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建筑可持续性的一些新实践第1张图片

荷兰设计周的建筑爆炸图。The Exploded View Beyond Building at Dutch Design Week. Image © Oscar Vinck and Jeroen van der Wielen

How Emerging Practices Approach Sustainability in Architecture

由专筑网清珂,小R编译

气候危机已经成为建筑界讨论的一大主题。建筑界日益发现自身对环境问题可做的贡献,并寻求重新构建建筑价值观和方法。不过,在这方面目前还明显缺乏明确的承诺和连续性,也缺乏系统性变革。各类机构和初创企业正在探索新的建筑实践,逐步超越依靠“绿色”附加和技术装备的原有模式,从政策、设计策略到材料和施工过程,从多个层面着手解决环境问题,以下是建筑行业可持续性重塑的一些实践。


行动主义与政策制定

建筑师们作为个体可以做很多事情,某个设计、某些实践与可持续性导向的政策制定密切相关,可以通过建筑机构促进系统性变化,以应对气候危机。与此同时,应对气候问题似乎通常意味着“放弃”、“废除”,这容易令人不快,而建筑师有机会开发并展示新的生活方式与解决方案,应对气候问题并不意味着放弃,而是改变和进化。

The climate crisis has become a staple of the architecture discourse, with the field slowly acknowledging its contribution to environmental issues and seeking to reframe its values and approaches. However, there is an evident lack of commitment and consistency in addressing the matter and an absence of systemic change. Emerging practices, organizations and startups are carving a new architecture practice, slowly unfolding a paradigm shift beyond "green" add-ons and technical equipment. Addressing environmental issues on multiple levels, from policy and design strategies to materials and construction processes, the following are some of the actors reframing the profession's relationship with sustainability.

Activism and Policy Making
Acknowledging that there is so much that architects can do individually, one design at a time, some practices are closely participating in sustainability-oriented policy-making, while other architects are coming together in organizations with the scope of catalyzing a systemic change for addressing the climate crisis. At the same time, with climate discussions usually accompanied by unappealing ideas of deprivation, of renunciation, architects have the opportunity to showcase and help develop solutions for a new way of living that doesn't mean giving up necessarily, but rather change and evolve.

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39186 Vacant Rooms installation by VAPAA Collective

VAPAA是一个芬兰设计团队,该机构坚信行业塑造未来的能力。团队表示,“我们可以通过工具和手段,让人们理解和接受必要的社会变化”, “在气候变化时代成为有远见卓识的人——建筑师还没有承担起这个挑战。” VAPAA是“建筑师宣言小组芬兰分支”(the Finnish chapter of Architects Declare)的创始发起人,并一直在可持续发展宣言框架内开展活动。VAPAA的实践包括著作、装置设计、展览策划、为芬兰环境部提供当地碳建筑相关咨询、以及参与起草当地气候目标政策。这个非常年轻的团体展示了实现可持续建筑需要在多个层面逐步实施,其中沟通和政策制定是最重要的支点。

VAPAA is a Finnish design collective that firmly believes in the profession's ability to create and showcase future visions. "We have the tools needed for making the necessary societal change understandable and palatable to others," says the team, but "architects have not taken on the challenge of becoming the visionaries in the era of climate change." One of the founding signatories of the Finnish chapter of Architects Declare and a practice operating under a sustainability-oriented manifesto, VAPAA's activity encompasses writing, designing installations, curating exhibitions, consulting for the ministry of environment for local-carbon building and participating in drafting local policy in line with climate goals. This very young collective showcases how moving towards a sustainable architecture requires addressing the issue incrementally on multiple levels, with communication and policy-making as one of the most important pillars.
New Materials


新材料
New Materials


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Edeghem地区住宅。Regional House Edeghem . Image Courtesy of BC Architects

钢铁和混凝土的排放量占全球年排放量的17%,因此,我们不仅需要关注这些材料生产过程的脱碳,还需要关注通过推广替代品来减少其使用。与此同时,一系列设计团体和初创企业正在探索生物材料和新施工方法,以解决建筑行业内资源消耗高、回收率低的问题。

With steel and concrete responsible for up to 17% of annual global emissions, there is a preoccupation not only for decarbonizing the production processes of these materials but also to reduce their use by promoting alternatives. At the same time, a series of emerging practices, design collectives and startups are addressing the growing concern around the high consumption of resources and low recycling rate within the construction industry by exploring the possibilities of bio-based materials and new construction methods.

建筑可持续性的一些新实践第4张图片

© Ketelhuisplein

在荷兰设计周上,一栋完全由生物材料建造的房子展示了循环设计的可扩展性,它包含了100种可持续组件,从声学菌丝体瓷砖到牡蛎壳面板,再到处理厂污水残渣制成的3D打印建筑元素。由 Pascal Leboucq 和Lucas De Man设计的“建筑外分解图”是一个名为“循环和生物材料建筑代言”(The Embassy of Circular and Biobased Building)的项目和“生物材料创意组织”(the Biobased Creations organization)多年设计研究的成果,该组织召集了循环和生物材料建筑领域的设计师、企业家、决策者、研究人员,为建筑行业的范式转变寻找可持续的解决方案。

At the Dutch Design Week, a house created entirely from bio-based materials illustrated the scalability of circular design by incorporating 100 types of sustainable components, ranging from acoustic mycelium tiles to panels made of oyster shells to 3D-printed construction elements made of sewage water residue from treatment plants. The Exploded View Beyond Building, designed by Pascal Leboucq and Lucas De Man, is the result of multi-year research by design program of "The Embassy of Circular and Biobased Building" and the Biobased Creations organization, which enlist the collaboration of designers, entrepreneurs, policymakers, researchers and pioneers in the field of circular and biobased construction to find sustainable solutions for a paradigm shift within the construction sector.

建筑可持续性的一些新实践第5张图片

Courtesy of BC Architects

生物材料不局限于实验性和临时性建筑中,可以真正成为新型建筑实践的基础。 BC是一个综合工作室,由 BC建筑师、 BC研究、 BC材料组成,在不同层面研究低技术的循环设计。通过在摩洛哥、布隆迪和埃塞俄比亚的项目,BC建筑师利用当地的材料和技术形成自身建筑方法,工作室目前正努力将其作为一种升级的本土语言在欧洲实施。“BC材料”(BC materials )项目启动了荷比卢地区的城市采矿实践,将施工现场挖出的土壤转化为建筑材料,如砌块、石膏和夯土构件。过去这些土壤60%用于填埋,而这种循环设计方法为施工过程增加了价值。

Moving beyond experiments and temporary architecture, bio-based materials can form the basis of a new kind of architecture practice. BC is a hybrid studio comprising BC architects, BC studies and BC materials, entities operating at different levels towards low-tech, circular design. Through projects in Morocco, Burundi, and Ethiopia, BC architects developed their architectural approach informed by local materials and techniques, which the studio is now striving to implement in Europe as an upgraded vernacular. The BC materials project kickstarted an urban mining practice for the Benelux region, transforming earth from the excavation of construction sites into construction materials such as blocks, plasters and rammed earth elements. This circular design approach adds value to this component of the construction process, of which 60% goes typically to the landfill.


替代设计方法
Alternative Design Approaches


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荒地展览。Wasteland Exhibition. Image © Rasmus Hjortshøj - COAST

材料回收和拆卸设计是两种旨在减少建筑行业浪费的方法。尽管两者都需要建筑领域的系统性转变,但个体的一些努力仍可以带来变化,促使人们重新思考建筑与浪费的关系。比利时一家名为Rotor的公司创建了一家拆卸公司 Rotor Deconstruction,将其对物质流的了解付诸实践,业务范围包括拆除建筑物、从大规模拆除项目中回收组件。

Material recycling and design for disassembly are two approaches aimed at reducing waste within the construction sector. Even though both require a systemic shift within the architecture field, individual endeavours bring about change, pushing for a reconsideration of architecture's relationship to waste. One Belgian practice, Rotor, put its knowledge of material flows into practice by creating a spin-off company, Rotor Deconstruction, working to dismantle buildings and salvage components from large scale developments set for demolition. Adaptive reuse is another architectural approach with implications for climate change and sustainability.

建筑可持续性的一些新实践第7张图片

Northampton国际学院/ Architecture Initiative
Northampton International Academy by Architecture Initiative. Image © Luke Hayes



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