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NCARB:建筑业的发展仍需要领军人物第1张图片

来自NCARB的数据揭示了建筑界多样化的积极趋势
NCARB By The Numbers Report Reveals Positive Trends for Diversity in the Architecture Profession

由专筑网李韧,韩平编译

在建筑界中,各种多样性斗争不足为奇。不同的个人故事和深入研究都详细地说明了这个行业中有时还缺乏统一的标准。但有关标准化的探索并非止步不前,国家建筑注册委员会(NCARB)的最新研究数据表明,性别、种族,以及伦理多样性等问题正在逐步改善。

2017年度NCARB数据报告显示,注册建筑师考试人数保持稳定增长,来自不同背景的人员数量也逐步增多。尽管这仍有许多改进空间,但这些数据仍然表达了建筑行业未来发展积极的一面。

It’s no secret that the architecture field struggles with diversity. Both personal stories and deeper studies detail the profession’s lack of representation. But despite concerns suggesting diversity in the field remains stagnant, there’s good news: the latest data from the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) reveals that gender, racial, and ethnic diversity is slowly improving.
The 2017 edition of NCARB by the Numbers (NCARB’s annual data report) indicates that while the number of architects and licensure candidates holds steady, the pool of individuals is more diverse than ever before. Although there is still much room for improvement, this data provides an encouraging glimpse into the future of the profession.

NCARB:建筑业的发展仍需要领军人物第2张图片

改善公平性和多样性

NCARB数据表明,人们对于建筑师性别的包容度逐渐上升。无论是在早期的职业生涯中,还是在已取得注册建筑师资格证之后,2016年,整个建筑行业首次提及性别平等的需求。

当前,女性建筑师占总注册建筑师总数的36%,这比2015年上升了2个百分比。另外,女性建筑师也比同期男性建筑师要提早10个月获得注册建筑师资格证。

相比之下,种族平等的问题进程相对缓慢。去年,Architectural Experience Program™ (AXP™)和注册考试中的种族多样化问题发展较慢,总共只上升3个百分比。同时,注册建筑师资格证新持有者和NCARB证书持有者的人数则保持不变。然而,在建筑职业生涯早期的数据增长表明其将随着参加考试人数的增多而增多。

尽管在职业生涯早期的种族多样性有多提升,但后期需要完成的工作还有很多,NCARB记录持有者中有4%是黑人和非裔美国人,而根据人口普查结果,这一数据如今已达到13%。

Improved Equity and Diversity
NCARB’s data reveals that progress is steadier and faster when it comes to gender. In 2016, gender equity improved along all career stages for the first time—from the early stages of a career in architecture to becoming a licensed architect and beyond.
Women now account for 36 percent of newly licensed architects, up two percent from 2015. Women also earn an initial license almost 10 months sooner than their male peers.
Comparatively, racial and ethnic equity is progressing more slowly, especially among practitioners. Last year, racial and ethnic diversity among Architectural Experience Program™ (AXP™) and exam candidates improved slightly—up three percentage points for both groups. At the same time, diversity among newly licensed architects and NCARB Certificate holders remained the same. However, growth in early career stages suggests that these numbers will improve as candidates progress toward licensure.
But even while diversity strengthens across early career stages, there’s still work to be done: while 4 percent of new NCARB Record holders identify as Black or African American, that number would have to more than triple to reach the 13 percent seen in the the US population, according to the Census Bureau.

NCARB:建筑业的发展仍需要领军人物第3张图片

打破僵化

造成建筑业缺乏多样性的因素有很多,既有经济因素,也有个人因素。根据2015年美国建筑师协会(AIA)的调查,人们可以发现以下特征:

  • 将建筑学作为择业倾向的人不多;
  • 许多人无法负担高昂的建筑教育费用;
  • 建筑色彩感知能力的缺失;
  • 大学生愿意选择其他收入更高的职业;
  • 白人与其他专业人员之间的工资差距。

各种因素都有可能造成建筑领域中各种不平等现象的产生,例如工作缺乏灵活性、长时间加班导致工作生活失衡等。

为了解决这些问题,并且也让不同背景的人都能更加容易地通过注册建筑师认证考试,NCARB设定了一些程序来消除这些不必要的障碍。例如减少AXP等候时间、对于人们经验的重新考量,以及对于人们60天考试能力的考察。各种政策有助于减少人们的等候时间,从而让人们在职业生涯早期就能尽可能多地获得收入。

其他的更新策略有:许可证书替代品的出台政策、“曲线救国”政策等。NCARB同时也介绍了Integrated Path to Architectural Licensure (IPAL),这样学生们可以在在校期间就努力学习相关内容,从而早日通过注册考试。这些变化也许不会对建筑领域的多样性产生直接影响,但仍然能够帮助许多人完成注册建筑师的梦想。

Breaking Down Barriers
There are many factors that contribute to the lack of diversity in architecture, ranging from the economic to the personal. According to the American Institute of Architects’ (AIA) 2015 survey on Diversity in the Profession of Architecture, these include:
  • Little knowledge of architecture as a career option
  • Difficulty affording the costs of an architecture degree
  • Scarcity of role models in architecture for people of color
  • Predisposition for first- and second-generation college students to choose other careers with greater earning potential
  • Perceived pay gap between white men and other professionals in the field
Additional factors contribute to the field’s unequal gender representation, such as lack of job flexibility and work-life balance.
In an effort to address some of these barriers and make licensure more accessible to candidates of all backgrounds, NCARB has made several program changes to help eliminate unnecessary hurdles. Recent updates include a reduction in the AXP’s required hours and the re-alignment of experience areas, as well as the ability to retake an exam in just 60 days. Together, these changes are intended to streamline the time to licensure, allowing individuals to work toward greater earning power earlier in their careers.
Other updates include new alternative routes to licensure and certification for individuals who may not follow a straightforward path to licensure. NCARB has also introduced the Integrated Path to Architectural Licensure (IPAL), which enables students to work toward licensure while in school. These changes may not have an immediate impact on diversity in the field, but they could help open doors to a wider pool of candidates.

NCARB:建筑业的发展仍需要领军人物第4张图片

接下来该怎么做?

在接下来的几年里,NCARB希望能够看到建筑师性别、种族多样性问题有所改善。同时,相关部门也在不断地改进政策以促进这些问题的解决。

其中的关键一步是尽可能提升建筑业领军人物的性别、种族多样性,从而带动整个行业的发展,无论是性别还是肤色,少数的权威人士必将能够引起一定的榜样效应。

What’s Next
Over the next several years, NCARB hopes to see the impact of recent program changes reflected in architecture’s gender, racial, and ethnic diversity. In the meantime, the profession must examine additional ways to encourage growth in those groups that remain underrepresented.
A key step is seeking out ways to create role models by promoting diversity in architectural leadership—both women and people of color remain a small percentage of authority figures in firms and other organizations within the profession.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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