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新型养老社区,“新”在社会与自然属性第1张图片


西班牙北部养老院/Guillem Carrera
Guillem Carrera's care home in northern Spain encourages residents to socialise

由专筑网吴静雅,李韧编译

建筑师Guillem Carrera在西班牙Blancafort村的楔形地块上设计了一座环境友好型养老院和日托中心。

这座建筑既是住宅养老院,也是日托中心,Blancafort及其邻近城市的退休居民可以在这里居住与社交。

Architect Guillem Carrera has completed an environmentally friendly elderly care home and day centre on a wedge-shaped plot in the Spanish village of Blancafort.
The passive building functions as both a residential old age home and a day centre where the retired inhabitants of Blancafort, and its neighbouring municipalities, can come to socialise.

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西班牙建筑师Carrera确保该建筑具有最小的生态影响,因此应用了太阳能电池板和厚厚的分层墙壁,保证全年的热量调节。建筑中使用的材料也尽可能从当地采购。

该中心有两个共用入口,围绕两个中心庭院而建,鼓励住在这里的人和日托访客一起享受时光。

Spanish architect Carrera ensured the building had minimal ecological impact, incorporating solar panels and thick, layered walls to ensure thermal regulation throughout the year. The materials used in construction are also locally sourced where possible.
The centre has two shared entrances and is built around two central courtyards that encourage those living on the premises and day visitors to enjoy time together.

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Carrera说:“通过对该地块及其环境的初步观察,未来的建筑并不需要可以考虑建筑之间的分隔,但它仍然需要拥有具有自身个性和公共特征的村庄入口。”

建筑场地是一片缓坡,周围有三条街道和一个公共公园,建筑位于一堵石墙上。这是养老院一楼混凝土层的基础,这堵墙同时也包含有建筑的一个主要入口。

"The initial observation of the plot and its environment led me to consider that the future building did not have to solve a requirement of an isolated building, but it also had to create an entrance to the village with its own personality and public character," said Carrera.
Positioned on a gentle slope surrounded by three streets and a public park, the building sits on a preexisting retaining stone wall. Acting as a base for the care home's concrete-clad first floor, the wall also houses one of the building's two main street-level entrances.

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建筑的另一个入口位于另一侧,那里比地面高一层。这两个入口通过一个包裹着Coreten钢的体量连接起来,这个体量看起来像是楔形建筑的中心,将其与内部庭院空间分成两部分。

较大的庭院被日托中心的社交空间包围,而较小的庭院则被建筑的养老院部分所俯视。建筑的共用入口增加了社交机会。

A second street-level entrance sits on the opposite side where the ground level is a storey higher. The two entrances are linked by a Coreten steel-clad volume that appears to arch over the centre of the wedge-shaped building, splitting it and its inner courtyard space into two.
The larger courtyard is surrounded by social spaces used by the day centre, while a smaller courtyard is overlooked by the care home portion of the building. The building's shared entrances are designed to enhance opportunities for socialising.

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建筑师解释道:“养老院将主要空间指向周围景观,而日托中心将主要空间指向更大的内部庭院,这里用于聚集和悠闲活动。”

外部饰面的后期维护成本很低,而使用的石头则是该地区的典型材料,几乎用于整座村庄的住宅。

"The home for the elderly directs its main space to the surrounding landscape, while the day centre directs its main space to a larger internal courtyard, designed for gathering together and more leisurely activities," explained the architect.
The external finishes were chosen to be as low maintenance as possible, while the stone used is typical of the area and is used on homes throughout the village.

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Carrera说:“建造这座建筑所用的材料简单而天然,来源于当地,目的是尽可能降低建筑和景观对环境的影响。”

“混凝土属性较冷一些,它与温暖的木质饰面、耐候钢、石头以及突出的植被区域相平衡。至于室内装修,这些设计旨在为使用者的晚年生活带来温馨。”

"The materials used in the construction of this building are simple materials of natural origin and were sourced locally with the intention that the environmental impact of the building and landscape is as low as possible," said Carrera.
"The possible perception of concrete as a cold material is balanced with warm wood finishes, weathering steel and stone, and projected vegetated areas. As for the interior finishes, these aim to provide users with the warmth necessary to enjoy a building designed to be comfortable during the last stage of their life."

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建筑两侧的外墙和庭院都可以敞开,使光线和空气在整个内部空间自由流动。

这座建筑的外墙有40至45厘米厚,其中包含有五个层次,保持建筑夏季凉爽,冬季温暖。另外,建筑师还安装了太阳能空调系统,从而降低耗电量。

Both sides of the building, including exterior facades and interior courtyards, can be opened up to enable light and air to flow freely throughout the internal spaces.
The building's external walls are 40 to 45 centimetres thick and comprise at least five layers to keep the building cool in the summer and warm in the winter. The architect also installed an air conditioning system that uses solar energy to reduce electricity consumption.

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Carrera解释道:“进气和抽气使用双流系统而进行,该系统可以将厨房和厕所的气体排出室外,同时从外部引入新鲜空气。”

“该系统控制空气的湿度,并将过滤后的空气泵入建筑的不同功能区。”

"Air intake and extraction is carried out using a double flow system that ensures the extraction of stale air from kitchens and toilets and simultaneously collects fresh air from the outside," explained Carrera.

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在养老项目中,建筑师愈发强调社会特征和自然联系。位于伦敦和奥斯陆的Haptic 工作室提议在挪威的城镇为老年人建造一座住宅综合体,其中包括各种公共区域,鼓励老年人进行社交活动。

另外,由建筑师óscar Miguel Ares álvares设计的养老院环绕着风景优美的中央庭院而布局。

摄影:Adrià Goula

"The system controls the air's humidity, and pumps filtered air into the building's multipurpose and administrative areas."
The importance of socialisation and a connection to nature has been highlighted in a number of other recent retirement home projects. A proposal by London and Oslo-based studio Haptic for a housing complex for the elderly in a town in Norway incorporates various communal areas to encourage as much interaction as possible between its elderly residents and the wider community.
Meanwhile rooms in a care home by architect óscar Miguel Ares álvares are clustered around a landscaped central courtyard.
Photography is by Adrià Goula.

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项目信息:
建筑设计:Guillem Carrera
合作方:Eva Crespo, Andreu Ibañez, Meritxell Anglès, Albert Pons, Xavier Foraste
施工方:Betaconkret S.A.

Project Credits
Architect: Guillem Carrera
Collaborators: Eva Crespo, Andreu Ibañez, Meritxell Anglès, Albert Pons, Xavier Foraste
Construction: Betaconkret S.A.

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