade with no apparent joints; the modern one is made of prefabricated slabs of reinforced with cement mixed with clear sandstone.The baroque columnsand its architraves are reconstructed by adding pieces of natural stone with the same size, shape and material of the original one; the modern ones are prefabricated monoliths, made, as well as the slabs,of reinforced withe cement and clear sandstone.            

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雕刻的石头

一些石质文物已被修复,保持其目前的破旧状态,其他大部分,已在其原来的形式和物质基础上修复。修复后的雕塑是各种各样的残缺的人物,它们被时间的铜绿锈蚀了,有些已经回到了原位,另一些则因为太脆弱而无法放置于室外,它们在特殊的展览空间里有着自己的位置。几乎所有雕塑都被修复了,其中一些如雕像或高浮雕,是由雕塑家手工制作的独特的作品,其他的三千多件,如雕带、框架、柱头或栏杆已被机械复制,从粘土开始,到石膏,由众多雕塑家和石匠在宫殿工厂(Schlossbauhütte)中制作完成。

The carved stones
Some stone artifacts have been restored, keeping their current fragmented condition; others, the most of them, have been reconstructed in their original completeness of form and matter. The restored stones are variously mutilated figures, irreparably blackened by the patina of time: some have returned to the open where they were; others, too vulnerable to return outdoors, find their place inside, in special exhibition spaces. Almost all the carved stones that were on the outside have been rebuilt: some, such as statues or high-reliefs, are unique pieces, made by the hand of the sculptor; almost all the others, such as friezes, frames, capitals or balustrades –altogethermore than three thousand pieces– have been mechanically replicated starting from three hundred models, first of clay and then of plaster, made in the so-called Palace Factory (Schlossbauhütte) by numerous sculptors and stonemasons.   

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内部空间  

几乎所有的内部空间都根据其新的用途进行了重新设计和现代化的诠释。柱子和横梁的布置十分小心,避免破坏将来重建具有特殊历史艺术价值的场所的可能性。空间分布在四层楼,面积为42.000平方米,其中约一半作为人种学博物馆和亚洲艺术博物馆的收藏空间,约10.000平方米用作一般公共空间。

The internal spaces
Almost all internal spaces have all been redesigned and modernly equipped according to their new purpose; the arrangement of pillars and beams is careful not to undermine the possibility of reconstructing places of particular historical-artistic value in the future. The total useful surface, distributed over four floors, is 42.000 m2: about a half is intended for the collections of the Ethnological Museum and the Museum of Asian Art, and about 10.000 m2 for spaces of general public interest.

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建筑一楼是入口和楼梯大厅、洪堡门厅、展览室、会议室和临时展览室、雕塑厅、书店、餐厅和咖啡馆,也是柏林特别博物馆和洪堡大学的展览空间,二楼和三楼是民族学博物馆和亚洲艺术、研究和修复实验室博物馆的藏品空间。地下一层和屋顶下的整层都是用于技术设备放置,除此之外还有额外的1500平方米的空间。屋顶上方是一个咖啡馆餐厅,与下面的“北边立方体”相连,周围是露台,可以瞭望城市的美丽景色。

On the ground floor are the Entrance and Stairs Hall, the Humboldt-Foyer, rooms for shows, meetings and temporary exhibitions, the Sculpture Hall, bookshop, restaurants and cafes; on the first floor are the exhibition spaces of a special Berlin Museum and the Humboldt University; on the second and third floors, are the collections of the Ethnological Museum and the Museum of Asian Art, research and restoration laboratories. The underground floor – with the exception of an area of ​​about 1500 m2, where the cellars of the old Palace can be visited– and the entire floor under the roof, are intended for technical equipment. Above the roof, in continuity with the underlying 'cube-north', the are a pavilion of a café-restaurant, surrounded by a terrace with a beautiful view to the city.

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建筑设计:Franco Stella
类型:博物馆 展览建筑/修复更新
面积:100000 m2
项目时间:2020年
摄影:Stefan Müller
主创建筑师:Herman Duquesnoy, Sigurd Hauer, Peter Westermann, Michelangelo Zucchini, Fabian Hegholz
合作方:Hilmer & Sattler und Albrecht Gesellschaft von Architekten
客户:Federal Republic of Germany represented by the "Stiftung Humboldt Forum im Berliner Schloss"
方案实施团队:Detlef Krug with Alexander Scholz, Uwe Otte
立面设计:Stuhhemmer Architekten on
结构设计:ARGE TPW (Wetzel & von Seht, Krone und Pichler Ingenieure)
建筑物理:Müller-BBM
空调设备:ILA- Inros Lackner, Winter Gebäudetecknik, Karoplan, Geothermie Neubrandeburg, IGEA
电气系统:Arge Innius, OPB- Obermeyer, ISA Saupe
媒体技术:BBM-Müller
展览设计:Ralph Appelbaum Associates
联合设计:Holzer Kobler Architekturen
外部区域设计:bbz Landschaftsarchitekten
城市:柏林
国家:德国

Museums & Exhibit, Renovation•Berlin, Germany
Architects: Franco Stella
Area:  100000 m2
Year:  2020
Photographs:  Stefan Müller
Lead Architects:Herman Duquesnoy, Sigurd Hauer, Peter Westermann, Michelangelo Zucchini, Fabian Hegholz
Partners:Hilmer & Sattler und Albrecht Gesellschaft von Architekten
Client:Federal Republic of Germany represented by the "Stiftung Humboldt Forum im Berliner Schloss"
Realisation Team:Detlef Krug with Alexander Scholz, Uwe Otte
Facades: Stuhhemmer Architekten on
Structures: ARGE TPW (Wetzel & von Seht, Krone und Pichler Ingenieure)
Physics Of Buildings: Müller-BBM
Air Conditioning: ILA- Inros Lackner, Winter Gebäudetecknik, Karoplan, Geothermie Neubrandeburg, IGEA
Electrical Systems: Arge Innius, OPB- Obermeyer, ISA Saupe
Media Technology: BBM-Müller
Exhibition Design: Ralph Appelbaum Associates
Corporate Design: Holzer Kobler Architekturen
Arrangement Of External Free Areas: bbz Landschaftsarchitekten
City: Berlin
Country: Germany

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