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再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第1张图片

© Johan Dehlin

Recycling Brick Constructions in the UK: 14 Building Restorations and Extensions

由专筑网K&C,小R编译

砖石在英国建筑史上扮演非常重要的角色,涉及砖石的施工技术一直在不断发展。随着时代进步,砖的产量不断提高,从而逐渐成为建筑行业最受欢迎的材料。从18世纪开始,砖砌建筑常出现于居住区和工业区,后来又成为了仓库和工厂,以及其他各种形式的基础设施。

砖砌建筑至今仍被广泛使用是意料之中的结果。对建筑的翻新和再利用不仅仅是广受认可的技术,在很多情况下,这是维持欧洲城市人口稠密度的唯一方法。因此,建筑师们所面临的挑战是如何在尽量保留原结构的前提下重新利用这些建筑物,并回收可用的材料。

在过去的几年里,英国广泛开展了针对砌砖建筑的翻新项目。这些项目对材料的处理和解决方案各不相同,分别取决于建筑的原始状态、新方案或新需求。在住宅和办公室的翻新中,有两种最常见的施工方法,即使用现代的砖砌技术,对现有的砖砌建筑进行额外的扩建,或引入与原建筑形成对比的新材料,或通过不太具有侵入性的修建方式,翻新原有建筑的外层,在融入新材料的同时加强对室内的循环利用。

The use of brick plays a very important role in the architectural history of the United Kingdom. Construction techniques that involve brick and stone have been in constant progress. In fact, brick production improved over time, making the material the most popular one in the construction industry. From the 18th century onwards, brickwork was predominantly used in domestic and industrial architecture, but later on, it was introduced to the structure of warehouses and factories, as well as other various forms of infrastructure.
While many of these buildings are still operating to this day, it comes as no surprise. Refurbishment and reuse are highly recommended techniques, and in many cases, the only methods to maintain densely populated European cities. Therefore, the challenge lays in reusing these buildings and recycling the materials available, always trying to retain as much of the original structure as possible.
There has been an extensive array of brick construction refurbishment projects in the UK over the past years, where the treatment of the material and the solutions vary and depend on the original status of the building, the new program, or new necessities. In residential and office refurbishments, the two most common approaches consist of: Creating additional extensions to the existing brick building, using a modern brickwork technique or introducing a new material contrasting with the original building; or refurbishing the original building shell with less invasive modifications and works on the recycling of the interior while incorporating new materials.


1.扩建项目


Extensions:
White Rabbit House / Gundry & Ducker

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第2张图片

© Andrew Meredith

地点:伦敦

“正立面的设计采用了新乔治亚风格,而室内则是上世纪70年代的通用住宅风格。建筑师将整个室内空间剥离开来,只保留建筑的外墙和屋顶,以现代的方式营造了新的室内空间感,诠释了乔治王朝时期的室内风格。该设计空间位于第三层,围绕一个悬挑的柱状楼梯而布局,通过这个楼梯使用者可以直接进入上层的房间。”

Location: London

“Whilst the front facade was designed in the Neo-Georgian style, the interior layout and design were generic 1970’s housebuilders. Stripping out the entire interior back to just the external walls and the roof, we inserted a new interior as a modern interpretation of a Georgian house interior. The design is centered around a cantilevered pill-shaped staircase that sits in a triple-height space with the upper rooms accessed directly off the stair.”


Edinburgh Pavilion / Archer + Braun

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第3张图片

© David Barbour

地点:爱丁堡

“爱丁堡馆位于爱丁堡中部自然保护区,是一栋B级维多利亚式别墅,进行过完整的内部翻新和大型现代化扩建。房屋目前由一系列富丽堂皇的豪华客房组成,整体空间不卑不亢,映射着它被建造时的那段光辉。

由于在历史文物保护名录的保护限制下,仅允许对现有房屋进行轻微的改变。因此,建筑师提出在建筑后部进行扩建。”


Location: Edinburgh

“Edinburgh Pavilion is the full internal refurbishment and large contemporary extension of a Grade B listed Victorian villa in a Conservation Area in central Edinburgh. The existing property consists of a series of grand rooms with significant decorative features, arranged in a formal manner reflective of the time in which it was built.
Due to the conservation restrictions on the historical fabric of the listed building, only minor alterations were permitted in the existing house. The architects, therefore, proposed a new extension to the rear of the building.”



Fresh and Green House Extension / Sanya Polescuk Architects

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第4张图片

© Emanuelis Stasaitis

地点:伦敦

“这间花园公寓坐落在伦敦北部,位于一栋意大利风格的半独立式别墅之内。客户希望拥有常住久新的空间,以容纳家庭新成员,并在此久居。建筑师给出了一个双管齐下的方案,即改造、翻新原建筑,并将其扩张到花园的范围中,从而营造真正的室内外生活空间。”

Location: London

“It’s all about the brick’ is how SPA future-proofed a garden apartment in a large Italianate semi-detached villa in North London. The clients wanted an enduring space to suit their growing family as their home forever. The answer was two-pronged: to remodel and retrofit the original and to expand into the mature garden, adding a true indoor-outdoor living.”


The Jewellery Box Extension / Michael Collins Architect

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第5张图片

© Michael Collins

地点:伦敦

“该建筑位于维多利亚式露台上,背靠铁路路堤,旁边的街道也因此而得名。露台建于19世纪后期。和许多类似的露台一样,其街道一侧是统一的砌砖立面,按一定韵律铺满了凸窗和凹陷的门廊。然而,在建筑的另一侧,各种各样的修建和形式的变更,证明了这些年来此地居民多姿多彩的生活。

新扩建部分的外部材料与其后方的煤烟色伦敦砌砖相融合,并与铁路结构的氧化特性相呼应。”


Location: London

“The property is situated within a Victorian terrace backing onto the railway embankment from which the street takes it name. The terrace was constructed in the latter part of the 19th Century. Like many similar terraces, the street side is defined by a tall uniform elevation of London stock, punctuated only by a rhythm of bay windows and recessed porches. At the rear, however, an eclectic range of incremental additions and forms is a testament to the varied lives of its inhabitants over the years.
The external materials to the new extension were chosen to blend with the sooty coloured London stock brickwork at the rear, and speak to the oxidised qualities of small structures along the railway line itself.”



Haringey Glazed Extension / Satish Jassal Architects

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第6张图片

© Ben Pipe

地点:Haringey

“建筑现状非常糟糕,地板潮湿且倾斜。现存建筑的80%已被剥离、重新配置、修复和替换。本次设计试图保留19世纪维多利亚式联排别墅的特色,同时又进行了现代化的扩建,以提高其品质。”

Location: Haringey

“The existing building was in very poor condition with damp and sloping floors. 80% of the existing building was stripped out, reconfigured, restored and replaced. The design seeks to keep the character of the original 19th Century Victorian townhouse at the same time adds a modern extension to enhance its quality.”


Step House / Bureau de Change Architects

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第7张图片

© Ben Blossom

地点:伦敦

“比起重现原本的玻璃结构,事务所采用了完全不同的做法,重新构想了传统联排别墅的扩建方法,使不起眼的砖块大放光彩。它最大限度地利用了砖作为堆叠式模块的内在潜力,营造出一种精雕细刻的感觉。

本次扩建通过使用从房屋结构中回收的砖块,并利用光创造出一种交错、挤压的空间感受,使砖块似乎融解到现有的结构之中。这种砖块产生的韵律在整个室内空间中回荡,并被整合到平面和剖面之中。从上方的露台上看,这种形式裁剪出了引人注目的轮廓——这种特征在类似的建筑中很少见。”

Location: London

“Instead of the more expected glass structure, this innovative addition reimagines the conventional terraced-house extension, celebrating and elevating the humble brick. The brick’s inherent potential as a stackable module is maximized to create a more sculptural expression of the material.
Using bricks reclaimed from the fabric of the house, the extension exploits the rights of a light diagram to create a staggered, extruded form that appears to melt away from the existing structure. This rhythmic stepping generated by the brick is echoed throughout the interior and is integrated into both the plan and section. Viewed from the terrace above, the form creates a striking silhouette – a feature rare in more straightforward additions.”



Elfort Road House / Amos Goldreich Architecture

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第8张图片

© Rory Gardiner

地点:伦敦

“简而言之,建筑师要打造明亮、通风、宜居的环境,一栋简约精致的住宅,巧妙地利用空间,带来开放式的娱乐体验与当代的触动,同时尊重原始风格,以高质量和永续性为设计特色。

建筑师在建筑的侧面和屋顶使用了镀锌涂层,因为它与周围环境及其本身的物理特性很好地融合在了一起。对于屋顶,建筑师选择了与邻居相近的颜色。”


Location: London

“The brief was to create a light, airy, family-friendly environment: an abode featuring sophisticated simplicity, clever uses of space, an open-plan feel for entertaining, contemporary touches, yet with a respect for the original period style and featuring high-quality, timeless design.
Externally we used coated zinc on the side and roof extension as it blends well with the surrounding context, and for its physical properties. We chose a colour similar in tone to the neighbouring tiled roofs.”


The Parchment Works House / Will Gamble Architects

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第9张图片

© Johan Dehlin

地点:Gretton

“比起直接拆除旧址,Will Gamble建筑事务所提出了‘建筑中的建筑’概念,即可以在砖砌墙壁中巧妙地插入两个轻量级的体量,以保护并衬托主体建筑。无论是在室内还是室外,都选用了朴实的材料,这参考了基地的历史和周围的乡村环境。

对建筑外部,建筑师使用了特种钢、橡木和再生砖。扩建部分采用了原址上常见的升级材料,既经济又可持续,同时允许方案与周围环境巧妙融合。对室内,建筑师将现有牛棚的结构梁和钢结构暴露在新的部件上,对石墙进行重嵌并用石灰冲洗,以产生斑驳的效果,并沿着底座浇筑混凝土基座,以创造出一个巨大的“壁脚板”。一个现代厨房也是经过实践而设计,将废墟的不平坦和无序的特性联系起来,延续了在历史背景下进行现代干预的主题。”

Location: Gretton

“Instead of demolishing the ruin, Will Gamble Architects proposed “a building within a building” - where two lightweight volumes could be delicately inserted within the masonry walls in order to preserve and celebrate it. A palette of honest materials was chosen both internally and externally which references the site’s history and the surrounding rural context.
Externally, corten steel, oak, and reclaimed brick have been used. The extension was built out of up-cycled materials predominantly found on site which was both cost-effective and sustainable, whilst allowing the proposal to sensitively blend into its surroundings. Internally the structural beams of the existing cattle shed were exposed as well as the steelwork to the new parts - the stone walls were re-pointed and washed in lime to create a mottled effect and a concrete plinth was cast along the base to create a monolithic “skirting”.  A contemporary kitchen (also designed by the practice) juxtaposes the uneven and disordered nature of the ruin and continues the theme of a modern intervention set within a historic context.”



2.修建项目:

Original Shell:
Love Walk House / Vine Architecture Studio

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第10张图片

© Nicholas Worley

地点:伦敦

“这座建筑在30年前被改造成住宅,从那以后就再也没有被动过。它仍然重现了维多利亚晚期建筑的起源和功能,具备稳重的门,以及被建筑师重新安装并修复、位于一楼的马车夫壁炉。重要的是,它的开放式底楼最大限度地利用了居住空间,并结合家庭功能创造了一座实用的家庭住宅。

建筑师现场清理了在拆除时回收的砖块,并在扩建工程中重新使用它们。为了符合可持续理念,建筑师选择了环保的饰面。比如,蜂蜡被用作石膏密封胶,而内外墙的木材涂料均由亚麻籽油制成,不含任何溶剂、粘合剂、乳化剂、重金属或致癌/有毒物质。”

Location: London

“The building was converted into a residential dwelling thirty years ago and had been untouched ever since.  It still echoed its late Victorian origins and function with stable doors and a first-floor fireplace for the coachmen which we re-instated and repaired.  It was important to maximise the living space with an open-plan ground floor and combining domestic functions creating a practical family home.
Bricks reclaimed from the demolition were cleaned on-site and re-used in the construction of the extension.  To align with our ethos of responsible sourcing we opted for environmentally considerate finishes. Beeswax was used as a plaster sealant, and both the interior wall and external timber paint were made from linseed oil free from any solvents, binders, emulsifiers, heavy metals or carcinogenic/toxic substances.”



Office in Paddington / Edward Williams Architects

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第11张图片

© Agnese Sanvito

地点:伦敦

“该设计将一间双门马厩变成了现代而永恒的工作场所,一个规模不断扩大的小型办公室。鉴于可持续发展推动了客户的业务,该建筑也体现了可持续的理念。这座210平方米的建筑采取了零碳可持续战略,用可再生电力完全替代了天然气供应。

建筑师在设计中采用自然材料,通过结构和细节的真实表达,尽可能多地恢复现有的建筑结构,以打造出材料的经济性和建筑的历史氛围。办公室的特色来源于保留下来的砖砌结构、天然橡木衬里和深灰色的彩绘钢。在对建筑外观的整修中,建筑师尊重建筑的现状,并且对周围的环境也十分敏感。这栋三层楼的建筑坐落在一个保护区内,与其他马厩改建房安然地并排而立,其铅制屋顶和窗户完美地融入到了相邻的建筑中。”

Location: London

“The design has transformed the shell of a double fronted mews building into a contemporary and timeless workplace for a small but growing boutique office. With sustainability driving the client’s business, the building represents this ongoing commitment. A zero-carbon sustainable strategy was adopted for the 210sqm building by replacing the gas supply with 100% renewable electricity bought from a sustainable source.
Designing with natural materials and through an honest expression of structure and detailing, the Architect has restored as much as possible of the existing building fabric to achieve an economy of materials and a sense of historic place. The offices derive their character from the retained brickwork, natural oak linings, and dark grey painted steel throughout. Externally, the refurbishment respects the existing building and is sensitive to the context. In a conservation area, the three-story building sits comfortably alongside the other buildings in the mews, with lead roofing and windows matching its neighbors’.”


Lister Tower / PAD Studio

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第12张图片

© Nigel Rigden

地点:汉普郡

“在项目的整修过程中,建筑师首先剥离了现有的家具和装饰,展示出水塔的历史结构,随后提出了许多当代的干预措施,包括安装巨大的凸窗和雕刻般的钢制楼梯。

作为翻新工程的一部分,建筑师采用精挑细选的材料,对现有的砖面进行了补充,使原有的建筑在新增的部分中脱颖而出。此外,建筑师还进行了大规模的清洁,刷新了建筑外墙并恢复了砖面的原始颜色。”


Location: Hampshire

“PAD began the refurbishment by stripping away the existing furnishing and decor to reveal the water tower's historic fabric, before proposing a number of contemporary interventions, including a large protruding window and sculptural steel staircase.
As part of the renovation, a carefully selected pallet of materials complements the existing brick allowing the original architecture to be clearly expressed against the new additions. Furthermore, extensive cleaning was undertaken to refresh the building's external walls and bring back the original brick’s colour.”



Minimalist Home for Egg Boutique Owner / Jonathan Tuckey Design

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第13张图片

© James Brittain

地点:伦敦

“建筑师在现有的建筑中插入了一系列的木箱,将家用功能和商业功能划分开来,有时也将这两个功能融为一体。这些木箱位于屋顶的阁楼空间内,营造出鸟巢一般的氛围,其顶部的天窗使光线倾泻而下。通过小小的开口,可以看到相邻空间令人惊叹的景色,悬挂在走廊上方的木板摇身一变,成为建筑的木质楼梯。”

Location: London

“A series of timber containers have been inserted into the existing building, dividing domestic and commercial functions and sometimes blending the two. These boxes sit within the volume of the roof and create the nest-like atmosphere of an attic or storeroom, with skylights allowing light to pour down into the spaces below. Small openings create surprising views through to adjacent rooms and a timber staircase is made up of a series of planks suspended above the hallway.”


Grange Hall / Nissen Richards Studio

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第14张图片

© Jim Stephenson

地点:伦敦

“格兰奇礼堂是乔治王朝晚期的一栋令人印象深刻的建筑,建筑师认为,比起拆掉它并创造某些新东西,不如对它进行精心修复和改造。建筑师尊重了现存建筑的大部分原始布局,充分利用了现有的门窗,并在每个入口附近建立了独立的民宅。磨砖过梁、石墙和阶梯式砖砌墙等建筑特征得到了保留、翻新和装饰,建筑主体中的A型木制屋顶结构也被修建和保留,它们为主要生活空间带来了一种聚焦的感觉。”

Location: London

“Grange Hall is an impressive example of late Georgian architecture, and we felt that it would benefit greatly from its careful restoration and adaption, rather than demolition and the creating of something new. We have respected much of the original footprint and the layout of the existing building, as well as utilizing existing doorways and generally built the individual dwellings around each of these existing entrances. Architectural features including rubbed brick lintels, stone copings, and stepped brick coursings are retained, refurbished, and celebrated, and the existing timber A-frames roof structures within the main spaces have been adapted and retained to provide central features within the main living spaces.”



Sutherland & Co. studio / Sutherland & Co.

再生砖建筑:以英国14座建筑的修复与扩建为例第15张图片

© Dapple Photography

地点:北柏威克

“重建是一种减法,能够消除掉过往的点点滴滴。在上世纪60年代发生火灾之后,一个放置不当的消防通道破坏了二楼的布局,但后来由于引入了灭火系统,消防通道变得多余,室内空间也变得开敞。建筑师拆除了安全出口,腾出了场地的后部空间,方便了后续的场地开发。”

Location: North Berwick

“The redevelopment was as much an exercise in subtraction as in addition, removing accumulated layers of past development. A poorly placed fire escape, built following the 1960s fire, compromised the first-floor layout but was made redundant by the introduction of a sprinkler system, allowing the interior to be substantially opened up. Removal of the fire escape also frees up the rear of the site for future development.”

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