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锐利的形体,不仅是历史的见证,更是对未来的渴望第1张图片

Pompejus观景台
Pompejus / RO&AD Architecten

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:Pompejus观景台位于荷兰哈尔斯特伦的Fort de Roovere。在这里人们能够俯瞰West Brabant水域防线,这是Zuider水域中最古老的一部分。Pompejus项目不仅是观景台,也是一座露天剧院,甚至也是人们的集会场所,该项目的名字来源于这座建筑的首席指挥员Pompejus de Roovere。

Text description provided by the architects. Pompejus is a watchtower on Fort de Roovere in Halsteren, West Brabant. The tower looks out over the West Brabant Water Defence Line, the oldest part of the Zuiderwaterlinie running from Bergen op Zoom to Grave. Pompejus is a watchtower, an open-air theatre and an information point for tourists. Pompejus is named after the first commander of the fortress, Pompejus de Roovere.

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历史背景
   
West Brabantse水域防线建于1627年,由荷兰西兰省和南荷兰省政府共同修建,用于保护荷兰米德尔堡(Middelburg)至多德雷赫特(Dordrecht)的重要航线,并且抵御西班牙和法国的侵略者。这条线路途经贝亨奥普佐姆(Bergen op
Zoom)和斯滕贝亨(Steenbergen)等一系列主要城市。

History
The West Brabantse Water Defence Line was built in 1627 by the States of Zeeland, and Zuid-Holland to protect the important shipping route from Middelburg to Dordrecht against attacks by the Spaniards and the French. The line included the cities of Bergen op
Zoom and Steenbergen and a number of forts, including the main fort, Fort de

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锐利的形体,不仅是历史的见证,更是对未来的渴望第4张图片

Roovere既是一道景观,也是一道天然的洪水防线,因此当地政府不需要再过多地在此部署防御官兵。几个世纪以来,Linie与奥地利、法国、西班牙发生过多起军事摩擦。在18世纪初,水域防线变得愈发重要,在当时由著名建筑师Menno van Coehoorn负责建造。当地的堡垒工程逐渐增多,并且防御性能也逐步增强。West Brabantse水域防线是荷兰唯一在战争中保存下来的防线。在1747年,水域防线同整座城市一起陷入了法国军队的围攻。在19世纪,水域防线逐渐退出历史的舞台。而到了2010年,这条防线又重新为人们发掘,并且逐步发现了周边的森林与运河的价值,从那时起,这片区域则开发作为娱乐区域。

Roovere and was the first landscape defensive work in which inundation was deployed as a defence strategy. Inundation is the submersion of the landscape so that armies can no longer pull through the landscape with their equipment. In the course of the centuries the Linie has been under fire several times, among other things against the Austrians, French and Spanish. In the beginning of the 18th century the water line became more and more important and was thoroughly strengthened by the famous fortress builder Menno van Coehoorn. Fortress the Roovere was reinforced and increased and several preliminary works were carried out. The West Brabantse Waterlinie is the only waterline in the Netherlands where ever has been battled, usually successful, sometimes not. In 1747 the line and the City fell under the siege of the French. In the 19th century the line was strategically depreciated. It disappeared in some places, in others the forts were excavated. From 2010 onwards, one has started restoring the line. Forests have been taken from the forts, canals are restored. From that time on, the line is also developed for recreation

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锐利的形体,不仅是历史的见证,更是对未来的渴望第6张图片

景观

该区域在地形上有一定的高差,这也许是因为它位于Brabantse Wal边缘地带。地势较低的部分被洪水淹没,较高的部分则建立起堡垒等防御系统,这些堡垒在视觉上彼此相连。重新进行植树造林的难度较大,因此仍然保留了Roovere作为这里的景观系统。该水域淡水海水混杂,这是水域防线的中央地带,因此人们可以欣赏到朝向贝亨奥普佐姆( Bergen op Zoom)和斯滕贝亨(Steenbergen)的堡垒景观,但以场地的当前状态来说,人们要欣赏景观并非易事,这也是该项目的建造原因。

Landscape
The line uses very subtle altitude differences in the landscape. This is possible
because it is located on the edge of the Brabantse Wal, the edge of the deck sand in Brabant. The low parts can be inundated, on the high parts and therefore defensive weak parts fortified towns and forts were built. These fortresses are sand forts and were connected to each other with ‘Linie dikes’. But also visually the forts were connected, you could look from one fortress to another. By afforestation this is no longer possible. Fort the Roovere was a central point in the landscape. The separation of fresh water and salt water inundation was here. It was the middle of the defence line, so from the fortress towards Bergen op Zoom and in the direction of Steenbergen could be looked at. This is no longer possible in the current landscape, which is why the plan came up of creating a watchtower here to make that possible again.

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设计策略

Pompejus观景台所在的堡垒在战争时期主要朝向敌方,观景台便刚好坐落在角落之中。通过倒挂堡垒的两侧,观景台呈现出锋利的形状倾斜地朝向前侧,但它位于护城河之外,并向堡垒的一侧开放。这就为内部的信息中心和一座容纳225人的露天剧院创造了空间,如果视线要穿过树林欣赏周边的景色,那么观景台的高度必须大于25米,加上堡垒自身的高度9米,这样就能拥有共34米的观景高度,人们在其上方就能够欣赏到20公里开外的美景,甚至可以俯瞰整座West Brabant水域防线。

Design
The edge of the fortress on which Pompejus stands is directed at the enemy. The tower is positioned exactly on that corner. By mirroring up the sides of the fort, a sharp shape is created which leans forward over the moat. As a result, it is closed on the outside, and open at the fort side. This creates space on the inside for an information centre and an open-air theatre for 225 people. To see the surrounding area over the trees, the tower must be 25 meters high above the fortress. Because the fortress itself rises 9 metres above the landscape, Pompejus literally towers 34 metres above his surroundings.
From the top you can look 20 kilometres far in all directions and you can see the entire West Brabant Water Defence Line.

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建筑立面的设计原则来自Voronoi平面图形,这是一个利用钢结构三角形而形成的数学设计方式,建筑师以此来设计立面的开窗与洞口。另外,建筑立面通过预制模块方式建造组装,并在外部增加一层表皮,这样能够削弱三角形钢结构的视觉冲击力。

The facade is designed according to the principle of the Voronoi diagram, a mathematical design principle in which we used the triangles of the steel construction in order to make it possible to have windows and openings in the façade. Secondly the facade can be divided into elements to be prefabricated and transported, and add an additional layer to the facade to break the dominance of the triangular steel structure.

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技术与材料

为了让Pompejus观景台的管理方法符合大众化,建筑师使用了工厂定制的原则,就是说施工过程中没有参考图纸,只有3D模型。这个模型已经转化成钢铁制造商能够理解的Tekla(芬兰钢结构软件)模式,并且通过数控铣床切割技术。最终运用了宜家-毕利系列的打包方式,让其中的各个元素都轻而易举地组装起来。每个组装部件都来源于自动化3D模型。施工过程包含有混合型钢木结构,其中主要部件由镀锌钢、子部件、立面元素、木制楼梯等构成,项目中的木材都为固雅木材。其中的信息中心具有热隔离效应,主要由木制框架构成。

Technology and material
In order to make the building of Pompejus manageable for everyone, we have used the File-to-Factory principle. No drawings have been made for the construction, only
a 3D model is used. This model has been directly converted into 'scripts' for a Tekla model for the steel manufacturer and in machine language for CNC milling machines of the carpentry factory. This resulted in kind of Ikea-Billy cabinet packs in which all of the produced elements were encoded and could be assembled relatively easily. These packages were also scripted in such a way that from the 3D model also automatically the assembly drawings were provided.
The construction consists of a hybrid steel-wood construction, in which the main structure consists of galvanized steel, and the sub-structure, façade elements, stairways and stairs are made of timber. The wood used is Accoya. The information space is thermally isolated and consists of timber frame construction.

锐利的形体,不仅是历史的见证,更是对未来的渴望第13张图片

社会系统

为了建成这个项目,贝亨奥普佐姆(Bergen op Zoom)当地已经形成了共同参与Pompejus项目的社区团体。比如,人们以众筹的方式来集资,将资金用于材料的运输,并且周边的学校也为该项目提供了众多实习学生,同时各个社会组织也派来了志愿者。

Social system
In order to make this project possible, a community has grown in Bergen op Zoom who participated in the creation of Pompejus. For example, crowdfunding has been used to let people sponsor Pompejus, companies have sponsored parts of construction such as transport or wood, schools have provided interns, but also organizations have provided interns and volunteers.

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许多人们对于该项目持有积极的态度,因为Pompejus观景台不仅仅只是娱乐设施,更能够帮助周边人民密切相连。观景台的建成已是巨大的成功,但更大的成功是因为已经有了一个完整的组织来规划堡垒的活动,在未来的几年,这里将更加兴盛,并且更好地发展与管理。

People who want to use the Pompejus and fort the Roovere in the future have been active to help the development. The aim was to make Pompejus 'our tower' and to connect with the residents of the surrounding area. This has been successful not only because
the tower has been built, but above all because there is already an entire organisation to program the fort with events and it will be properly programmed and managed in the coming years.

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建筑设计:RO&AD Architecten
地点:荷兰,哈尔斯特伦
设计团队:Ad Kil, Ro Koster, Martin van Overveld
项目时间:2017年
摄影:Katja Effting
制造商:Accoya, CarlStahl GREECABLE, Tata Steel
项目委托人:Gemeente Bergen op Zoom / Municipality Bergen op Zoom
结构工程:Adviesbureau Luning, Velp
承包商:Berghbouw, De Kok Bouwgroep, Nijs Soffers, VKP
建筑功能:Uitkijktoren, openluchttheater, info-centrum / 观景台、开放剧院、集散中心
高度:26 米

Architects: RO&AD Architecten
Location: 4661 Halsteren, The Netherlands
Design Team: Ad Kil, Ro Koster, Martin van Overveld
Project Year: 2017
Photographs: Katja Effting
Manufacturers: Accoya, CarlStahl GREECABLE, Tata Steel
Commissioner: Gemeente Bergen op Zoom / Municipality Bergen op Zoom
Structural engineer: Adviesbureau Luning, Velp
Contractors: Berghbouw, De Kok Bouwgroep, Nijs Soffers, VKP
Function: Uitkijktoren, openluchttheater, info-centrum / Watch tower, open air theatre, info centre
Height: 26 meter

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