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影响建筑舒适度的那些因素第1张图片


你的家与办公室为什么会影响你的心情与健康
Why Your Home and Office Affect Your Mood and Health

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

说到舒适这个词,你首先会想到的是什么?豪华的装饰?毛绒椅子?还是光滑的内部形态?几乎没有人会把舒适这个词与办公室联系在一起,而问题的根本在于人们大概完全不了解关于舒适这个词的定义。舒适一词可以理解为“人们在空间内进行某项任务时,身体所感受到的健康状态”,那么显而易见的是,建筑师在其中的作用至关重要,舒适并非只与活动空间有关。

建筑师与设计师在工作时需要充分考虑视觉、热学、声学质量,更不必说人们办公室与住宅之中的空气质量了。在21世纪,城市居民日常有90%的时间都位于室内,那么这些因素则变得非常重要,因此建筑师与设计师需要不断地平衡室内环境所给人们带来心理以及生理的影响。

那么这么说来,热舒适度的重要性显而易见,只是这项指标在建筑设计之中有时却被忽略。除了考虑到建筑空间的声学与视觉性能,建筑师们还需要对于驱动最佳体验的设计概念有着坚实的理解。材料对于会议室、住宅、电影院等空间会产生怎么样的影响?这一系列问题,都需要建筑师们进行把控,这样才能从根本上改进设计策略,然后创造更加舒适的空间场所。


舒适因素与判定方式

声学舒适

声学舒适的重要指标是声音响度的适度。这并不意味着完全静音,而是应该提升声音的质量。建筑的类型各不相同,它们分为住宅、办公场所、学校、医院、酒店,那么其中的活动也各不相同,因此需要把控每一类型建筑所需要的声学舒适度。

视觉舒适

光线不仅仅为建筑注入生机,同时也为建筑带来活力,这是幸福感的重要指标。不同的功能需求有着不同的光线程度,那么高效的空间布局就能够促进自然光与人造光的使用。建筑师还可以通过外部景观与视角来配合人们的生物钟,并结合室内设计策略,提升整体的审美效果。

热舒适

室内的热舒适度一般由空气的温度、湿度、通风量而决定。室内温度与当地的地理环境有关,一般来说,室内温度在21至24℃(69.8至75 oF)之间,人体感受最为舒适。

空气质量

空气质量一般由新鲜空气、污染程度、气味而决定,通常由二氧化碳(CO2)和挥发性有机化合物(Volatile organic compounds——VOC),以及空气中的微粒数量和生物毒素进行评判。

If asked about comfort, what is the first thing that comes to mind? Luxurious finishes, plush chairs and sleek interiors? Few would think of their office, and the likely culprit is a fundamental ignorance of an alternative definition of comfort. When defined as a state of physical well-being derived from the provisions that are necessary for occupants to perform space-specific tasks, it’s apparent that architects play a key role--and that comfort is not just about spaces that are comfortable for leisure activities.
Architects and designers are responsible for the visual, thermal and acoustic qualities of spaces, not to mention the indoor air quality of our offices and homes. This is fundamental considering that the typical 21st century urbanite spends an average of 90% of time indoors. We constantly experience physical, psychological and physiological consequences of the balance (or imbalance) of indoor environmental design .
With this in mind, thermal comfort seems obvious (and it is) but unfortunately comfort as a holistic goal of architecture has not been taken seriously enough. Beyond measuring the acoustic and visual aspects of a built space, architects must have a solid understanding of the underlying concepts that drive the best practices. A solid grasp on how material selections will affect qualitative assessments of conferences rooms, homes, theaters, etc. can improve basic tectonic decision making that can, in turn, create more comfortable spaces.  
Comfort Factors and How They are Measured

Acoustic Comfort  
Acoustic Comfort is characterized by an appropriate Sound level. This means the absence of unwanted sounds and the quality of sounds we do want to hear. Depending on the type of building (residential, office, school, healthcare or hotel) and activity, one should employ appropriate comfort descriptors.

Visual Comfort
Crucial for an optimal sense of wellbeing, light not brings architecture to life, but also brings life to architecture. Different tasks require specific light quantity levels; optimum spatial distribution contributes to the experience of natural and artificial light. A visual connection to the outside world through exterior views works closely with our biological clock and, together with indoor quality, provides an overall appreciation of aesthetics.

Thermal Comfort is determined by air temperature, humidity and the absence of draughts. The ideal thermal levels varies depending on geography and culture, but in general, interior temperatures 21-24oC (69.8oF to 75oF) are the most comfortable.  

Air Quality is determined by fresh air supply, pollutants and odors. It is commonly evaluated by measuring concentration of CO2 and VOC (Volatile organic compounds), as well as number of microparticles and presence of biological toxins.

影响建筑舒适度的那些因素第2张图片


资源、效率、幸福指数

随着城市化的进程,平均每个星期,全世界在都有约100万人口迁徙向城市,建筑师应该考虑的是可持续设计与建设方式,减少对于自然资源的依赖,同时充分考虑居民的健康与幸福。良好的健康状况不仅仅有利于居民个体,同时对于国家生产力和社会的幸福指数的提升也息息相关。美国采暖制冷空调工程机构(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers——ASHRAE)的报告指出,设计的方式能够有效减少呼吸道疾病,从而大大降低生活成本。

针对建筑师而言,我们需要做的是丰富自己的专业知识,学习概念来解决这些问题。这种做法不仅仅有利于建筑的最终使用者,同时也能够促进环境的可持续发展。建筑师、制造商、承包商都应该意识到建筑废物的存在与使用,尤其是在翻新项目愈发普遍的当下,这些问题更加突出。在进行新项目的设计之中,建筑师应该尽量多地使用可拆卸模块、预制体系,以及3D打印的方式,并且通过BIM技术来减少施工时间、材料、物流成本的浪费。

Resources, Efficiency and Well-Being
With continued urbanization, and considering that 1 million people move to cities every week around the world, we should be mindful of how to build sustainably (reducing heavy dependence on natural resources) while considering the health and well-being of occupants. And a good state of health isn’t just a personal concern; there is a large a cost to society associated with unhealthy individuals and altered productivity. According to a report by ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers), the reduction of respiratory illnesses, allergies and the common cold can save tens of billions of dollars--and it starts with design.
As architects we should try to lessen the knowledge gap between ourselves and the expert consultants and learn simple concepts to address the problems that need to be faced. This conscientious approach not only helps the immediate users of a building, but also plays an important role in sustainability and circularity. Architects, manufacturers and contractors should become aware of waste handling especially as flexible and refurbishment projects become more ubiquitous.  Some strategies to keep in mind when designing new projects or interventions range from easy dismantling of modular and prefab construction systems to 3D printing and, most importantly, growing use of BIM potential to reduce construction time, waste generation and logistic costs.

影响建筑舒适度的那些因素第3张图片


建筑师应当多考虑资源效益与舒适程度,让人们更加充分地意识到它们的重要性。在接下来,各个网站中也将会推出一些关于关注舒适度、资源效益的建筑项目。

这些设计原则适用于任何气候以及任何建筑类型。就建筑专业而言,其中也有许多的细分类型。如果需要了解更多内容,可以参阅各大网站信息。

充分了解这些知识之后,建筑师便可以更好地引用可持续与节能设计方式,同时减少建筑设计与施工过程中的资源浪费,从而共建更加智能、更少依赖的世界。

图像版权:Saint-Gobain
插图来源:Elise Géhin

Resource efficiency and comfort can be handled by architects in very subtle but important ways, and this is a mere introduction to a much larger, rich discussion. Over the coming year we will publish articles that recognize best practices for making well-designed, comfortable and resource-conscious buildings.  
These principles can and should be applied in any kind of climate, in a variety of building types. To learn more about the aspects of building science that make a big difference, you can consult our growing selection of content dedicated to Comfort and Sustainability in Architecture. There is also a broad selection of educational content on the Saint Gobain’s Multi-Comfort page.
With this knowledge, architects can and should become leaders in sustainable and energy-efficient designs. Another bonus: by reducing waste in the construction processes associated with basic principles of comfort, you’ll also contribute to a more intelligently urbanized, less resource dependent world.  
Images: Courtesy of Saint-Gobain / illustration by Elise Géhin

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