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光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第1张图片

© Hiroyuki Oki

光与影的几何图案:7 个穿孔表皮案例
Geometric Patterns of Light and Shadow: 7 Projects With Perforated Skins

由专筑网王沛儒,小R编译

建筑通过可感知的材料来搭建,但它也受到具有丰富性、活力和生动性特征的无形特质的影响。其中,光与影的相互作用就可以改变环境,影响人们的感知,决定人们的空间体验。除了提供自然通风、私密性和热舒适度之外,格栅还可以限制阳光的进入,同时在表面投射出重复的图形,从而实现这种双重效果。通过这种方式,穿孔墙壁和天花板可以创造出多种光影几何图案,成为能够营造独特氛围的设计元素。

Although an architectural project comes to life with palpable materials, it is also defined by intangible qualities that give it richness, dynamism, and liveliness. Among them, the interplay of light and shadow can transform environments and affect their perception, determining the user's spatial experience. Besides providing natural ventilation, privacy, and thermal comfort, lattices allow this duality by filtering the entry of sunlight while projecting repetitive figures on the surface. In this way, perforated walls and ceilings can create multiple geometric patterns of light and shadow that become design elements capable of generating unique atmospheres.

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第2张图片

© Hiroyuki Oki

因此,除了材料的功能性之外,穿孔表皮还具有装饰性和美学价值,具有无限的设计可能性。通过各种材料和制作方法,可以实现无数的形状、图案和色彩。

为了探索其中的一些可能性,我们将介绍 7 个案例,这些项目通过几何图形的材料和技术,创造了非凡的光影几何图形。

Therefore, beyond their functionality, perforated skins also gain a decorative and aesthetic value defined by unlimited design possibilities. Through a wide range of materials and fabrication methods – traditional or digital –, countless shapes, patterns and colors can be achieved.
To explore some of them, we present 7 projects that create remarkable geometries of light and shadow – along with the materials and techniques that make them possible.


木材:UMBRA 装置 / TINKAH

在迪拜设计周,这个装置提供了一个不受阳光照射的沉浸式环境。设计概念由Fibracolour 提出,结构的两层表皮分别是高抗性和颜料中密度纤维板。在这两层结构中,木板上都有穿孔,孔洞的几何形状各不相同,他的灵感来自阿联酋,邀请参观者探索光与影之间的互动。利用数字激光切割技术,可以在木材上进行这种类型的穿孔,从而在设计过程中实现高精度和创造性的灵活性。

Wood: UMBRA Installation / TINKAH
In the context of Dubai Design Week, the facility offers an immersive environment protected from the sun. The concept was developed with Fibracolour, highly resistant and pigmented MDF panels that were used for the structure's two skins. In both, the wood is perforated with different geometric shapes inspired by the Emirates, inviting the audience to explore the interaction between light and shadow. With digital laser cutting technologies, it is possible to execute these types of perforations in wood, allowing high precision and creative flexibility during the design process.

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第3张图片

© Oculis

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第4张图片

© Oculis



砖块: Termitary 住宅 / 热带空间

在 Termitary 住宅中,砖块在某些部分相互分离,使光线和微风可以进入室内空间的每个角落。除了在夏季可以为房屋降温外,这些开口还通过矩形光影赋予了住宅表面生命力,使其在一天中呈现出不同的色调。天黑之后,住宅就会变成一个巨大的穿孔灯笼。在这种情况下,图案通过水泥或聚氨酯粘合剂将砖块重叠的传统技术而实现,每块砖的位置都决定了采光口的大小和形状。

Brick: Termitary House / Tropical Space
In the Termitary House, the bricks are separated from each other in some sections to enable the entrance of light and breeze in every corner of the interior space. In addition to cooling the house during summer months, the openings give life to the surface through rectangular shapes of light and shadow that adopt different shades throughout the day. Then, as soon as it gets dark, the house transforms into a giant perforated lantern. In this case, the pattern is achieved with the traditional technique of overlapping bricks with cement or polyurethane adhesives, where the positioning of of each brick determines the size and shape of the light openings.

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第5张图片

© Hiroyuki Oki

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第6张图片

© Hiroyuki Oki



纤维水泥: Shibori办公室 / The Grid建筑师事务所

受到Shibori 以圆形为特点的日本染色技术的启发,这个建筑的外墙由带有圆形穿孔的纤维水泥板制成。穿孔的位置很有讲究:最大的在底部,最小的在顶部,这样就能以一种戏剧性的可控方式让光线进入。空间体验建立在光与影的积极互动上,从而提高了工作效率。除了圆形之外,还可以通过水刀切割机或数控系统等创新技术,在纤维水泥板上打出各种形状的孔。

Fiber cement: Shibori Office / The Grid Architects
Inspired by Shibori, a Japanese dyeing technique characterized by circular shapes, the building's envelope is made of fiber cement boards with perforated circles. The location of the holes is strategic; the largest are at the bottom and the smallest at the top, allowing light to enter in a dramatic and controlled way. Thus, the spatial experience is based on an active interplay of light and shadow that encourages productivity. In addition to circles, fiber cement boards can be perforated with all kinds of shapes with innovative technologies such as waterjet cutting machines or CNC systems.

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第7张图片

© Panjwani Vinay

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第8张图片

© Panjwani Vinay



陶土:The Lantern / VTN 建筑事务所

艺术画廊和陈列室采用了穿孔赤陶土外墙,传达出简洁而震撼的视觉效果。除了在保温性能方面发挥关键作用外,穿孔还通过重复的光影花卉图案为空间注入活力。白天,阴影投射到室内,而到了晚上,建筑就像城市中央的灯笼一样闪闪发光。尽管这些砌块的几何形状可能多种多样,但最终还是取决于模具的形状。

Terracotta: The Lantern / VTN Architects
The art gallery and showroom incorporates a perforated terracotta facade, conveying a simple yet striking visual impact. Besides fulfilling a key role in thermal performance, the openings energize the space with a repetitive floral pattern of light and shadow. While during the day the shadows are projected towards the interior, at night the building shines like a lantern in the middle of the city. Even though the geometric possibilities of these blocks can be diverse, they ultimately depend on the shape of the utilized mold.

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第9张图片

© Hiroyuki Oki

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第10张图片

© Hiroyuki Oki



金属材料:Ali Mohammed T. Al-Ghanim 诊所 / AGi 建筑事务所

该项目由一系列庭院组成,为其提供采光、通风和私密性。从外部看,这些庭院由阳极氧化金属穿孔模块组成的现代格子墙环绕,这些模块通过光影几何图案象征着当地的文化特征。通过数字设计,数控激光技术可以在金属板上精确穿孔,不限种类。

Metal: Ali Mohammed T. Al-Ghanim Clinic / AGi architects
The clinic is organized around a series of courtyards that provide lighting, ventilation, and privacy. Towards the exterior, these are surrounded with a contemporary lattice wall formed by the repetition of perforated anodized metal modules – which represent the cultural identity of the place through their light and shadow geometric patterns. By working with digital designs, CNC laser technology allows for an unlimited variety of these precise perforations in metal panels.

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第11张图片

© Nelson Garrido

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第12张图片

© Nelson Garrido



混凝土: Mashrabiya清真寺 / NUDES – Nuru Karim

清真寺的灵感来源于阿拉伯传统民居中常用的穿孔建筑元素--马什拉比亚(mashrabiya),在清真寺的外表皮采用了伊斯兰几何图案。除了保护建筑免受热浪侵袭外,外皮还能产生独特的光影图案,营造出一种舒适的氛围,非常适合精神修养和沉思冥想。在制造过程中,清真寺采用玻璃纤维增强混凝土浇铸而成,因此可以构成多种形状。

Concrete: Mashrabiya Mosque / NUDES – Nuru Karim
Inspired by the mashrabiya, a perforated architectural element commonly used in traditional Arab homes, the mosque explores islamic geometric patterns in its outer skin. Apart from protecting the building from heat, the envelope generates unique patterns of light and shadow, creating a comforting atmosphere ideal for spirituality and contemplation. For its manufacture, the mashrabiya is cast in glass-reinforced concrete, which allows this variety of shapes.

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第13张图片

© Sameer Chawda

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第14张图片

© Sameer Chawda



粘土板: Iguana之家 / OBRA BLANCA

这座独栋住宅主要由三个体量组成,它们之间通过网格连接,网格由薄粘土板组成,这些粘土板类似于纸牌塔,以三角形的方式一块一块地叠放在一起。除了隔热功能外,这些开口还创造出一种几何光影图案,在空间中穿梭,同时将时间的流逝具象化。通过传统的叠加技术,石板在用水泥粘合时相互支撑,从而搭建出这种穿孔墙。

Clay slabs: Iguana House / OBRA BLANCA
The single-family house is essentially made from three volumes that are connected with a lattice wall bridge. The lattice is formed using thin clay slabs that, similar to a tower of cards, are placed one on top of the other in a triangular manner. Besides their thermal function, the openings create a pattern of geometric lights and shadows that travel through the space while materializing the passage of time. With the traditional superposition technique, the slabs support each other as they are unified with cement, making this type of perforated wall possible.

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第15张图片

© Documentación Arquitectónica - Adrián Llaguno

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第16张图片

© Documentación Arquitectónica - Adrián Llaguno

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第17张图片

© Diana Arnau

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第18张图片

© Felipe Araujo

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第19张图片

© Jaime Navarro Soto

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第20张图片

© Nigel Young

光的轨迹,影的画卷:从七大穿孔立面建筑中探索穿孔结构的无限可能第21张图片

© Hiroyuki Oki


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