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创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第1张图片


Dezeen选出2018年十佳新型材料
Dezeen's top 10 innovative materials of 2018

由专筑网王帅,蒋晖编译

从新型材料到垃圾,设计师们在2018年间对不寻常的材料进行了实验。设计编辑Augusta Pownall挑选出年度10佳材料,让我们一起回顾一下。

Designers experimented with unusual materials throughout 2018, from innovative new products to waste. Design editor Augusta Pownall picks out 10 of the best for our review of the year.

创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第2张图片


管道

聚氯乙烯管道被认为是一种非常蹩脚的材料,但在今年,一些设计师却超越了这一点。

日本设计师Kodai Iwamoto将玻璃吹制到加热的塑料管上,创造出微妙的、起伏的形状。

Lucas Muñoz使用一系列的通风管道设计家具,而Christophe Machet和Phan Thao Dang则使用排污管制作了一系列生动的家具。

Pipes
PVC plumbing pipes are about the least sexy material possible to imagine, but some designers this year were able to look beyond that.
Japanese designer Kodai Iwamoto applied the processes of glassblowing to heated plastic pipes to create delicate, undulating forms.
Lucas Muñoz used ventilation pipes for a series of pieces of furniture, whilst Christophe Machet and Phan Thao Dang both used sewage pipes to make vividly different collections of seating.

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创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第4张图片




氯化钠即食盐的主要成分,它是一种调味食品,但是今年,像 Erez Nevi Pana和Lindsey Adelman这样的设计师则在他们的作品中使用了盐。

Pana取下废品,把它们绑在一起,把这些“凳子”浸入死海,数月之后,凳子的表面形成了盐的结晶体。

Adelman在米兰的设计周上合作举办了一场展览,主要展出了她被盐腐蚀的黄铜Drop照明灯。

Salt
Sodium chloride has long been used for flavouring food, but this year designers such as Erez Nevi Pana and Lindsey Adelman used salt in their work.
Pana took waste materials, bound them together and dipped the resulting "stool" into the Dead Sea. After a few months, the surface was coated in salt crystals.
Adelman collaborated on a show at Milan design week, in which she showed versions of her brass Drop lighting system corroded with salt.

创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第5张图片


石墨烯

石墨烯具有一系列优异的性能,轻薄、坚固、透明、致密、且具备良好的导电性等。因此设计师在今年将石墨烯应用于很多项目上也不足为奇。

Vollebak的设计的石墨烯外套散热性好,同时还有绝缘的功能。而使用这种材料制成的轮椅也非常的轻巧。

在其它方面的应用,例如澳大利亚的一个科学研究中使用石墨烯来过滤水的项目。同时也有一些有趣的项目,比如使用石墨烯基染发剂不会损坏头发等。

Graphene
Graphene has a host of qualities – it is thin, strong, transparent, dense, a good conductor of electricity, the list goes on. Little wonder that designers applied the single layer of carbon to a wide range of projects this year.
Vollebak's jacket acts as a radiator insulating the wearer. Meanwhile a wheelchair made from the material is incredibly light.
Other serious applications included an Australian scientific study that used graphene in a simple water filtration system. There were some more fun ideas too, like a graphene-based hair dye doesn't damage hair.

创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第6张图片


创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第7张图片


混凝土

今年八月,我们发现胡萝卜可以有效提高混凝土的强度,于是这种最基本的建筑材料再次引起了人们的关注。

埃克塞特大学的科学家通过在复合材料中添加石墨烯,找到了一种使其更加强大的方法。伦敦帝国学院的研究人员开发了一种使用沙漠沙子作为混凝土的替代物。

Concrete
In August we discovered that carrots could be the key to making stronger concrete, putting the most basic of all building materials back on the agenda.
Scientists at Exeter University found a way to make it even stronger, by incorporating graphene into the composite. Elsewhere, researchers at Imperial College in London developed an alternative that uses desert sand rather than its construction equivalent.

创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第8张图片


脑电波

2018年,设计师们利用脑电图(EEG)受体来读取大脑中的信号,从而了解我们的大脑。

艺术家Thijs Biersteker与设计师David Carson在荷兰合作设计了一座装置,这种装置需要一对志愿者保持冷静来维持一个想象中的世界的秩序。今年夏天在伦敦设计博物馆的中庭放置着一只巨大的气球,它利用游客的脑电波来保持悬浮。

Brainwaves
Designers played with our minds in 2018, by using electroencephalography (EEG) receptors to read signals from the brain.
Artist Thijs Biersteker and designer David Carson worked together on an installation in the Netherlands that required a pair of visitors to remain calm to keep an imaginary world in order. At London's Design Museum this summer, the atrium was taken up with a huge air balloon that used visitors' brainwaves to stay afloat.

创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第9张图片


人体垃圾

如果存在一种不必担心耗尽的材料,那必然是人体的垃圾。

Ellie Birkhead使用当地美发师地板上的头发和各种废品制成砖块,而Oskana Bondar则使用头发制成凳子。

在今年的设计中还出现了“小便”,Kim Sinae根据膀胱的形状使用尿液为一系列的壶上釉,研究人员使用这种液体制造了一种零废砖,这种砖在室温下变硬,不需要在烧制。

Human waste
If there's one material we're not in danger of running out of it's human waste.
Hair from the floor of a local hairdresser was one ingredient in Ellie Birkhead's bricks made from a variety of waste products. Oskana Bondar also used the stuff to make a stool.
Pee also cropped up in design this year. Kim Sinae used human urine to glaze a series of pots based on the shape of the human bladder, a series she called Urine Ware. Researchers used the liquid for a zero-waste brick that hardens at room temperature rather than requiring firing in a kiln.

创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第10张图片


创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第11张图片


皮毛

今年,无论怎么说,真皮有点落伍了,Stella McCartney是一位走秀的模特,在九月的伦敦时装周期间,他因为T台上没有真正的皮草而欢呼雀跃。

而这个空缺在本月早些时候,被迈阿密设计公司大量的毛茸茸的家具所填补,Campana Brothers, Porky Hefer 和Guillermo Santomá品牌全部发行了毛茸茸的商品,从而满足人们在寒冬的使用需求。

Fur
Real fur fell out of fashion this year, literally and figuratively. Stella McCartney was one of the catwalk queens cheering the fact that September's London Fashion Week featured no real fur on its runways.
The gap was filled by a proliferation of furry furniture at Design Miami earlier this month, where the Campana Brothers, Porky Hefer and Guillermo Santomá all offered fluffy pieces to cuddle up in during the cold winter months.

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创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第13张图片


厨余垃圾

东京设计师Kosuke Araki did和他的Anima系列的杯子、盘子和碗就是使用了厨余垃圾,而使用厨余垃圾制作新的食物完全是另一回事了。

Elzelinde van Doleweerd正是在这方面下足了功夫,他将剩余的红薯和米饭制成的糊状物使用3D打印技术打印,并将其烘焙、脱水,制成美味的饼干。与此同时,设计师还使用马铃薯皮作为中密度纤维板的替代物,以此来制作生态包装。

Food waste
Making tableware to eat your food off from food waste, as Tokyo-based designer Kosuke Araki did with his Anima collection of cups, plates and bowls this year, is one thing. Making new treats with the stuff is quite another.
Elzelinde van Doleweerd did just that, 3D-printing a paste made from leftover sweet potato and rice, that she baked and dehydrated to create tasty crackers. Meanwhile, potato peelings were used for an MDF substitute and as ecological packaging.

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创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第15张图片


生物塑料

海洋塑料在2018年成为设计的主流,许多设计师用从海洋收集的塑料来完成他们的设计,而生物塑料却可以为一次性塑料问题提供一个长期的解决方案。

锐步的Corn + Cotton运动鞋便配备有生物塑料鞋底,而乐高用甘蔗制成的塑料来生产积木。Nuatan在伦敦设计节上主持了一场展览。展出的利乐包装纸盒也有很大的生物材料发挥空间,例如使用海藻、玉米淀粉和甲壳动物壳等原料。

Bioplastic
Ocean plastic hit the mainstream in 2018, with many designers creating projects using plastic taken out of the seas, but bioplastic could offer a long-term solution to the problem of single-use plastics.
Reebok's Corn + Cotton trainers come with a bioplastic sole, whilst Lego made its vegetation figures from a plastic made from sugar cane. With algae, corn starch and crustacean shells amongst the raw ingredients, there's still plenty of scope for the next Tetra Pak to be made from bioplastic, with Nuatan leading the charge with an exhibition at the London Design Festival.

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创新材料——只有你想不到的,没有设计师做不到的第17张图片


光伏表面

今年,太阳能电池板以一种让人感兴趣的方式融入到项目设计中。作为研究项目的一部分,Heliafilm将其应用于里昂的一座建筑之中,该团队计划在2019年将其市场化。苹果公司使用太阳能面板覆盖了其公司新总部的整个屋顶。

荷兰设计师Marjan van Aubel的温室被安装在Somerset大厦,作为伦敦设计双年展的展出作品。这座温室建在屋顶上,其电能由玻璃墙中的太阳能提供。

Photovoltaic surfaces
Solar panels were integrated into projects in interesting ways this year. Heliafilm was applied over a building in Lyon as part of a research project that the team plan to market in 2019, whilst Apple covered the entire roof of its new Cupertino headquarters with panels.
Dutch designer Marjan van Aubel's greenhouse was installed in Somerset House as the Dutch entry for the London Design Biennale. The hydroponic greenhouse is intended to sit on a rooftop, and is powered by solar energy harvested from the glass walls of the structure.

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