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模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第1张图片

Image © Aldo Lanzi

拉丁美洲的模块化住房: 建筑中的组装、制造和运输方法
Modular Housing in Latin America: Assembly, Joinery, and Transportation Methods in Construction

由专筑网Zia,小R编译

在不断寻找能够降低成本和缩短施工时间的新方法的过程中,模块化建筑应运而生,成为采用多种方法、技术和工艺,利用模块等独立的重复元素设计宜居空间的契机。正如模块化建筑研究所(MBI)执行主任Tom Hardiman所说,“模块化”不是指一种建造产品,而是一种建造过程。

第二次世界大战结束后,一些建筑专业人士集中精力寻找快速有效重建战后城市的方法。在 20世纪50年代的时代背景下,对现代主义运动的回顾过程中,大规模生产和模块化重复成为了项目的生成原则。其中研究最多的课题之一就是引入一种完美的模块,以实现尽可能多的组合和布局方式。在1961年进行的Rafael Leoz的“Hele模块”研究就是其中一个例子。

In a constant search to find new ways to reduce costs and construction times, modular architecture emerges as an opportunity to implement various methods, technologies, and techniques to design livable spaces using separate repetitive elements such as modules. As Tom Hardiman, executive director of the Modular Building Institute (MBI), maintains, "Modular" is not about a construction product but rather a construction process.
After the Second World War, several architecture professionals focused on finding ways to quickly and effectively rebuild those devastated cities. In the context of the 1950s, a review of the Modern Movement incorporated mass production and modular repetition as generating principles for projects. One of the most studied topics was the introduction of a perfect module that would allow the greatest number of possible combinations and configurations. Research on Rafael Leoz's "Hele module" in 1961 serves as an example.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第2张图片

Image © Norita Minami, courtesy of the Graham Foundation

模块化建筑由比例、形状和功能相似的建筑元素组成,易于生产和更换。此外,这些元素还可以添加到其他建筑结构中,无论它们是否采用了相同的模块。1972 年,建筑师黑川纪章设计了中银舱体楼,这是胶囊建筑的首批设计之一,也是模块化建筑的先驱范例。这座建筑是可持续和可循环建筑的原型,每个模块都与中央核心相连,必要时可以更换或交换。

Modular architecture consists of construction elements similar in proportions, shapes, and functions, making them easy to produce and replace. Additionally, these elements can be added to other architectural structures, whether or not they have the same modules. As one of the first designs of capsule architecture and a pioneering example of modular architecture, architect Kisho Kurokawa designed the Nakagin Capsule Tower in 1972. This building served as a prototype for sustainable and recyclable architecture, where each module is connected to a central core and can be replaced or exchanged if necessary.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第3张图片

Image © Jaime Navarro Soto

面对多种多样的气候和传统建筑技术,拉丁美洲各地区的模块化建筑在尊重自然环境条件的前提下,与当地建筑元素相结合,或独立于当地建筑元素之外。它适应当地居民的需求,并在建造过程中采用了各种组装、安装和运输策略。例如,Apan (Mexico) 的农村住房原型是为瓦哈卡州特有的干燥温带气候而设计的,其承重结构和房屋围护结构基于一套脚手架系统,提出了可变栖息地的建造理念。


模块化建筑和预制建筑在施工中如何操作?

模块化建筑和预制建筑在现场是如何共同工作的?它们是相互独立的吗?尽管讨论模块化和预制化似乎是相辅相成的,但这两个概念既有共同点,也有不同点。他们在许多建筑项目中的使用方式会经常被拿出来讨论。

Facing the broad range of climatic and traditional construction techniques, modular architecture in each Latin American region is presented in combination with, or independently of local architectural elements while respecting the natural conditions of the environment. It adapts to its inhabitants' needs and proposes various assembly, installation, and transportation strategies in its construction. For example, the Rural Housing Prototype in Apan (Mexico) was designed for a dry temperate climate characteristic of the state of Oaxaca, proposing the construction of a changeable habitat based on a scaffolding system for the structure and the house envelope.

How do Modular Architecture and Prefabrication Interact in Construction?
How do modular architecture and prefabricated architecture work together? Are they independent of each other? While discussing modularity and prefabrication may seem to go hand in hand, they are concepts with several points of convergence but also with differences, which are in constant dialogue as observed in their application in numerous architectural projects.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第4张图片

Image © Luis Barandarian

模块化建筑包括工厂制造,然后运输、分块组装并在安装地点进行搭建,可以较为轻松地添加或更换某些模块。预制建筑通常在车间内完成的整套建筑,一旦完工,通常会被整体运到工地,在那里只需打地基,并进行地块平整。

就像位于阿根廷La Plata附近农村地区的 BILBAO | LOPEZ 住房一样,采用预制系统可以在车间内完成从结构到覆层的组装,施工过程不受恶劣的天气条件影响,也不必担心雨天难以施工。通过这种方式,可以将模块吊起、运输并放置在工地上,提高施工流程的效率,并提供了灵活性和不同的饰面选择。

Modular architecture involves factory construction that is then transported, assembled in parts, and erected on the installation site, including the easy addition or replacement of certain modules. Prefabricated architecture encompasses the complete construction in a workshop, which, once finished, is usually transported in a single piece to the site where only the foundation is laid along with the prior conditioning of the plot.
Just like in the BILBAO | LOPEZ Shelter located in a rural area near the city of La Plata in Argentina, the adaptation of a prefabricated system allows for the assembly from the structure to the placement of cladding in a workshop, without depending on adverse weather conditions during its execution or the difficulties of reaching the site on rainy days. In this way, it is possible to lift the module, transport it, and place it on the site, streamlining the construction process and providing flexibility and different finishing options.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第5张图片

Construction. Cabin in La Juanita / MAPA. Image

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第6张图片

Construction. Cabin in La Juanita / MAPA. Image


模块化建筑与预制化之间的这种持续协同也可以在 MAPA 的La Juanita小屋中看到,该小屋在乌拉圭实施,由两个在蒙得维的亚工厂制造并运往森林的双预制模块组成。此外,还有一些其他案例,如智利的“1号模块化房屋”(Modular House 01),它将工业与传统直接联系在一起,包含一套预制模块系统和一套根据地形现场制造的系列化结构系统。因此,木结构是在预制板运抵之前由木匠在现场建造,然后将预制板材安装在上面。

This ongoing dialogue between modular architecture and prefabrication can also be observed in MAPA's Cabin in La Juanita, implemented in Uruguay, and composed of two twin prefabricated modules manufactured in a factory in Montevideo and transported to the forest. Additionally, there are cases such as the Modular House 01 in Chile where industry and tradition are directly linked, as it involves a system of prefabricated modules and a serialized structure fabricated on-site adaptable to the terrain. Thus, the wooden structure is built on-site by carpenters before the arrival of the prefabricated panels to be installed on it.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第7张图片

Image © Aldo Lanzi

干式施工和装配工艺在模块化建筑中扮演什么角色?

充分考虑建筑构件的组装、吊装、装配和运输过程,我们就能最大限度地发挥它们的优势,并考虑到工作中涉及的环境、技术和施工因素,以及其他条件。例如,巴西的Mata模块化房屋使用木材建造,并运用干式施工方法,从而加快了现场预组装件的组装速度。

What role do dry Construction and Assembly Processes Play in Modular Architecture?
Considering the assembly, lifting, assembly, and transportation processes of construction elements allows us to make the most of their advantages and take into account environmental, technological, and construction factors involved in the work, and sometimes, condition it. For example, the use of wood in the Mata Modular House in Brazil allowed for dry construction, resulting in faster assembly with pre-assembled pieces on-site.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第8张图片

Image © Oka fotografia

干式施工法具有许多优势,如优化生产时间、减少建筑垃圾和更大的设计灵活性。不过,干式施工也需要详细的规划和专业工人,而且可能会受到海拔、场地气候条件等方面的限制。

Dry construction offers various advantages such as optimization in production times, a reduction in construction waste, and greater design flexibility. However, it also requires detailed planning, specialized labor, and may present some limitations regarding heights, climatic conditions of locations, and others.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第9张图片

Image © Taller Aragonés

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第10张图片

Detail. Casa Pi / Taller Aragonés. Image


根据许多建筑专业人士的建议,一些项目提出了使用专用设备建造工业化和可运输建筑的方法,以优化建造质量、时间和成本。在哥伦比亚,Colectivo Creativo Arquitectos 设计了 VIMOB,这是一种基于预制和现场组装概念的模块化住宅,项目场地交通不便,传统建筑会受到材料和劳动力运输的限制。每个项目组件的设计和制造都是为了适应和调整框架模块,从而最大限度地减少现场作业,减少原材料浪费和环保运输成本等问题。这些组件在工厂中生产,在现场采用尽可能少的工具进行组装和安装。

According to the decisions of architecture professionals, some projects propose industrialized and transportable architectures built with specialized equipment to optimize quality, time, and costs. In Colombia, Colectivo Creativo Arquitectos designed VIMOB, a modular home based on the concept of prefabrication and assembly on a difficult-to-access site where traditional construction would be limited by the transport of materials and labor. Manufactured in a workshop, the pieces were assembled and installed on-site with minimal tools, where each project component was designed and manufactured to fit and adjust to the frame module, minimizing on-site work and reducing waste in raw materials and environmental transportation costs, among other issues.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第11张图片

Image © Felipe Orvi

为什么“避难所”的概念常常与模块化建筑联系在一起?

建筑师和设计师们选择改造避难建筑,通过使用不同的材料和建筑技术来适应当代生活。例如,位于乌拉圭大洋海岸的MRO Shack,是一个由 8 平方米模块设计而成的紧凑型住宅,它最大限度地利用了最小的可建面积,结合了当代生活的需求,并根据客户的需要实现了功能性要求。

Why is the Concept of Shelter Often Associated with Modular Architecture?
Architects and designers have chosen the transformation of shelter architecture to adapt to contemporary life through the use of different materials and construction technologies. For example, along the coast of Oceánica del Uruguay, the MRO Shack is located, a compact residence designed from 8 m2 modules that maximize the minimum buildable square footage by incorporating the demands of contemporary life and achieving functionality according to the needs of its clients.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第12张图片

Image © Aldo Lanzi

避难所具有保护和避难功能,在重复的建筑环境中,采用快速预制建造系统,具有尽可能大的自主性,能够在不同的环境和地形中进行复制,如山谷中的 Oazo + Zanesco Arquitectura 避难所。此外,其中一些避难所还能自给自足,就像后一个项目中国,太阳能发电最终成为项目考虑的主要因素,满足供电和热水需求。

Shelters consolidate spaces of protection and refuge that, in repeated circumstances, employ rapid, prefabricated construction systems with as much autonomy as possible, capable of being replicated in different environments and terrains, as seen in the Oazo + Zanesco Arquitectura Refuge in the Valley. Furthermore, some of them are designed to operate self-sufficiently, as in this latter case, where the capture of solar energy ends up being the primary element considered in the project, allowing for the fulfillment of electricity and water heating demands.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第13张图片

Image © Ezequiele Panizzi

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第14张图片

Image © Aldo Lanzi


秉承这一思路,并寻求现代、高效的解决方案,乌拉圭 ZGZ 之家的建造完全在iHouse生产工厂进行,在气候受控的环境中进行建造,配备必要的设备,临近供应商,并由技术人员持续负责质量把控。


如何选择和运输材料?

哪些材料适合每种施工技术?如何将它们运到工地?成本、尺寸、资源、时间、储存等相关的因素都是建筑项目后勤运输和规划设计的一部分。

Continuing with this line of thought and seeking to find contemporary and efficient solutions, the execution of the ZGZ House in Uruguay is carried out entirely at the iHouse production plant through a controlled construction process in a climate-controlled environment, with the necessary equipment, proximity to suppliers, and constant quality control by its technicians.

How to Define Materials Considering Transportation Processes?
What materials are suitable for each construction technology? How will they be transported to the site? Factors related to costs, dimensions, resources, timing, stockpiling, and others are part of the logistics and planning of the construction project.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第15张图片

Image © Cristóbal Valdes

在智利,工业化建筑系统原型就是这样从部件和组件的逻辑关系出发,将木材等可持续材料和钢材等可重复使用的材料进行模块化组合,避免在生产过程中出现多余材料。作为可更换和可重复使用的部件,它们可以被拆卸、储存,并在其他地点重新组装,用于其他目的。部件的组合便于收集和优化存储空间,人们可以用配备起重机的中型卡车快速部署和运输,与预制结构相比具有多功能性。

Starting from a logic of parts and pieces is how the Industrialized Construction System Prototype has been developed in Chile, where the combination of sustainable materials such as wood and reusable materials such as steel are modularly coordinated to avoid excess material in the process. Being replaceable and reusable pieces, they can be disassembled, stored, and reassembled in other locations and for other purposes. The composition of parts facilitates the gathering and optimizes the storage, allowing for rapid deployment and transportation on medium trucks with cranes, and providing versatility compared to prefabricated structures.

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第16张图片

Diagram. ZGZ House / iHouse estudio. Image

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第17张图片

Assembly. ZGZ House / iHouse estudio. Image


另一个例子是Lucas Maino Fernandez设计的 RH House Corridor + Module,该项目将预制模块引入智利南部的模块化可运输建造系统中。该模块由钢结构和 SIP 板系统组成,内部空间为 12平方米,顶端高度为2.75米,专为卡车运输而设计,可在有隧道和桥梁的道路上运输。通过量身定制的解决方案,该项目成功利用了模块化系统的优势,从而超越了预制的范畴。

Another example is Lucas Maino Fernandez's RH House Corridor + Module, which introduces a prefabricated module to the proposal with a modular and transportable construction system for southern Chile. The module consists of a system of steel structures and SIP panels, with 12 m2 of interior space and a height of 2.75 m at its peak, designed for transportation on trucks and capable of traveling on routes with tunnels and bridges. Through tailored solutions, the project manages to leverage a modular system to its advantage, extending beyond prefabrication.  

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第18张图片

Image © Marcos Zegers

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第19张图片

Image © Andres Maturana

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第20张图片

Construction. Cabin in La Juanita / MAPA. Image

模块化建筑在拉丁美洲的实践与应用第21张图片

Image © Luis Barandarian


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