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不可思议:8栋拥有动态幕墙的建筑第1张图片


8 Impossibly Dynamic Façades That Were Actually Built

由专筑网丁康杰,李韧编译

这些项目体现了幕墙设计技术的进步和最前沿发展趋势。

在建筑实践中,几乎没有任何建筑领域能够比创造“响应式架构”更引人注目了。(“响应式设计”为建筑学中的概念。此项概念为,物理空间可以根据存在于其中的人的情况进行响应。最典型的便是可以根据周围人群的情况弯曲、伸缩和扩展墙体结构,以及根据环境自动调节透光度的玻璃等等)“响应式架构”通常被当做嵌入在建筑体系中的计算系统和动力学的直接表现者,这种结构已经成为建筑学实践中发展速度最快的领域。无论是站在可持续发展的立场,或者是纯粹痴迷于对技术的创新,人们对于“响应式设计”的关注已经成为当代建筑学研究中不可或缺的部分。

因为很多数字化驱动设计的生成和创造潜力仍然缺乏实际的反馈,所以了解当前以数字化驱动为载体的先进响应系统很能反映以上问题。不考虑背后的成本问题和潜在的性能问题,以下这些项目足以证明幕墙设计技术进展和最前沿的发展趋势。

These projects attest to the technological advancement and different cutting-edge trends in façade design.
Hardly any field in architectural practice can match the appeal of creating fully responsive environments. Commonly used to denote the performative role of computational systems and kinetics embedded in architectural form, responsive architecture has emerged as the most rapidly evolving field of disciplinary practice. Whether coming from a sustainability standpoint or stemming from pure fascination with technological innovation, the interest in responsive design has become a ubiquitous part of the contemporary architectural discourse.
With many of the generative and creative potentials of digitally-driven design still lacking practical feedback, it is useful to take a look at the state-of-the-art responsive systems actually getting built. Hidden costs and potential performance issues aside, these projects attest to the technological advancement and different cutting-edge trends in façade design.

不可思议:8栋拥有动态幕墙的建筑第2张图片


巴哈尔塔/Aedas Architects,阿拉伯联合酋长国,阿布扎比

Aedas建筑事务所设计的巴哈尔塔(Al Bahr Towers)采用了别具一格的动态遮阳系统,旨在将建筑的太阳光热量降低50%,同时也为了挑战“响应式设计”的极限。幕墙的外观灵感来自传统的伊斯兰格子式遮阳系统Mashrabiya,该系统完全由计算机调控,由此来适应不断变化的天气条件。

Al Bahr Towers by Aedas Architects, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Clad with a unique dynamic shading system meant to reduce the buildings’ solar gain by 50%, Aedas’ Al Bahr Towers manage to test the limits of responsive design. The façade features elements inspired by the traditional Islamic lattice shading system, Mashrabiya, which is completely computerized to adjust to changing weather conditions.

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不可思议:8栋拥有动态幕墙的建筑第4张图片

Images via Mega Fon      

MegaFaces/Asif Kahn,俄罗斯,索契

相信大家都记得那个为索契冬奥会建造的巨大动态幕墙。建筑师Asif Khan通过在建筑的弹性表面下放置了11000个执行器,创造了一个可以在三维空间中变形、并且可以形成游客面孔的结构。由于大楼内安装了全方位摄像3D扫描系统,所以建筑幕墙上的面部表情每分钟都在变化。

MegaFaces by Asif Kahn, Sochi, Russia
Everybody remembers the huge kinetic façade built for the Sochi Winter Olympics. Architect Asif Khan created MegaFaces by placing 11,000 actuators underneath the building’s stretchy skin, creating a structure that can transform in three dimensions and form the faces of visitors. Changing facial expressions alternate every minute, thanks to a multi-camera 3D scanning system installed within the building.

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不可思议:8栋拥有动态幕墙的建筑第6张图片

Photos by Paul Ott Paul Ott

Kiefer技术展示厅/Ernst Giselbrecht + Partner,奥地利

Ernst Giselbrecht + Partner事务所设计的Kiefer Technic Showroom是办公和展览空间,其幕墙改善了建筑的内部气候。图中信封式的结构由几层材料制成,其中包括铝柱、横梁和由白色石膏包裹着EIFS立面(全称:exterior insulation and finish system外部绝缘和完成系统,这里指外墙外保温系统)。铝板穿孔由电子操控,由此将建筑外观从一个坚固的整体转变为透明和封闭表面并存的有趣结合。

Kiefer Technic Showroom by Ernst Giselbrecht + Partner, Steiermark, Austria
Ernst Giselbrecht + Partner designed the Kiefer Technic Showroom as an office building and exhibition space with a façade that optimizes the building’s internal climate. The envelope is made from several layers — aluminum posts and transoms encased with an EIFS-façade in white plaster. Perforated aluminum panels are electronically operated and transform the building appearance from a solid monolithic volume to a playful combination of transparent and closed surfaces.

不可思议:8栋拥有动态幕墙的建筑第7张图片


不可思议:8栋拥有动态幕墙的建筑第8张图片

Photos by Enric Ruiz-Geli

Media-ICT/Cloud 9,西班牙,巴塞罗纳

又一个极具辨识度的项目,Media-ICT拓展了幕墙设计的界限。Cloud 9事务所的建筑师设计了一种由充气ETFE(指ethylene-tetra-fluoro-ethylene,中文全称为:乙烯-四氟乙烯共聚物,ETFE 是最强韧的氟塑料,它在保持了PTFE 良好的耐热、耐化学性能和电绝缘性能的同时,耐辐射和机械性能有很大程度的改善,拉伸强度可达到50MPa,接近聚四氟乙烯的2倍。2008年北京奥运会国家体育馆及国家游泳中心等场馆中将采用这种膜材料。)软垫组成的建筑幕墙,它可以做到在冬天打开、在夏天关闭。不断变化的不透明度保护了室内空间,并通过温度、湿度和压力传感器进行调整,优化建筑的能源使用。

Media-ICT by Cloud 9, Barcelona, Spain
Another recognizable project, Media-ICT pushes the boundaries of façade design. Architects at Cloud 9 designed a façade made of inflatable ETFE cushions that open in winter and close in hot summer weather. The changing opacity protects the interior and, thanks to temperature, humidity and pressure sensors, adjusts to optimize the building’s energy use.

不可思议:8栋拥有动态幕墙的建筑第9张图片

Photo via UAP Studio

布里斯班机场国内航站楼停车场/Ned Kahn and Urban Art Projects,澳大利亚,布里斯班

艺术家Ned Kahn和UAP工作室合作,为布里斯班机场的一个短期停车场设计了一个可活动的、风力驱动的幕墙。超过250000块铝板安装在幕墙立面上,为停车内部空间提供了动态的遮阳系统。53000平方英尺(约4923平方米)的水面随着风向,形成了不断变化的纹路,就像被扰动的水面上的层层涟漪。

Brisbane Domestic Terminal Car Park by Ned Kahn and Urban Art Projects,Brisbane, Australia
Artist Ned Kahn teamed up with Urban Art Projects (UAP) and designed a kinetic, wind-powered façade for a short-term car park at the Brisbane Airport. No less than 250,000 aluminium plates were installed over a substructure, providing a kinetic shading system for the interior. The 53,000-square-foot surface moves with passing wind and creates ever-changing patterns that resemble the rippling of a disturbed water surface.

不可思议:8栋拥有动态幕墙的建筑第10张图片

Photo via FG+SG Architects

Travessa Do Patrocinio住宅,葡萄牙,里斯本

在以高科技为载体的建筑中,里斯本Travessa Do Patrocinio住宅是一座被认为几乎不可能实现的设计,它向所有绿色栖息地的爱好者展示了其可能性。FG+SG建筑事务所用来自伊比利亚和地中海的25个品种、共计4500棵植物装饰了四层楼的外墙,将这栋楼转变成一个随季节变换的会呼吸的有机体。

House in Travessa Do Patrocinio by , Lisbon, Portugal

An unlikely example among the selection of high-tech solutions, House in Travessa Do Patrocinio in Lisbon shows all green habitat aficionados how it’s done. FG+SG Architects adorned the four-story-high façade with 4,500 plants from 25 different Iberian and Mediterranean varieties, transforming it into a living, breathing organism that changes with the seasons.

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Photos by Christian Richters, Kim Yong

galleria centercity百货商场/UN Studio,韩国,天安

UN工作室的幕墙设计遵循了该公司对光学错觉、视差和失真的设计要求。幕墙采用两层定制的铝挤压型材,置于一层复合铝包层的顶部。外表面的波浪状效果通过两层不同的剖面形状来实现。龟纹效果则是伴随着投影和创建不同分辨率和细节的分区而形成。

Galleria Centercity by UN Studio, Cheonan, Korea
UN Studio’s façade design follows the thread of the firm’s investigation into optical illusions, parallax views, and anamorphosis. The façade features two layers of customized aluminum extrusion profiles positioned on top of a layer of composite aluminium cladding. The wave-like effect of the envelope is achieved thanks to the different profile shapes of the two layers. The Moiré effect is accompanied with light back projections and creates zones of different resolution and detail.

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One Ocean /SOMA Architects,韩国,丽水

SOMA建筑事务所的展馆为2012年世博会而设计,它看起来像一个搁浅的利维坦海怪仿生结构(leviathan,利维坦是圣经中的海中怪兽),形状像和鱼鳃如出一辙,显然与海洋生物的呼吸系统有关联。它的动态幕墙是和Knippers Helbig高级工程公司共同开发,是有史以来最大的依环境变化的自适应结构,模仿了鲸鱼的鲸须过滤器(鲸须是指生长在须鲸类口部的一种由表皮形成的巨大角质薄片。柔韧不易折断,悬垂于口腔内,呈梳状,用以滤取水中的小虾、小鱼等为食饵)。幕墙立面由108层玻璃纤维增强塑料制成,通过弹性弯曲打开和关闭外表面。建筑设有一个由216个伺服电动机组成的系统(伺服电动机是利用反馈来实现以工作为变量的系统的闭环控制的电动机)。在强风中会关闭除13个腮片外的所有腮片。

One Ocean by SOMA Architects, Yeosu, Korea
Designed as a proposal for the EXPO 2012, SOMA Architecture’s pavilion looks like a stranded leviathan-biomimetic structure that references the breathing systems of marine creatures. Its kinetic façade, developed together with Knippers Helbig Advanced Engineering, is one of the largest adaptive structures ever built and mimics the baleen filter used by whales. Comprizing 108 lamellae made from glass fiber reinforced plastic, the façade opens and closes through elastic bending. A system of 216 coordinated servo motors close all but 13 lamellae during strong winds.

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