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老根里和平博物馆/METAA第1张图片
© Jaekyung Kim


引言:【老根里和平博物馆】METAA在韩国忠清北道永同郡设计的老根里(Nogunri)和平博物馆,旨在纪念朝鲜战争初期发生的美军屠杀韩国平民的老根里事件。真相已无从追溯,因而建筑以对抗官方历史的“反记忆”为主题,以期唤醒每个人支离破碎的记忆,并介入到即将被制度化的历史记忆中。


老根里和平博物馆/METAA第2张图片
© Jaekyung Kim


如何看待?

     150人死亡,13人失踪,55人受伤和残疾。这起事件发生于1950年7月26日至29日。然而,以上并非准确数据。有更多的人躲进隧道里,经过超过三天的惊吓折磨后,走向了他们生命的终点——死亡。半个多世纪过去了,没有人出来承担责任,也无法找到真相。事件发生但无处可以找到线索。数千死难者家属不得不在没有祖先墓碑的情况下,进行祖传的丧葬仪式。人们虽然付出了无尽的努力,但是真相还是没有浮现出来,甚至被隐藏起来了。


From the architect. How to see it?
150 people were dead. 13 people were missed and 55 people were injured and got a disability. It was in 1950 26 to 29 of july. However, that is incorrect number. Even more people were terrified in the tunnel over three days. Then divided their life and death. Half of a century passed. Nobody talked about responsibility. Can not find the truth. Incident happened but nowhere could find the clue. Thousand of the bereaved families had to perform an ancestral rites without an ancestral tablet. With all the endless efforts, the truth never reconstructed. Meanwhile, it is even concealed.

老根里和平博物馆/METAA第3张图片
© Jaekyung Kim

人们说那是个战争的悲剧或者是偶然的情况。人们试图用其他事情去安抚这个事件。然而每一个证据都在诉说着这个事件的发生。老根里事件不是一个小的事件,不应该被埋在被称为战争的巨大的悲剧中。政府宣布了一个特别法律,纪念仪式也在筹备中,但是真相仍是未知。老根里事件中仍有部分情况在作为历史被讲述的时候被隐去了。谈论和平的主体和客体都不能确定。只有受害者的恐惧和失去亲人的家庭的痛苦依然历历在目。


People said that is a tragedy of war or incidental case. It was tried to pacified with other cases. However every single testimonies stated the case. This nogunri case is not a small incident that can not buried in a huge tragedy called a war. Proclaimed a special law and memorial ceremony business is in a progress but the truth has not come yet. Still some part of the nogunri case are covered to be told as a history. Still uncertain about the subject and the object to talk about peace. Only the victims fear and the bereaved families pain remained clearly.

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总平面图


集体记忆


     因为遇难者家属的记忆才使得老根里事件浮现在公众面前。他们奔波在这里,因为他们的努力,历史叙述的一部分才得以被公开。尽管有如此多的证据,老根里事件甚至未被视为历史。


Communal memory
It was only because of the memory of the bereaved families that this nogunri case is appeared to the public. Their activities were there. Only because of that activities the part of the historical statements are exposed. This nogunri case can not be a history even that has this much of proofs.

老根里和平博物馆/METAA第5张图片
© Jaekyung Kim

一些我们过去经历的属于个体记忆。历史记忆是只能通过历史记录了解到。然而老根里的记忆对我们来说仍然是一个积极的历史。因此,这是构建我们特征的集体记忆过程的一部分。


Some activities that we were through is belong to autobiographical memory. Historical memory is only can be learned by the historical record. However nogunri’s memory is still an active-history to us. Therefore it is a part of process of communal memory to construct our identity.

老根里和平博物馆/METAA第6张图片
© Jaekyung Kim

然而,在构建集体记忆的过程中,一种不安的氛围夹杂在事件的期望中。来自政府,受害者和家属,还有观察员的期望。这种不安的氛围是由普遍的社会记忆,通过每个人的个体记忆,和人类的说教的记忆共同构成。在仍然没有解决这种不安的氛围的地方谈论“历史”或“和平”是不合适的。


However, in a process of communal memory, a tension is circumstanced between the desires in the incident. Desires from the government, from the victims and the bereaved families, and from the observers. There is a tension that is made up by an universal-social memory, by an autobiographical memory of a life, and by a didactic memory for humankind. A park talking about ‘history’ or ‘peace’ is not stable in this place where still does not solved about this tension.

老根里和平博物馆/METAA第7张图片
© Jaekyung Kim

此外,在这个地方建造博物馆来体现“历史”或“和平”不可避免的要凭空而起。始于空白的建筑代表这一个建筑正在观察公共记忆的构建过程。


In addition, a museum talking about ‘history’ or ‘peace’ can not avoid to start with emptiness in this place. An architecture start with emptiness is an architecture that is watching the process that is going to communal memory.

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剖面图


反记忆

     违背官方历史的记忆被叫作“反记忆”。反记忆是每一个单独的个人和支离破碎的记忆活动,它试图插入一些将被制度化的记忆中去,揭露官方记忆贸然建立纪念碑和纪念符号的光环。


Anti-memory
A memory against the official history is called ‘anti-memory’. Anti-memory is activities of every single persons and fragmented memory, and it is a memory trying intervene in some memories that is going to be institutionalized. It is a memory that is trying to reveal an aura of an official memory by rashly built monument and memorial symbols.

老根里和平博物馆/METAA第9张图片
© Jaekyung Kim

人的经验对建立“反记忆”很重要。尤其是身体力行的经验。当人们经历那种记忆,所感受到的空间感比视觉更重要。


Experiences from people are important to build an ‘anti-memory’. Especially the experiences that is stamped on their body is very important. The spatiality that they felt at the moment is more important then their sight when they experiences that kinds of memory.

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平面图

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© Jaekyung Kim

老根里和平博物馆/METAA第12张图片
© Jaekyung Kim

老根里事件的公共记忆的构建过程现在正在进行。这座代表和平和历史的博物馆,只能告知揭示真相,但是对于某些人来说并不能阐述整个历史或是和平。它只是想要拖延一些要被当做官方写入的历史。和平历史博物馆必须捕捉公共记忆呈现渐进的过程,这些记忆将成为一座“反记忆”的建筑。它将以空间的形式进入到参观者身体中去。并将成为一座通过询问人们的经历来积累空间经验的建筑。


A process of communal memory of nogunri case is present progressive. This museum of history and peace, only can inform the revealed truth, but cant claim the whole history or the peace for somebody. It is just want to delay some history that wants to be made official in time. The museum of history and peace that has to observe the present progressive process of communal memory want to be an architecture of ‘anti-memory’. This wants to intervene into visitor’s body as a space. And wants to be an architecture asking our identity by accumulate experiences of them.

老根里和平博物馆/METAA第13张图片
© Jaekyung Kim

老根里和平博物馆/METAA第14张图片
© Jaekyung Kim


思考和调整

     博物馆,纪念巾和事故现场(双隧道周围)在位置与语义方面关系密切。然而,在假设的条件下,换句话说,原方案在靠近这三个代表事件的潜在意义的元素之间是比较困难的。在考虑到基地要作为一个游客开始准备体验的地方,我们建议首先对建筑所在地进做出调整,使得该博物馆成为地块整体景观的一部分。


Consideration and readjustment
Museum, memorial towel and the scene of incident (around the twin tunnel) are in a close relationship locationally and semantically. However, the given condition, in other words, the original scheme has difficulty to approach to potential meaning of the incident between three elements. Before considerate the site as a place that will be really experienced by visitors, we suggest readjustment the site first. The museum will be a part of this scenery.

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© Jaekyung Kim

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© Jaekyung Kim

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© Jaekyung Kim

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平面图

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立面图

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剖面图

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© Jaekyung Kim

建筑设计:METAA
地址:韩国,忠清北道永同郡
面积:1892.0平方米
时间:2011年
拍摄: Jaekyung Kim
Architects: METAA
Location: Yeongdong-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea
Area: 1892.0 sqm
Year: 2011
Photographs: Jaekyung Kim

出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
编辑:朱王倩,许航,卢荣姝

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