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生命最终回归自然 | 美国奥本山公墓第1张图片


Mount Auburn Cemetery / William Rawn Associates

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

奥本山公墓于1831年被定为圣地,并于2003年被指定为国家历史地标,是公认的美国最重要的景观设计作品。它所体现的设计理念成为了19世纪后半叶美国农村公墓运动和城市公园创建的典范。奥本山公墓创始人将设计的景观民主化,创造了一处没有宗教或种族限制的自然美景领域,哀悼者可以在这里找到慰藉,公众可以在这里找到灵感。这种创新精神在近两个世纪以来一直指导着公墓的发展,使奥本山成为纪念和缅怀死者的先锋地。

Text description provided by the architects. Mount Auburn Cemetery, consecrated in 1831 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 2003, is recognized as one of the most important designed landscapes in the country. The design ideals it embodies served as the model for the rural cemetery movement and for the creation of urban parks across America in the latter half of the 19th century. The ambitious founders of Mount Auburn Cemetery democratized the designed landscape, creating a realm of natural beauty where, without restrictions on religion or race, the living mourner would come to find solace and the public would come to find inspiration.  This spirit of innovation has guided the Cemetery for almost two centuries, placing Mount Auburn at the vanguard of evolving practices for commemorating and honoring the dead.  

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生命最终回归自然 | 美国奥本山公墓第3张图片


奥本山公墓近200年来对自然景观疗愈和鼓舞力量的关注,以及前瞻性临终服务的实施,这些在奥本山最近对其标志性哥特风格的比格罗礼拜堂的改建中得到了体现。这次改造的重点是建立一个新的火化室,适应家庭和宗教团体,特别是印度教和佛教徒的需要,对他们来说,参与性的火化服务是过程中的一个重要部分。了解到在大波士顿市区并没有见证火化的空间,奥本山致力于为该地区创造一个这样的地方。在着手这项工作的同时,公墓还致力于振兴历史悠久的比格罗教堂本身,使其第一次可以进入,并以隐藏的方式实现暖通空调和消防设备的现代化。

The Cemetery’s nearly 200-year focus on the natural landscape’s healing and inspirational powers and on implementation of forward-thinking end-of-life services are evident in Mount Auburn’s recent revitalization of its iconic, Gothic-inspired Bigelow Chapel. This transformation focused on building a new crematory to accommodate families and religious groups, especially Hindus and Buddhists, for whom a participatory cremation service is an essential part of the grieving process. Recognizing that a dignified space in which to witness cremation did not exist within the greater Boston metropolitan area, Mount Auburn committed to creating a place of this type for the region.  As it embarked on this effort, the Cemetery also committed to revitalizing historic Bigelow Chapel itself, making it accessible for the first time and modernizing HVAC and fire protection in nearly invisible fashion. 

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生命最终回归自然 | 美国奥本山公墓第5张图片


比格罗教堂东侧的玻璃墙加建部分的细节设计最大限度地提高透明度并保持教堂的建筑特色。加建部分刻意保持低矮和水平,与小教堂华丽的尖顶的垂直并列。加建部分的屋顶被固定在教堂侧过道的檐口之下,建筑北端的悬臂强调了这种水平感,把建筑延伸到了周边景观中。

The glass-walled addition on the east side of Bigelow Chapel is detailed to maximize transparency and to preserve the architectural identity of the chapel.  The addition is deliberately kept low and horizontal in juxtaposition to the verticality of the Chapel’s ornate spires. The roof of the addition is held below the cornice of the Chapel’s side aisles, and a cantilever at the northern end of the building helps to reinforce this sense of horizontality as the building extends out over the landscape.

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生命最终回归自然 | 美国奥本山公墓第7张图片


生命最终回归自然 | 美国奥本山公墓第8张图片


新建部分被组织成一个序列空间,当人们进入到集会室时,可以看到广阔的墓地景色。从那里到举行火化仪式的房间,空间变得更加沉思。视线被引向加建的教堂和历史悠久的小教堂之间的一个内部花园,随后向上延伸到天空。仪式结束后,集会室的大门被打开,在对生命的肯定中,参与者再次回到自然景观中。

The new addition is organized as a procession, with expansive views out to the cemetery as one enters and progresses to the Gathering Room.  Moving from there to the Viewing Room, in which cremation commitment ceremonies occur, space becomes more contemplative.  Views are directed toward a small, internal garden between the addition and the historic Chapel and upward towards the sky.  Following the ceremony, the large doors to the Gathering Room are opened and, in an affirmation of life, participants return again to the panoramic views of the landscape.

生命最终回归自然 | 美国奥本山公墓第9张图片


加建部分轻柔地接触着历史悠久的小教堂,观景室花园使加建部分与小教堂的窗户分开,一个与建筑同长的天窗使人们可以从加建部分看到小教堂的尖顶从地面延伸到天空。天光照亮了小教堂的石墙,也使人们可以从外面透过加建的玻璃墙看到教堂。

The addition touches the historic chapel lightly: the Viewing Room garden sets the addition away from the Chapel's chancel window and a skylight the length of the building allows the Chapel spires to be seen running from ground to sky from within the addition.  As it illuminates the chapel's stone wall, the skylight also helps make the Chapel visible as one looks through the glass wall of the addition from outside.

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生命最终回归自然 | 美国奥本山公墓第11张图片


生命最终回归自然 | 美国奥本山公墓第12张图片


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建筑设计:William Rawn Associates
类型:公墓建筑/扩建
面积:10400 m2
项目时间:2018年
摄影:Robert Benson
制造商:TopAkustik, Viracon, Quarra Stone, US Gypsum
主创建筑师:Samuel Lasky, FAIA
结构工程师:LeMessurier
岩土工程师:Haley & Aldrich
景观建筑师:Halvorson Design Partnership
灯光设计:Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design
声学设计:Acentech
工程管理:Shawmut Design and Construction
项目主管:Samuel Lasky, FAIA
项目设计:Ellie Radich
项目建筑师:Rob Wear, AIA; Andrew Jonic, AIA; Eric Rutgers, AIA; Adam Weber, AIA; William Rawn, FAIA
客户方经理:CSL Consulting
Mep/Fp工程师:Rist-Frost-Shumway P.C.
标准化:Kalin Associates Inc.
区域顾问:Sullivan Code Group
广告顾问:Kessler McGuinness and Associates LLC
建筑外墙:Building Envelope Technologies
建筑保护顾问:McGinley Kalsow and Associates
城市:沃特敦
国家:美国

CEMETERY, EXTENSION•WATERTOWN, UNITED STATES
Architects: William Rawn Associates
Area: 10400 m2
Year: 2018
Photographs: Robert Benson
Manufacturers: TopAkustik, Viracon, Quarra Stone, US Gypsum
Lead Architect: Samuel Lasky, FAIA
Structural Engineer: LeMessurier
Geotechnical Engineer: Haley & Aldrich
Landscape Architect: Halvorson Design Partnership
Lighting Design: Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design
Acoustics: Acentech
Construction Management: Shawmut Design and Construction
Project Executive: Samuel Lasky, FAIA
Project Designer: Ellie Radich
Project Architects: Rob Wear, AIA; Andrew Jonic, AIA; Eric Rutgers, AIA; Adam Weber, AIA; William Rawn, FAIA
Owner's Project Manager: CSL Consulting
Mep/Fp And It Engineer: Rist-Frost-Shumway P.C.
Specifications: Kalin Associates Inc.
Code And Zoning Consultant: Sullivan Code Group
Ada Consultant: Kessler McGuinness and Associates LLC
Building Envelope: Building Envelope Technologies
Historic Preservation Consultant: McGinley Kalsow and Associates
City: Watertown
Country: United States

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