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简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第1张图片


圣安德鲁斯女子宿舍 / Zero Energy Design Lab
St. Andrews Girls Hostel / Zero Energy Design Lab

由专筑网沈17,小R编译

来自建筑事务所的描述。女子宿舍区位于Gurugram 的St. Andrews技术与管理学院内,通过本土视角探讨了教育与可持续发展的交点。这片25000平方英尺的女子宿舍区落成于2020年,建筑师从相邻的男子宿舍区汲取灵感,利用砖块和光洁的混凝土进行连接,各个方位都展现出其裸露的结构构件。宿舍的设计让学生们在优先考虑热舒适和功能性的环境中自如地移动,成为零能耗设计的践行者。

Text description provided by the architects. The Girls’ Hostel Block at the St. Andrews Institute of Technology and Management in Gurugram explores the intersection of education and sustainability through the lens of the vernacular. Completed in 2020, the design for the 25,000 sq.ft. Girls’ Hostel takes cues from the adjacent Boys’ Hostel Block and is articulated in brick and fair-faced concrete, with exposed structural members abutting the structure along all sides. The hostel's design empowers students with freedom of movement within an environment that prioritizes thermal comfort and functionality to become an exemplar of zero energy design.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第2张图片


宿舍将成为约130名学生的家,房间遍布四层,此外还提供诸如储藏室、休闲区和社交空间之类的辅助空间。地面层包括12间双人间,以及两层通高的接待处,储藏室和室内活动休息室,在这里学生们可以组织聚会和社交活动。

The hostel is home to approximately 130 students, with dorm rooms spread across four levels in addition to hosting ancillary spaces like a pantry, recreational areas as well as social spaces. The ground floor comprises twelve double-occupancy rooms along with a double-height reception, pantry, and indoor activity lounge where students can organize gatherings and social events.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第3张图片


简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第4张图片


委托人的诉求和挑战。从概念到执行,建筑师面临着一系列的挑战。主要的挑战在于为女孩们创造一处安全的据点,一座适应城市总体规划的校园,既不限制自由行动,又建立和户外的联系。

Client Brief + Challenges. The design faced a series of challenges from conception to execution. The primary design challenge was to create a secure hub for the girls — a campus within a campus fitting into the urban master plan that did not restrict the movement while establishing a connection with the outdoors.

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为了应对这些限制,建筑的布局设计成连通室内外空间的形式,这些空间在物理和视觉上处于不同的层次,借此加强互动和社交活动。为了引入外部景观的质感,入口门厅和大堂设计成朝西的户外空间,并与储藏室相连,学生们因此可以享受户外的夜晚并欣赏绿景。他们拥有在安全环境里创造自己空间的自由,不会受到任何限制。对于结构也是如此,楼梯和与之相连的立面也是设计挑战的一部分。独立立面距离建筑主体30英尺远,横跨三层楼高度,这是出于结构完整性和抗震性的考虑,工人们通过大量的脚手架和现浇技术实现了这些构思。

In response to the constraints, the layout has been designed to incorporate indoor and outdoor spaces that connect physically and visually at different levels to enhance interactions and social activities. Moreover, to bring in a sense of the exterior landscape, the entrance foyer and lobby are designed as outdoor spaces to face the west and are connected to the pantry so that students can enjoy their evenings outside with a spill-out into the green landscape. The students have been given the freedom to create their own space in a safe environment, without any imposed restrictions. In terms of construction too, the staircase and the attached façade posed a design challenge. The free-standing façade was to be constructed at a thirty feet distance from the building, spanning a height of three floors keeping in mind structural integrity and earthquake resistance. This was brought to life through an extensive scaffolding and casting process.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第6张图片


简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第7张图片


设计和规划。通过引入自适应舒适的概念,设计方案寻求重新诠释人对于舒适的传统标准,人们在不同室内条件下的体验虽然不同,但在一定程度上能自适应,具体取决于他们的穿着、行动和身体状况。建筑展开成一系列多维空间,通过自适应分层的方法按层次结构排序。每个空间都被概念化为一个私密的环境,优先考虑功能性和人的舒适性。

Design and Planning. The design seeks to reinterpret conventional standards of human comfort through introducing the idea of adaptive comfort — the principle that people experience differently and adapt, up to a certain extent, to a variety of indoor conditions, depending on their clothing, their activity, and general physical condition. The building unfolds as a series of multidimensional spaces, arranged in a hierarchical order through the method of adaptive layering. Each space is conceptualized as an intimate environment that prioritizes both functionality and human comfort.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第8张图片


当学生们从建筑室内移动到开阔的室外时,他们将体会到两种不同热环境间的过渡。首层的活动休息室布置在景观庭院旁,为学习和交流创造了私密的环境。相邻的景观内院种植了密集的植物,减少蒸腾作用的热量。从建筑核心朝室外走去,另一个过渡是沿着建筑西侧立面的二层露台,学生们常常在夏日的早晨和傍晚来到这里,冬日则将这里当作全天聚会的场所。

As students move from the interiors of the building into the open, they experience distinct transitions in varying thermal environments. The activity lounge on the ground floors placed next to the landscaped court. The lounge creates an intimate environment for studying or conversation. Further, the adjacent internal landscaped court features dense plantation to reduce heat gain through evaporative cooling. From the core of the building towards the outdoor, the next transition is the second-floor terrace along the building’s west façade that attracts students in the mornings and late evenings in summers and serves as an all-day space to congregate during winters.

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除了将楼梯此类的重要元素着重表现为社交枢纽之外,建筑的设计保持了简单的原则。建筑核心部位的过渡区是楼梯,从美学角度来讲,它融入了南立面,起到连接所有楼层的作用。过渡和流线空间,比如廊桥,通向休息室和休息点,打造了社交和团队学习的空间。廊桥创造的视觉联系强调了互动和联系,它们无缝延伸到多个楼层里的学生休息室,形成了流畅的空间。楼梯成为所有活动的基础,涵盖了从大型庆典到非正式会谈的各个不同规模的活动。外部的大堂常常用作羽毛球的夜间练习场,举办游戏的庭院也可以进行运动和其他类似活动。

The design of the building is kept simple while identifying essential elements like the staircases as hubs for social interaction. The subsequent transitional zone at the heart of the building is a staircase, aesthetically incorporated into the south facade, connecting all the floors. Transitional and circulation spaces such as bridges open into lounges and pause points to create room for socializing and group study. Since the bridges create a visual connection, they enhance interaction and interconnection. They seamlessly extend into the student lounges on multiple floors creating fluid spaces. The staircase manifests as the fundamental social nucleus that is home to all activities, from large scale celebrations and events to quick informal conversations. The exterior lobby area often serves as a badminton court in the evenings and the courtyard that hosts the frequent carrom games are spaces that encourage sports and other similar games.

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双层立面。沿着宿舍区北侧立面的空间有限,建造双层立面的意图在于打造半透式遮阳层,通过控制气流达到平衡室内外环境温度的目的。参数幕墙的灵感来自学院内男子宿舍区的已落成立面。该立面的外皮由精心计算旋转角度的砖体构成,可以防止散射和太阳直射。

The Double Skin Façade. With limited space available along the northern façade of the hostel, a double-skin façade has been developed with the intention of creating a semi-permeable layer that would help in shading and regulating the temperature between the exterior and interior environments via a controlled airflow. The parametric screen takes cues from the previously developed façade that spanned the adjacent boys’ hostel within the institute. The Boys’ Hostel Block’s façade was designed as an envelope in which the rotational angles of the brick were calculated in order to block diffused and direct radiation.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第11张图片


然而很明显的一点是,旋转的砖砌块不能按需形成足够深度的围合,从而阻断光的散射。因此,女子宿舍的外墙幕墙使用了空心的彩色混凝土砌块来模仿红砖的颜色。这些砌块成功解决了三个问题:不仅作为吸热材料吸收热量,而且由于其8英尺的深度,直射阳光必须在砌块内穿透多层并且在不同表面反射多次,才能进入到室内,因此有效地减少了眩光。另外,由于砌块是可渗透的,根据Bernoulli原理,空气通过砌块时体积压缩,从而损失热量。根据吸收太阳热的隔热分析,这些砌块会以某些特定角度微微旋转。

However, it became evident that the depth of the brick when rotated, was not able to create a deep enclosure to cut off diffused radiation in the required manner. Hence, for the girls’ hostel, the exterior façade screen uses hollow pigmented concrete blocks to resemble the colour of the red brick. The blocks have been successful in addressing three concerns. Not only do they provide adequate thermal mass to absorb the heat, but with a depth of eight inches, the direct radiation has to penetrate through several layers within the block and gets reflected on different surfaces multiple times before entering the interiors reducing glare. In addition, since the block is penetrable, the air volume passing through this mass loses its heat through compression on the basis of Bernoulli’s principle. The blocks are also slightly rotated at a specific angle based on the insulation analysis with respect to solar heat gain.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第12张图片


室内的第二层表皮提供了类似阳台和庭院的遮阳环境,使用者可以闲庭信步。这个空间通过建筑的自适应行为优先考虑热舒适,大大增强建筑空间的功能性。第二层表皮位于室内外之间,扮演了类似露台的破格空间的角色,让学生更加融入自己所处的环境,并时刻保持着和大自然的联系。

The interior second skin provides a volume where the user can step out to a shaded environment such as a balcony or court. It is a space that prioritizes thermal comfort through the adaptive behavior of the building and enables functionality. The second skin takes on the role of a breakout space such as a terrace, between the interior and exterior. It empowers students to take charge of their environment and activity as well as connect with nature while still being inside the building.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第13张图片


简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第14张图片


材质和建筑细节。建筑使用的混凝土和砖材将不同楼层串联起来。圆形的柱子加强了视觉外观和物理特性。建筑师没有采用单一的柱形,而是采用了如三脚架般三根柱子支撑的形式,提供给结构更好的稳定性和来自垂直方向的支撑。屋顶的凉棚设计采用水泥板和钢梁,以实现轻质结构和最佳的设计品质。

Materiality and Architectural Details. The building’s materialization in concrete and brickwork binds the different floors together. The columns are round in shape to enhance visual appearance as well as physicality. Moreover, instead of employing singular columns, the sheer mass is broken down into three columns in a tripod-like configuration to provide better structural stability as vertical support. The pergola on the roof is designed using cement board and steel beams to achieve lightweight construction and optimum design quality.

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景观策略和水管理。建筑师通过将绿植引入室内,景观设计不仅在美学上、也在功能上丰富了空间品质。科学证明,接近大自然对心理和生理健康都有良好的影响,也对打造互动环境有利,这些研究指导了景观设计策略。花坛的边缘细节被设计成座椅,学生们可以坐下来亲近自然。遮阳庭院内种植了各式各样的植物,它们对阳光照射的需求比较低。外围种了一圈竹子,起到了屏风的作用。

Landscape Strategies and Water Management. The landscape design enriches the space by bringing the greenery inside to serve not only aesthetic but also functional purposes. Being closer to nature is scientifically proven to have a favorable impact on psychological and physiological well-being as well as create a conducive environment for interaction and this directed our landscape strategy. The edge details of the planters are designed as seaters, allowing students to sit with nature. The shaded courtyard hosts a diverse variety of plant species that require lesser exposure to the sun. The peripheral areas feature bamboo that creates a screen.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第16张图片


简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第17张图片


建筑外的土地完全暴露在日光下,因此champa树被广泛地种植,它的大叶冠可以为休息区提供遮阳效果。室外景观庭院的表面是可渗透的,有助于地下水渗透。从洗手间排出的废水被传输到污水处理厂,处理后可重新用于园艺。

Outside the building, where the ground is completely exposed to the sun, champa trees have been planted due to their large canopies to create shaded seating spaces. The surface of the outdoor landscaped court is penetrable, facilitating groundwater penetration. The wastewater such as water from the washrooms is conveyed to the sewage treatment plant and is reused for horticulture purposes.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第18张图片


可持续发展和能源效率。女子宿舍建筑通过其高效的能源设计成为可持续发展的典范。双层立面的隔热作用,减少了原本立面上70%的太阳光直射和散射。因此,墙体后人的活动空间的热吸收量可以降到最低值。与公共建筑的节能建筑法规ECBC基本案例相比,这进一步减少了35%的机械制冷负荷。

Sustainability and Energy Efficiency. The Girls’ Hostel building is an exemplar of sustainability through its energy efficient design. The double-skin façade acts as thermal mass, reducing the incident direct and diffused radiations by 70% on the principal façade, thus, minimizing heat gain within the habitable spaces behind the block wall. This further reduced the mechanical cooling loads by 35%, a marked increment from the ECBC (Energy Conservation Building Code) base case of public buildings.

简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第19张图片


简洁有力的砖+混凝土建筑,设计内核是可持续发展与低能耗第20张图片


建筑设计:Zero Energy Design Lab
类型:宿舍
面积:25000平方英尺(约2323平方米)
年份:2020年
摄影:Studio Noughts and Crosses
制造商:ACP, Asian Paints, Samsung, Ultratech
总建筑师:Zero Energy Design Lab
设计团队:Sachin and Payal Seth Rastogi
结构顾问:DESIGN SOLUTIONS
土木承包商:LS Associates
立面承包商:LS Associates
委托人:St. Andrews Group
城市:Gurugram
国家:印度

DORMS, GURUGRAM, INDIA
Architects: Zero Energy Design Lab
Area: 25000 ft2
Year: 2020
Photographs: Studio Noughts and Crosses
Manufacturers: ACP, Asian Paints, Samsung, Ultratech
Architect In Charge: Zero Energy Design Lab
Design Team: Sachin and Payal Seth Rastogi
Structural Consultants: DESIGN SOLUTIONS
Civil Contractors: LS Associates
Façade Contractors: LS Associates
Client: St. Andrews Group
City: Gurugram
Country: India

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