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如何在建筑项目中应用被动式太阳能策略?第1张图片

Conservatory. Image © Onnis Luque

How to Implement Passive Solar Design in Your Architecture Projects

由专筑网李韧,蒋晖编译

太阳距离我们有些遥远,距离大约为1.5亿公里,但是它对我们的影响却非常大。人们喜欢阳光,而建筑师则喜欢充满阳光的空间。

就定义而言,被动式太阳能量是“利用自然策略而获得的能量的收集与分配”。应用被动式太阳能源体系的简单概念与过程通过最为环保且可持续的方式为建筑带来了热量、光照、机械动力、电力体系等等。

在文章中,小编会为大家带来应用被动式太阳体系的设计指南。

Although the sun is almost 150 million kilometers away, this star has had the most impact on our planet. But while some are busy chasing the sun for sun-kissed skin, architects are all about creating sun-kissed spaces.
In definition, “passive solar energy is the collection and distribution of energy obtained by the sun using natural means”. The simple concept and process of implementing passive solar energy systems have provided buildings with heat, lighting, mechanical power, and electricity in the most environmentally-conscious way possible.
In this article, we will provide you with a complete guide of implementing passive solar systems in your designs.

如何在建筑项目中应用被动式太阳能策略?第2张图片

via Wikimedia Commons

太阳

被动式太阳能源以太阳为基础。太阳的热辐射来到地面,其热量会被吸收、传播。透明的材质能够传递最多的太阳辐射,而半透明材料既能传播太阳辐射,同时也能进行散射。

但是并非所有的材料都能吸收阳光。例如,相比起哑光表面,抛光表面就会很大程度地反射光线,而相比起浅色的表面,深色表面能够吸收更多的热量。另外,有的表面既能够传递热量也能够储存热量,这便能产生“温室效应”。这个体系将太阳的热量储存起来,然后保存,但这并不是让其冷却的系统,如果需要冷却,则需要将热量吸收。

什么是被动式系统?

被动式系统是指“通过非机械且自然的方式来收集与传送能量”。诸如混凝土、砖石、水墙、屋顶池塘都是非常常见的储存方式。被动式系统包含有三种类型,即直接受益、间接受益,和单独受益。直接受益是指阳光直射在其表面之上,例如南向的玻璃立面,然后从中获得光与热量;间接受益则是指阳光照射在另一个表面之上,然后这个表面将其吸收,并转换成热能,最后再输送到空间之中。举例来说便是,砖石墙体吸收阳光,然后将热量送到建筑内部,“温室”便是直接受益和间接受益的结合使用,它们既需要直接吸收阳光热量,同时也需要将热量输送到其他空间之中。最后,单独受益是“自然收集体系回路”,其中需要使用替代性材料来收集能量。这些材料一般是热储蓄装置、金属面板收集器、水、空气、岩石等等。当容器之中的水经过阳光直射而升温,然后就会产生电流,于是水平面会上升来到储蓄装置的顶部。

The Sun
Passive solar energy is based on one element, the sun. Once the sun’s radiation hits Earth’s surface, the rays can either be absorbed, reflected, and/or transmitted. Transparent materials transmit the most sun radiation; however, translucent materials transmit just as much sun radiation, but will also scatter them as they pass through.
Not all materials absorb sun the same way. For instance, a polished/shiny surface will reflect radiation in larger amounts than matte surfaces. Similarly, dark surfaces absorb heat in larger amounts than light ones. Some surfaces will transmit radiation and store it at the same time, creating what we know as the “greenhouse effect.” This system stores the heat obtained by the sun, and preserves it for a long duration, as opposed to passive a “cooling system,” which absorbs the heat at a later stage.

What are passive systems?
Passive systems “collect and transport energy by non-mechanical, natural means”. Masonry (concrete, bricks, stones) and water (water wall, roof ponds) are the two most commonly used materials for radiation storage. The configuration behind passive systems consists of three types: direct gain, indirect gain, and isolated gain. Direct gain is when the project is heated and energized by direct sunlight reaching its surface (through a south-facing glass façade, for instance). Indirect gain is when the sunlight hits an alternate surface, absorbed, converted into thermal energy, and then transferred into the space (For instance, a masonry wall absorbs the sunlight and transports the heat absorbed into the interior space). “Attached greenhouses” are a combination of both direct and indirect gain systems, since they directly gain sunlight into the structure itself, yet also manage to transform this energy into the adjacent building, forcing an indirect gain. Isolated gain is a “natural collective loop” which involves the use of alternate material to absorb energy. These materials include a heat storage tank, a metal plate collector, water, air, and rock storage. A natural current takes place when the water collected by the container is heated by the sunlight, as it rises and enters the top of the storage tank.

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Schoolgarden“De Buitenkans”动物园艺学院|Schoolgarden “De Buitenkans” . Image Courtesy of RO&AD Architecten

设计被动式太阳能策略(以下策略为北半球适应性策略)

1、太阳的位置:太阳的位置对于太阳能量的吸收非常重要,因此项目的设计之时需要在冬季和夏季都充分利用其地理上的优势。

2、结构设计:项目的整体形态和朝向也决定了其空间的太阳能量吸收程度。一般来说,东西向轴线越长,建筑的南面越能在冬天吸收能量。

Designing Passive Solar Energy
(The following design strategies are with respect to the Northern Hemisphere)
1- Location with respect to the sun: Optimum sun absorption is crucial for solar energy, which is why the project must be built in a way that takes full advantage of the sun during both summer and winter.
2- Structure’s design: The overall shape and orientation of a project can determine how much sun is being transferred into the space. It is observed that a building, which is elongated along the east-west axis, leads to additional absorption of sunlight on the south side during winter season.

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Courtesy of Yazdani Studio

3、注意建筑的北面:由于太阳无法在北侧进行照射,因此建筑师可以缩短这一侧的长度,减少北侧墙体的裸露部分。另外,在其相邻的墙体上应用浅色材质可以让阳光折射到北侧墙体之上。

3- Paying attention to the North-side: Since the sun does not directly emit radiation on the north side, architects can shorten its height, minimizing the amount of north-wall exposure. In addition, painting an adjacent wall with light colors can help reflect sunlight onto the northern wall.

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美国Kraemer放射肿瘤科中心|Kraemer Radiation Oncology Center. Image © Bruce Damonte

4、适当分配室内房间:可以在建筑的东南面、南面、西南面放置利用率较高的房间,保证热量与光照的最大化利用。诸如走廊与公共设施等热量、照明需求量低的房间,则可以放置在北侧。

5、窗户位置:可以将大型开窗放在建筑的南侧,让阳光最大程度地进入室内。北侧墙体的窗户可以小一些,因为这个方向能够获得的热量不多。

4- Allocating interior rooms: Placing highly utilized rooms alongside the southeast, south, or southwest façades ensures maximum heating and lighting absorption. Rooms that require minimal heating/lighting such as corridors or utility rooms can be places alongside the northern side instead.
5- Window location: Placing large windows on the southern sides of the building ensures maximum sun emission into the interior space. Northern facades should have relatively smaller windows since they absorb the least thermal energy.

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阳光房|Sunlight House. Image © Adam Mork

6、隐蔽的入口:防止冬季冷空气通过入口进入室内,因此建筑入口的朝向应尽量避开风向,也可以应用挡风的设施。

7、材料的选择:如果每种材料都应用,那么能量消耗也不低。下表说明了每种材料的能量吸收率。

6- Sheltered entrance: To prevent cold air from entering the house whenever the door is opened during winter, orient the entrance door away from the wind’s direction and/or add a windshield next to the entrance.
7- Material selection: More energy is consumed if each material is used in its adequate place. Take a look at the table below to compare each material’s energy absorption percentages.

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各种材料的热容量|Heat Capacity for Various Materials. Image Courtesy of The Passive Solar Energy Book

8、系统选择:每个项目都有不同的设计需求,因此每个项目也需要应用不同的体系。某些被动式策略对于某些项目来说并不实用,例如在周围都是高层建筑的项目中应用大面积玻璃幕墙,就这种情况而言,建筑师可以充分利用屋顶体系。

9、玻璃立面或太阳窗户:南向玻璃立面和大型开窗能够吸收大量阳光。因此建议,在寒冷气候中,每平方英尺的空间可以对应0.19与0.38平方英尺的南向玻璃窗户。而在温暖气候中,每平方英尺的空间可以对应0.11至0.25平方英尺的南向开窗。

8- System Selection: Each project possesses specific design requirements, which is why different projects require different systems. There are often times when some passive energy systems are inappropriate, such as having large glass facades in a project that is surrounded by higher buildings, which in this case, the best solution would be to implement a system on the roof.
9- Glass facades / Solar Windows: South-facing glass facades and large windows absorb the most amount of solar radiation into the space. “Recommendation: In cold climates, provide between 0.19 and 0.38 sq ft. of south-facing glass for each one sq ft. of space floor area. In temperate climates, provide 0.11 to 0.25 sq ft of south facing glass for each one sq ft. of space floor area”.

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三层玻璃立面|Triple-Glass Facade. Image © Adrien Buchet

10、天窗:有时无法在立面设置开窗,这就是就需要应用天窗,让阳光从天空直接进入室内。

10- Skylights: There are often times when having a glass façade is not feasible, which is why creating a skylight and/or clerestories, allow direct sunlight distribution into the space.

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新墨西哥圣菲Karen Terry住宅剖面|Karen Terry House Section, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Image Courtesy of The Passive Solar Energy Book

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Courtesy of Taisei Design


11、砖石蓄热:墙体的建议厚度至少为4英寸,这样能有效的减少室内的温度波动。浅色的室内色调、深色地面、小型开窗,这些都能够使得阳光在空间中有效地扩散。

12、室内水墙:在建筑内使用水墙时,应尽量保证墙体在上午11点至下午3点能够接收到阳光,同时使用较深的颜色来促进热量的吸收。

13、保温墙体:这类似于温室,保温墙体是在建筑的向阳一侧应用外部保温层,这能够让建筑在白天保温,而在夜间释放热量。这些墙体一般由砖石和玻璃建造而成,通过墙体玻璃层和开口来供热。

11- Masonry heat storage: Walls are recommended to be built with a minimum of 4-inch thickness to avoid indoor temperature fluctuations. A lightly colored interior, dark flooring, as well as small window patches on the wall allow for more sunlight diffusion in the space
12- Interior water wall: When using an interior water wall in the building, make sure the wall is located in a place that faces the sunlight in its peak time (11 am – 3 pm). Choose a dark-colored wall to optimize the sun absorption.
13- Thermal / Trombe Wall: Similar to the greenhouse principle, trombe walls are an external layer built adjacent to the “sunny side” of a building, which help preserve heat during the day and slowly release it overnight. These walls, which are often made of masonry and glass, provide warmth to the building through the glass layer and openings in the wall.

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集热墙剖面|Trombe Wall Section. Image Courtesy of The Passive Solar Energy Book

14、墙体尺寸:应当适当地调整墙体的尺寸,尽量在冬季的时候多储存能量。那么建议,在寒冷气候中,每平方英尺的空间对应0.43和1平方英尺的南向双层玻璃蓄热墙体,在温暖的气候,每平方英尺的空间对应0.22至0.6平方英尺的保温墙体,其中如果是水墙,建议尺寸则为0.16至0.43平方英尺。

详细信息:墙体的厚度、材质、色彩、完成面都能够影响隔热的效率。为了将效益最大化,因此可以在面向太阳的一侧选用深色的材料,同时在墙体的顶部和侧面增加通风孔洞来提升其整体的性能,另外再在通风孔洞上增加铰接面板来避免反向气流的出现。

15、相邻温室:如果要使用“相邻温室”的概念会有些复杂,因为进入建筑的能量会通过一个结构体系,因此需要正确地计算温室的尺寸。那么建议,在寒冷的气候中,每平方英尺的建筑面积可以对应0.65或1.5平方英尺的南向双玻璃开窗面积。而在温暖气候中,每平方英尺的建筑面积可以对应0.33至0.9平方英尺的玻璃开窗面积。

14- Wall dimensions: Properly sizing any type thermal wall will preserve as much heat as possible throughout the winter. “Recommendation: In cold climates, use between 0.43 and 1 sq ft. of south facing, double-glazed thermal storage wall for each one sq ft. of floor area (0.31 to 0.85 sq ft. of water wall dimensions). In temperate climates, use between 0.22 and 0.6 sq-ft. of thermal wall (0.16 – 0.43 sq ft. for water wall dimensions) for each one sq ft. of floor area.”*
Details: The wall thickness, material, and color/finishing, determine how effective the thermal wall is. To make the best of this trombe wall, choose a dark color on the side facing the sun, add vents at the top and bottom sides of the wall to increase its performance, and insert hinged panels over these vents to avoid reverse airflow.
15- Adjacent Greenhouse: Efficiently using the “adjacent greenhouse” concept can be a little complicated since the energy being transferred into the building is passing through a structure beforehand; therefore, the dimensions of the greenhouse must be calculated properly. “Recommendation: In cold climates, use between 0.65 and 1.5 sq ft. of south-facing double glass for each one sq ft. of building area. In temperate climates, use 0.33 – 0.9 sq ft. of glass for each one sq ft. of building area”.

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Maison + Agence. Image © Philippe Ruault

16、独立温室:由于温室对于玻璃或其他半透明材质的依赖程度较强,这样太阳才能辐射整个空间,但是,温室的北侧所接收到的阳光会比其他部分要少一些。因此最好延长东西向轴线,然后在北侧应用浅色材料,从而反射太阳光。

详细信息:为了减少温室内温度的波动,可以使用内部水墙、岩石存储系统、实心砖石结构。

17、屋顶池塘:屋顶池塘的面积决定了加热或冷却系统是否高效,其中材料组成、隔离层类型的选用都很重要。下表对比了池塘的定量,这些数值决定了池塘的特性。

16- Freestanding Greenhouse: Since greenhouses heavily depend on glass (or other translucent materials), sun will radiate into the entire space; however, the northern side of the greenhouse will receive less sun than the rest of the sides. It is preferable to elongate the east-west axis and paint the northern side with light colors to reflect sun into this area.
Details: To avoid interior temperature fluctuation in greenhouses, implement an interior water wall, use a rock storage system, and/or use solid masonry construction.
17- Roof pond: A roof pond’s area depends on the whether it is being used for heating or cooling systems, the materials it constitutes of, and the type of insulation being used. Here is a table to compare the rations of roof ponds depending on each pond’s characteristics.

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材料能量|Material Energy. Image Courtesy of The Passive Solar Energy Book

详细信息:屋顶池塘需要注意一些细节,因为建筑的结构和屋面对其来说非常重要。建筑的屋面必须有防水层和混凝土面板,这样才能吸收增多的能量。池塘的深度大约为6至12英寸,由深色的防水容器和透明的顶盖构成,这样可以让阳光直接照射在水面之中。保温面板尽量大一些,并且应用反射材料,这样能够减少漏水的风险,提高整体效率。

Details: Roof ponds require extra attention to detail since they depend on the building’s structure and roof. The roof must be supported by waterproof metal or concrete deck, and left exposed to absorb as much heat as possible. The pond could be 6-12 inches deep, and made of waterproof dark-colored containers with transparent lids to allow sun rays to hit the water when concealed. As for the insulation panels, it is preferable if the panels are made as large as possible with reflective material, reducing the risk of water leakage and increasing the efficiency of the system.

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Active Open Loop System. Image via Wikimedia Commons

18、移动式隔绝层:玻璃或半透明材料能够将热量吸收并传输送空间内部,但是由于同样的原因,夜晚的时候一些热辐射能量便会丢失。因此通过可移动的隔绝体可以减少夜间热量的损失。

19、反射镜面:有时候,大型玻璃立面不在设计的范围之内,这也是额外的反射镜面能够增加进入空间内部热量的原因。因此建议,针对垂直玻璃,可以使用宽度一致、而高度为玻璃开口一至两倍的水平反射镜面。对于南面倾斜的天窗而言,可以设置角度大约为100度的天窗开口,其中反射镜面的尺寸与天窗尺寸相等。

20、遮光:控制进入空间内部的太阳光线也非常重要,因为有的房间并不需要过多的光照。因此建议,可以在玻璃上方设置水平悬挑构件来进行南向玻璃窗的遮挡,控制其长度为南部一侧高度的四分之一,其高度是北侧的一半。

18- Movable insulation: Glass and/or translucent material admit the most amount of sun into the space; yet, some of these radiations are lost at night due the same source that allowed them in. Covering the glass panels with movable insulation systems will decrease the amount of heat being released at night.
19- Reflectors: Sometimes, having large glass facades is not part of the proposed design, which is why adding reflectors enhances the amount of sun entering the space. “Recommendation: For vertical glazing, use a horizontal reflector roughly equal in width and one to two times the height of the glazed opening in length. For south sloping skylights, locate the reflectors above the skylight at a tilt angle of approximately 100 degrees, making the reflector’s dimensions equal to those of the skylight”.
20- Shading: Controlling the amount and trajectory of sun light entering the space is highly efficient and prevents it from entering rooms where sun gain is not required. “Recommendation: Shade the south glazing with a horizontal overhang allocated above the glazing. The shades should equal in length to roughly one-fourth of the opening’s height in Southern latitudes, and one half of the height in Northern latitudes”.

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德国被动式房屋“Bruck”|Passive House Bruck/Peter Ruge Architects. Image © Jan Siefke

21、外部隔热:如果外部墙体具有保温功能,那么可以将隔热面板放在外部一侧,减少热量的损失。

小贴士

多云日储存:多云地区需要多应用一些被动式太阳能体系。可以适当地增加建筑南面的玻璃面积,应用大面积的水墙和较厚一些的热墙体,这样能够吸收更多的阳光热量。

夏天冷却:被动式太阳能体系主要强调的是冬季保温与光线的重要意义,因此有时会忽略夏天的空间冷却功能。因此屋面的颜色可以浅一些,并且在夜间进行自然通风,在白天尽量将建筑封闭,这些措施都能够有效地进行降温。

21- Outside Insulation: If the exterior walls are used as thermal walls, Place insulation panels on the exterior side to prevent any stored heat from being released.

Additional tips
Cloudy day storage: Cloudy locations require an increase in passive solar systems. Increasing the amount of south glazing, implementing a larger water wall (multiple ones if possible), as well as thickening the thermal walls (with respect to the standard recommendations mentioned above) will absorb higher amounts of sun into the space.
Summer cooling: The major emphasis on passive solar system is often the importance of allowing heat and light into the space during winter, disregarding the importance of cooling during the summer. Choosing a light-colored roof, ventilating the house at night, and closing the building during the day are some of the simple procedures that can be done to ensure summer cooling.

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阳光雨房|Sun Rain Room. Image © Edmund Sumner

工具:一些工具与应用程序都能够有效地计算进入空间的热量,热量柱状图有效研究了海拔、方位角度、天空、太阳位置、太阳轨道、月亮轨道、纬度,以及磁场的变化。诸如太阳辐射计算器和遮光罩等其他工具也能够进行相关的计算。

注:所有的建议都来源于《被动式太阳能》一书,作者为Edward Mazria

Tools: Several tools and applications are available that can help calculate the amount of sun entering the space. The cylindrical sun chart studies the altitude, azimuth, sky dome, sun’s position, sun’s path, monthly paths, latitude, and magnetic variations. Other tools such as the solar radiation calculator and shading masks can help determine all the necessary estimations before constructing the project.
Note: All the recommendations are obtained from The Passive Solar Energy Book by Edward Mazria

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比利时被动式办公楼|Passive Office Building in Belgium. Image Courtesy of Neutelings Riedijk Architects

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Reflectors. Image Courtesy of Pixabay under CC BY 0

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德国被动式房屋“Bruck”|Passive House Bruck/Peter Ruge Architects. Image © Jan Siefke

如何在建筑项目中应用被动式太阳能策略?第20张图片

加拿大全木制造的被动式节能工厂|BCPassive House. Image © Ema Peter

如何在建筑项目中应用被动式太阳能策略?第21张图片

Polycarbonate Sheets. Image Courtesy of SABIC

如何在建筑项目中应用被动式太阳能策略?第22张图片

Sun Plaza 2. Image © Soopakorn Srisakul

如何在建筑项目中应用被动式太阳能策略?第23张图片

Courtesy of Hervé Abbadie and Karawitz

如何在建筑项目中应用被动式太阳能策略?第24张图片

屋顶水池尺寸|Roof Pond Dimensions. Image Courtesy of The Passive Solar Energy Book

如何在建筑项目中应用被动式太阳能策略?第25张图片

阳光房剖面|Sunlight House Section. Image Courtesy of Juri Troy Architects

如何在建筑项目中应用被动式太阳能策略?第26张图片

Casa Solar Mendoza. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Czajko Under CC BY 2.5


        
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