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看不见的光,看得见的舒适度第1张图片

Corner 60’s / Soar Design Studio. Image © Hey!Cheese

Let There be Light: Key Indicators to Describe and Design Visual Comfort

由专筑网飞鱼,蒋晖编译

建筑师们越来越意识到项目中对于使用者的良好体验与身体健康的影响。如何由人造光来模拟自然光,这一要素是考虑到室内空间视觉的舒适度的。但是,我们知道如何正确的控制它吗?

观看时并没有产生视觉上的不适感并不能作为衡量空间视觉的成功与否。像闪烁率,眩光的等级以及光线的盲区才是决定房间环境质量的因素。其他重要的考虑因素是房间内光的颜色,低反射率以及光的统一分布。为了人们可以很好地看到外面清晰的景色,所以控制自然光的强度,建筑围护结构中开口的数量和位置也很重要。

光线过暗或过强都会导致视觉不适。因此光线亮度或对比度(被认为是眩光)的重要变化都会导致人眼要持续的调节适应光的变化,因此人眼会产生压力与疲劳。

Architects are increasingly aware of our influence on the well-being and good health of the users of our projects. Natural lighting –and how it should be complemented with artificial lighting– is an essential factor to consider for the visual comfort of interior spaces. But, do we know how to handle it correctly?
The absence of discomfort at the time of seeing is not enough to measure the visual success of a space. Things like the rate of blinking, level of glare, or light blindness help to determine the environmental quality of a room. Other things that are vital to consider include representations of color, low reflection, and uniform distribution of light. People do well with clear views to the outside, so it’s also fundamental to perfect the quantity and location of the openings in the building envelope in order to control natural light intensity.
“Both too little and too much light can cause visual discomfort. Important changes in light levels or sharp contrast (which is perceived as glare) can cause stress and fatigue as the human eye is permanently adapting to light levels. [1]”

看不见的光,看得见的舒适度第2张图片

Illustrations by Elisa Géhin. Image Courtesy of Saint-Gobain

因此,我们通过眼睛所接触的任何事物都会影响我们身体与心理的健康,会影响我们的生物钟(睡眠与清醒),心率,器官的机能与我们的心理状态。自然采光的多变性和动态性的特性为建筑提供了一个机会,为居住者的身心健康做出积极的贡献。

Thus, everything that enters through our eyes influences the health of our body and mind, affecting our biological clock (sleep and wakefulness), our heart rate, the functioning of our organs, and our state of mind. The variable and dynamic nature of natural lighting is an opportunity for architecture to positively contribute to occupants' general well-being.

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Illustrations by Elisa Géhin. Image Courtesy of Saint-Gobain

在设计视觉舒适度时要考虑的方面

永远自然光优先

自然光对人类来说永远是最舒服的,因为它是我们的眼睛所自然适应的光源。不仅是因为它对提升人类的健康有所帮助,例如白天提高注意力,改善睡眠,降低抑郁风险以及其他,同时也是因它能产生巨大的能量来节省,避免人造光的反复使用。

当设计一个新的项目时,通过正确的设计,充分考虑场地的朝向并尽可能多的给予使用者最好的自然光。取决于每一个房间的具体使用功能,也要考虑在不同时期的空间的使用变化。

Aspects to Consider When Designing for Visual Comfort
Always prioritize natural light
Natural light will always be the most comfortable for human beings since it is the source of illumination to which our eyes adapt naturally. Not only does it have a proven impact on health and well-being –increasing awareness during daytime, improving sleep patterns, decreasing depression risks, among many others–, but also generates enormous energy savings, avoiding the reiterated use of artificial light.
When designing a new project, take full advantage of the orientation of the site and provide users with the best natural light possible through the correct design of openings. Depending on the specific use of each room, one should also consider a space’s variation of use at different moments or days.

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Maison Kochi / Meister Varma Architects. Image © Praveen Mohandas

独立于观察者的光线分布图:照度和亮度

照度(Illuminance),用lux表示,是来自各个方向的光功率,用来确保所需空间的光照强度。对于办公空间的光照设计以办公室中的桌子台面为主,确保桌面上达到500lux.低于或高于这一值都会产生不适感。对于办公空间的人造光同样是适用的,然而,在工作空间国要充分考虑日光的自然变化,在采光方面,最好参考新的欧洲标准,下面简要解释一下。

Map the distribution of light, independent of the observer: Illuminance and Luminance
Illuminance, expressed in lux, is the luminous power that comes from all directions and reaches a given point, where a specific task will be performed. [1] When measuring it on a certain surface, for example on a desk in offices, ensure that the illuminance reaches 500 lux. Values very inferior or superior to that generate discomfort. This is valid for artificial lighting in offices, at workplace level, however, in order to take into account the natural variability of daylight, it is better to refer to the new European Standard on Daylighting, briefly explained below.

看不见的光,看得见的舒适度第5张图片

Illustrations by Elisa Géhin. Image Courtesy of Saint-Gobain

亮度,以每平方米坎德拉(cd/m2)表示,对应于不同的发光强度单位面积,发射或反射的我们周围的表面光源。它基本上是从视觉感知和心理感受的角度来描述光的亮度。通过测量它,我们可以确定光和眩光的对比,并了解光是均匀分布还是来自特定的光源。

光度计是必须要用到的,测量照度的叫勒克斯测量计,测量亮度的叫亮度计。

The Luminance, expressed in candela per square meter (cd/m2), corresponds to the different luminous intensities per unit area, emitted or reflected by the light sources and the surfaces that surround us. [1] It basically describes the brightness of light, from the point of view of visual perceptions and psychological sensations. By measuring it we can identify the contrasts of light and glare, and understand if the light is evenly distributed or if it comes from a specific source.
In both cases a Photometer must be used. To measure the Illuminance (lx) it’s called Lux Meter, and to measure Luminance (cd/m2) it’s known as Luminance Meter.

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Atelier_142 / Atelier Wilda. Image © David Foessel

评估光源的数量和质量

为了评估空间内光源的数量,空间中光源的分布以及亮度应该在特定的功能相关点进行测量,这样才能保证房间中光线的舒适感。

Evaluate the quantity and quality of light

To evaluate the quantity of light, the distribution of light in space and the Illuminance should be measured at specific and relevant points for the functions that will be carried out in the room.

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Atelier_142 / Atelier Wilda. Image © David Foessel

为了评估光的质量,必须首先模拟有用的日光照度(UDI),它集成了日照水平和眩光的评估,可接受的范围数值范围为100到2000勒克斯。然后,必须计算日光自主性(DA),这是一个空间中的具体点,其应保持在用户设置的一定照明水平以上的,年度白天时间的百分比。

新的欧洲标准的采光EN17037表明以下标准应满足空间日光的最低要求:白天日照时间的一半以上,超过一半空间满足300勒克斯。以及白天日照时间的一半以上所有空达到100勒克斯的照度。

In order to evaluate the quality of the light, the Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI) must be modeled first, which integrates the evaluation of the daylight levels and the glare, setting as an acceptable range the values that move between 100 and 2000 lux. [2] The Daylight Autonomy (DA) must then be calculated, which is the percentage of annual daytime hours in which a specific point in a space is maintained above a certain level of illumination, set by the user. The new European Standard for Daylighting EN17037 states that the following criterias should be met (minimum requirements for Spatial Daylight Autonomy): illuminance of 300 lux over 50% of space during more than half of daylit hours and illuminance of 100 lux for 100% of space more than half of the daylit hours.

看不见的光,看得见的舒适度第8张图片

Illustrations by Elisa Géhin. Image Courtesy of Saint-Gobain

日光的自主性是由窗户的位置、朝向、窗扇的阴影与位置以及窗地比和可见光透射率决定的。要在所有这些变数之间取得有效的平衡,以下各方面是基本的:

考虑开放与空间的关系:窗地比

计算开窗面积与空间面积之间的关系称为窗地比(WFR),它是通过将开窗总面积除以与空间总面积得到的。这一因素可以有效的计算出项目中的每一个房间的开窗数量。同样也能控制像开窗大小,位置以及开窗的形式等。在一些国家,例如法国,所有新居民住宅强制性规定窗地比至少为17%。

WFR值必须乘以所选玻璃的可见光透射率(VLT),如下所述,以确保设计在一定有效视觉舒适度的阈值范围内移动(通常值高于0.15)。

Daylight autonomy is determined by location, orientation, windows shade and position as well as Window-to-floor ratio and Visible Light Transmission of the glazing. The following aspects are fundamental to achieve an effective balance between all these variables:

Consider the relationship between openings and space: Window-to-Floor Ratio
The calculation of the relation between the area of the openings and the area of the space is called Window-to-Floor Ratio (WFR) and is obtained by dividing the total area of the openings by the total area of the space associated with them. This factor helps define the number of openings that will work effectively in each space of our project. It can also guide things like the openings' size, location, and type of glazing. In some countries, like France, it is mandatory to have at least a WFR of 17% for all new residential buildings.
The WFR value must be multiplied by the value of the Visible Light Transmission of the chosen glass (VLT), explained below, to ensure that the design moves within the thresholds that ensure certain effective levels of visual comfort (usually a value above 0.15).

看不见的光,看得见的舒适度第9张图片

Scheune Minden / Architekten Stein Hemmes Wirtz. Image © Linda Blatzek Photography

决定通过玻璃光的数量:可见光透射率

由上所述,开窗与空间之间的关系必须辅以可见光透射率(VLT)这一因素,它是可见光通过玻璃的数量。50%的VLT为玻璃允许50%的光线通过,并阻挡了剩下的50%。有了这个因素,我们可以在我们的项目中加入大开口的窗扇,同时控制通过它的光的数量,同时增加对紫外线和眩光的保护。

Decide the amount of light that must pass through the glass: Visible Light Transmission
As described above, the relationship between the openings and the space must be complemented with the Visible Light Transmission (VLT), which corresponds to the amount of visible light that passes through the glass. Glass with VLT of 50% allows 50 percent of light through and blocks the remaining 50 percent. With this, we can decide to incorporate large openings in our project and at the same time control the amount of light that passes through it, while also adding protection against UV rays and glare.

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‘Hope’ Lavan’s Studio Apartment / MMGS ARCHITECTS. Image © Ramitha Watareka

为了得到有效的结果,所有这些分析必须加上其他相关因素的分析,例如,太阳能得热系数和传热系数。同时必须考虑当地的法规,以及选择的窗户类型的技术规范。

另外,评估室外的景色是十分必要的,整合定性因素,例如,城市或自然景观,或从每个立面可观察的其他因素。考虑结合太阳能控制系统或影响建筑内部视觉舒适度的其他因素。

To achieve effective results, all of these analyses must be added to the calculation of other relevant factors, such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the U-Value. One must take local regulations into consideration, as well as the technical specifications of the types of windows chosen.
In addition, it's essential to evaluate the views towards the outside, integrating qualitative factors such as the urban or natural landscape, or other elements that could be observed from each transparent surface. Consider the incorporation of solar control systems or other methods that influence visual comfort of the interiors of the architecture project.

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Cardamom Club / Kumar La Noce. Image © Vivek Muthuramalingam

看不见的光,看得见的舒适度第12张图片

Illustrations by Elisa Géhin. Image Courtesy of Saint-Gobain

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The Heart in Ikast / C.F. Møller Architects. Image © Adam Mørk


[1] 室内环境和幸福感。The Saint-Gobain建筑科学手册。
[2] 实用日光照度(UDI)/采光模式指南。(查阅日期:2019年2月)。<https://patternguide.advancedbuildings.net/using-this-guide/analysis-methods/useful-daylight-illuminance> (accessed February 2019).
[3] Daylight Autonomy(DA)/采光模式指南。(查阅日期:2019年2月)。<https://patternguide.advancedbuildings.net/using-this-guide/analysis-methods/daylight-autonomy> (accessed February 2019).

[1] Indoor Environment And Well-Being. The Saint-Gobain Building Science Handbook.
[2] Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI) / Daylighting Pattern Guide. <https://patternguide.advancedbuildings.net/using-this-guide/analysis-methods/useful-daylight-illuminance> (accessed February 2019).
[3] Daylight Autonomy (DA) / Daylighting Pattern Guide. <https://patternguide.advancedbuildings.net/using-this-guide/analysis-methods/daylight-autonomy> (accessed February 2019).

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