网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
预制和装配式建筑离我们还远吗?第1张图片

Disbrave Car Dealership / João Filgueiras Lima (Lelé). Image via Disbrave

工业化建设可以从福特T型车的制造中借鉴什么?
What Industrialized Construction Could Learn from Ford's Model T

由专筑网邢子,王帅编译

1908年10月1日,福特在美国市场推出了第一辆福特T型车,从此开创了新的汽车的工业化道路。1913年,亨利·福特受到武器和缝纫机制造产业的启发,对生产进行了革命性的改革,并通过第一条流水线生产出了简单、安全、可靠、便宜的汽车。

随着生产效率的提高,汽车的价格逐渐下降。T型车在第一年的生产成本是850美元,随着生产效率的提高,现最后一年的1927年,生产成本已经降到了290美元。工业化带来了成本、时间和物流方面的优化。

与汽车行业类似,建筑市场通过大量投资、激励措施以及在其生产链中雇佣大量人力,转移了大量资金。尽管如此,技术的应用和序列化的生产并没有以同样的方式发展。在建筑中,工业化的材料只占少数,而且很多时候它被限制在特定的情况下。然而,需要重点强调的是人们在这方面做出的一些努力。例如,使用预制构件,通常意味着有在施工现场有更好的条件以及更加节省时间、材料和金钱。

On October 1, 1908, Ford launched its first model car in the American market, the Ford T, starting the automotive industry and establishing new paths for industrialization. Inspired by the manufacturing systems of weapons and sewing machines, in 1913, Henry Ford revolutionized production with the first moving assembly line to produce the Model T; a simple, safe, reliable and cheap car.
The price decreased over time as production became more efficient. The Model T cost $850 in its first year and, as the manufacturing process became more efficient, it decreased to $290 in 1927, the last year it was produced. Industrialization led to optimized costs, time, and logistics.
Similar to the automotive industry, the construction market moves large amounts of capital, with large investments, incentives, and the need to employ a great number of people in its productive chain. Despite this, the use of technology and serialized production did not evolve in the same way. In architecture, industrialized materials represent only a limited amount of what is made, and many times it is restricted to specific cases. However, it is important to highlight some efforts in this direction. For instance, with the use of pre-fabricated components, it usually means better conditions on the construction site and the ability to save time, materials, and money.

预制和装配式建筑离我们还远吗?第2张图片

Ford Model T

在瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(Walter Gropius)的著作中,即将到来的建筑工业化也是一个值得关注的问题。他在1929年的包豪斯宣言中写道:

“如今,90%的人不会考虑订购定制的鞋子,也不考虑使用系列化的产品,这是改进生产方法的结果。”在未来,个人可以从工厂订购住房。也许现代技术可以胜任这项任务,但建筑中的经济组织仍依赖于体力劳动。因此,从工业意义上讲,合理地改进建筑施工组织是解决这一重要问题的必要条件。”

在欧洲二战后的重建期间,预制构件的使用有所增加。在这个行业发展迅猛的时代,预制成为了一种广泛使用的建筑方法。几年后,这种建设方法传到了美国,最终在摩天大楼的建造中找到了属于自己的位置。

在巴西,为了将工业化过程纳入到实际建造中,一些建筑师做出了巨大的努力。他们不仅提出了利用预制构件的建议,还考虑用工业技术来构思作品:如规划施工现场、安排执行机械化任务以及注意如何管理现场和人工。这些专业人员有利于在建筑中发挥技术和生产知识。

建筑师Joao Figueiras Lima,被称为 Lelé,他职业生涯的初期在巴西利亚与巴西建筑大师一起工作。在与奥斯卡·尼迈耶(Oscar Niemeyer)合作了几个项目后,开始关注自己作品的建造效率。

The approaching industrialization of building construction was also a concern in Walter Gropius’ writings, who, in the 1929 Bauhaus manifesto, said:
“These days, 90% of the population doesn’t consider ordering custom-made shoes and making use of serialized products as a consequence of improved manufacturing method. In the future, an individual will be able to order his or her home from a factory. Perhaps modern techniques are up to the task, but the economic organization in construction is not, still reliant on manual labor and restricted to machines. The rational remodeling of construction organization, in its industrial sense, is, therefore, an imperative condition for the modern solution of this important issue.”
In Europe, the use of prefabricated components increased during Post-World War II reconstruction. A time in which the sector saw great development, establishing itself as a widely used method in construction. It reached America a couple of years later where it finally found its place in the construction of skyscrapers.
In Brazil, some architects made remarkable efforts to include industrialized processes into the production of their work. Not only with proposals that made use of prefabrication, but also considering industrial techniques to think of the work: such as planning the construction site, the scheduling and strict execution of the steps, mechanizing tasks and giving special attention to how to manage site and labor. These professionals helped to leverage technical and productive knowledge in construction.
At the beginning of his career, architect João Figueiras Lima, known as Lelé, worked with masters of Brazilian architecture during the construction of Brasília. After working with Oscar Niemeyer on a couple of projects, Lelé began to focus on the constructive efficiency of his work.

预制和装配式建筑离我们还远吗?第3张图片

Sarah Kubitschek Salvador Hospital/ João Filgueiras Lima (Lelé). © Nelson Kon

他提出了使建筑更可持续、更有组织、更快、更清洁的施工战略。在他的职业生涯中,他使用了钢筋和预应力混凝土的预制系统,以及由砂浆制成的自支撑部件。在上世纪70年代末,Lelé还在萨尔瓦多的工厂里安装了一套轻钢系统,那里后来成为了建筑效率的研究和技术开发中心。Lelé被认为是一位巴西大师,他的作品激励了后世的人们思考这一过程。

He proposed strategies to make construction more sustainable and organized, as well as faster and cleaner. Throughout his career, he made use of prefabricated systems of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete, and self-supporting components made of mortar. In the late 1970s, Lelé also implemented a light steel system in his factories in Salvador, which later became a research and technology development center for construction efficiency. Lelé is considered a Brazilian master and has inspired following generations to consider this process in their works.

预制和装配式建筑离我们还远吗?第4张图片

Taguatinga Regional Hospital / João Filgueiras Lima (Lelé). © João Filgueiras Lima

调制和预制也出现在巴西其他主要建筑师的作品中。例如,保罗·门德斯·达·洛查(Paulo Mendes da Rocha)在20世纪60年代提出的住宅建筑类型学,利用了混凝土的材料表现力。第一个建筑是Edificio Guaimbe,它代表了工业化和技术限制之间的寓言,这些限制常常阻碍了项目的执行。他与Joao Eduardo de Gennaro一起,最初的设计展示了板、砖和其他预制构件,但在施工开始后,这些解决方案被证明是不可行的。在1967年的版本中,Acrópole发表了一篇文章,将这种不可能归因于技术限制。

Modulation and prefabrication are also present in the works of other leading Brazilian architects. Paulo Mendes da Rocha, for example, launched a residential building typology in the 1960s that made use of the material expressiveness of concrete. The first of these buildings is Edifício Guaimbê, which represents an allegory between industrialization and the technological limitations that often prevented a strict project execution. The original design, made together with João Eduardo de Gennaro, displays slabs, brick, and other prefabricated elements, but, after the construction began, these solutions proved unfeasible. In a 1967 edition, Acrópole published an article that attributed this impossibility to technical limitations.

预制和装配式建筑离我们还远吗?第5张图片

Guaimbê Residential Building / Paulo Mendes da Rocha and João Eduardo de Gennaro. © Revista Acrópole, n. 343

尽管有这样的经历,保罗·门德斯·达·洛查还是参与了其他使用这个过程的项目,例如Zezinho Magalhaes Prado社会住宅(与Villanova Artigas和Fabio Penteado合作)以及Butanta住宅等。

另一个主要人物是Eduardo de Almeida。建筑师将巴西现有的建设性系统与其他国家正在开发的技术相结合。例如,他为圣保罗的Morlan冶金公司的办公室设计的项目,将钢筋混凝土结构与德国公司MERO开发的空间框架屋顶相结合,该公司负责生产连接的独立部件。

Despite this experience, Mendes da Rocha was involved in later projects that used this process, such as the Zezinho Magalhães Prado Social Housing (in collaboration with Villanova Artigas and Fábio Penteado) and the Butantã House, among others.
Another primary figure is Eduardo de Almeida. In his renowned projects, the architect has combined constructive systems available in Brazil with technologies that were being developed in other countries. For example, his project for the offices of the metallurgical company Morlan, in Sao Paulo, combines a reinforced concrete structure with a space framed roof developed by the German company MERO, which produces independent parts articulated by fittings.

预制和装配式建筑离我们还远吗?第6张图片

Morlan Office in Sao Paulo / Eduardo de Almeida. © Cesar Shundi Iwamizu

当代建筑的灵感当然受到巴西建筑大师的作品的影响。一些作品突破了预制系统潜力,例如由Apiacas Arquitetos设计的Estudio Madalena,这是一座由钢结构和预制混凝土板组成的建筑。最近的另一个项目是Metro Arquitetos Associados设计的新三角形住宅,该住宅由水泥、聚碳酸酯板以及膨胀钢板等工业化产品建造的。

Contemporary production has certainly been inspired by previous masters of Brazilian architecture. Some works that highlight the potential of prefabricated systems are Estúdio Madalena by Apiacás Arquitetos, a building made from a steel structure and prefabricated concrete boards. Another recent project is the New Triangle House by Metro Arquitetos Associados, which was built of cement, polycarbonate boards, and expanded steel sheet panels, all industrially produced.

预制和装配式建筑离我们还远吗?第7张图片

Madalena Studio / Apiacás Arquitetos. © Leonardo Finotti

预制和装配式建筑离我们还远吗?第8张图片

New Triangle House / Metro Arquitetos Associados. © Leonardo Finotti

无论是汽车行业还是建筑行业,工业化都是一个经济因素,它具有向成品和建设性工艺灌输高质量的能力。尽管T型车在1908年以一种象征性和决定性的方式强调了这一点,但建筑仍在寻找留下属于自己印记的方法。

Be it the automotive or architecture industry, industrialization is an economic factor that has a great ability to imbue quality to its finished products and constructive processes. While the Model T highlighted this in a symbolic and definitive way in 1908, architecture and construction are still searching to leave their mark.

参考
Ford Model T Page, from Wikipedia available here;
GUERRA, Abílio; MARQUES, André. João Filgueiras Lima, ecologia e racionalização. Vitruvius, 16 jun, 2015.
BREYTON, Ugo. O emprego de estruturas metálicas tri-dimensionais em quatro projetos de Eduardo de Almeida. Pesquisa de Iniciação Científica, Escola da Cidade, São Paulo 2017.

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

新闻 (497 articles)


建筑 (9780 articles)


预制结构 (6 articles)


装配式建筑 (9 articles)


钢筋 (30 articles)


混凝土 (2343 articles)


2018 (564 articles)