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符合柯布西耶五项原则的生态装配式个体小木屋第1张图片


61号生态住宅
Freedomek No.061 / Atelier Stepán, Freedomky

由专筑网王沛儒,李韧编译

来自建筑事务所的描述。“61号”是代表Freedomek住宅项目的门牌号,这座建筑的建造时间是从上午7点到下午3点,这令邻居们感到惊讶,后来还建造了车库和露台。工人们将模块堆叠在一起,较小的体量S(4 x 7m)置于较大的体量M(4 x 115m)的上面。

Text description provided by the architects. The “Sixty-one”, a home with the number Freedomky No.061, was assembled (to the surprise of neighbours) during one autumn Friday from 7 am to 3 pm, followed by the construction of the carport and terrace. It uses its compositional dimensions and sizes from the author’s previous modules and places them above each other, smaller S (4 x 7m) on top of larger M (4 x 11,5m).

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模块配备齐全后被带到现场,家具也已经配置齐全。塔霍夫“61”号住宅就这样一点点搭建起来,它的比例和一艘风格化的汽船相似,上层平台就好像是船的前甲板一样。如果有水,它可以成为一艘真正的游艇。这是捷克共和国首座两层楼高的Freedomek 住宅,上面还有设计师的亲笔签名。

Modules were brought to the site fully furnished and equipped, including furniture. The Tachov “Sixty-one” stretches toward the sky and its proportions evoke a similarity with a stylized steamboat, also with the upper terrace – the deck at the fore. From becoming a real houseboat, it is only short of water it could anchor in. It is the very first 2-story Freedomek in the Czech Republic and has its own specially signed label from the author.

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61号住宅在概念上延续了Karel Teige在两次世界大战之间提出的极简公寓理论。几年后,在Wenceslas广场001号,建筑师在Zlin两层楼高的一间半居室里住了一晚受到的启发。61号住宅的规模和组织的内部空间都很接近那间居室,立面划分和开窗比例会让人想起柯布西耶在法国佩萨克的住宅。

The “Sixty-one” conceptually continues along the lines of the inter-war theories of Karel Teige about minimal apartments. Now, several years after presenting No. 001 on Wenceslas square, I find inspiration in the 2-story Baťa half and quarter-houses in Zlín. I was inspired while spending a night in a half-house in Zlín. The “Sixty-one” comes close to Baťa houses in its scale and organization of the interior spaces. The approach to facade division and proportions of window openings may remind one of Corbusier’s houses in the residential area in Pessac.

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然而,目前的趋势是朝着移动和经济型住宅的方向发展,德国设计师Werner Aisslinger著名的“游牧”公寓单元阁楼立方体项目就体现了这一点。Loftcube和Freedomky都有着自由梦想和生态的理念,但是在基本概念上它们是不同的。Freedomky更接近欧洲中部地区德语国家的室内空间的组织,和它们的材料使用的是由Štěpan设计工作室选择的木头,都有着显著的特点。而Loftcube的领域更广,但是客户范围更小。

However, the current trend is moving in the direction of mobile and economic housing: it is noticeable in the famous project of the “nomad” apartment cell Loftcube by the German designer Werner Aisslinger. The projects Loftcube and Freedomky are connected by the dream of freedom and by ecological aspects. However, in the base concept they are different. Freedomky are closer to the Central-European region and German speaking countries with its organization of the interior space, and with their material usage of wood and signature design they are true to Ateliér Štěpán. Loftcube has a territorially wider and clientele-wise smaller range.

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61号住宅木材占用了95%。它的轴承结构用胶合木制成,还有根据瑞士专利制作了精确的连接点,把连接关节做成梯形的形状非常简单,但它们的强度很大。保温材料由木质纤维保温板组成,白天和晚上都具有良好的功能效果。开放的建筑立面由北部落叶松木制成。

The “Sixty-one” is 95% wooden. Its bearing structure is from glued wood and has exact joints made according to a Swiss patent. Exact milling of the joint into the shape of a trapezoid are made very simply and their strength is immense. The insulation consists of wood fibre insulation panels that have a beneficial faze shift of day – night. The facade is diffusionally open, made of northern larch.

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建筑通过辐射板供暖,局部调理通风,窗户带有三层玻璃面板。建筑安置在五条地基上,室内主要为白色和木色,真实地反映了建筑的主要材料。家具由桦木胶合板制作而成,其中有着隐藏的硬件,地板和楼梯则由坚实的橡木制成。

The house is heated by radiant panels, ventilated through local recuperation, and windows are wooden with a triple glass panel. The house sits on five ground foundation strips. The interior is white and wooden and reflects the main construction materials of the house. Furniture is made of birch plywood with hidden hardware, the flooring and staircase from solid oak.

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61号Freedomek住宅符合建筑师的“农民生态”原则,这是一种理性的生态概念,通过“农民的理智和智慧”而创造。在这种方法中,建筑师经过深思熟虑后构思了解决方案,而不仅仅依赖于复杂的技术复合体。它并不使用在该地区无效和不经济的伪生态成分,这种构筑方式只是单纯地遵循流行趋势。该项目每年会减少840欧元的能源支出,这是个令人愉快的消息。

The “Sixty-one” Freedomek works with the author’s principles of “peasant ecology”, therefore a rational ecology created with a “peasant’s sense and wisdom” and not by the pressure of technology. In this approach the winners are simple and thought-out solutions over complicated technological complexes. It does not use pseudo-ecological components that are ineffective and non-economical in this area and would only follow popular trends. The verification of these principles are the yearly energy expenses of this Tachov Freedomek at the pleasant amount of 840 euros.

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建筑设计:Atelier Stepán, Freedomky
地点:捷克共和国,塔霍夫
项目内容:住宅设计
首席建筑师:Marek Štěpán
合作者:František Brychta
项目年份:2017年
照片摄影:Jakub Skokan, Martin Tůma / BoysPlayNice
制造商:Hi-Macs, ABB, Jafholz
建成面积:46.0 ㎡
建筑可用面积:56.0 ㎡
车库:36.0 ㎡
露台:30.0 ㎡

Architects: Atelier Stepán, Freedomky
Location: Tachov, Czech Republic
Category: Houses
Lead Architects: Marek Štěpán
Coauthor: František Brychta
Project Year: 2017
Photographs: Jakub Skokan, Martin Tůma / BoysPlayNice
Manufacturers: Hi-Macs, ABB, Jafholz
Built-up Area: 46.0 ㎡
Usable Area of the House: 56.0 ㎡
Carport: 36.0 ㎡
Terraces: 30.0 ㎡

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