网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
Burning Man——向死而生的建筑第1张图片

The Black Rock Lighthouse Service by Jonny & Max Poynton. Image © Dan Adams

构建沙漠城市的独特挑战
The Unique Architectural Challenges of Setting Up a City in the Desert

由专筑网饭否,吴静雅编译

每年8月份,内华达州黑石市将建立一座临时大都会。这就是Burning Man,一个吸引了约7万名参与者的艺术和建筑年度活动。来到Burning Man的人来自各行各业,令人难以置信的是他们聚集在一起构建一个持续7天的短暂城市。这些人承担建筑师和建筑工人的角色,并利用沙漠以快速、可持续的方式建造各式各样的庇护所。沙漠位置十分偏远,建在黑岩城的建筑物部分在活动结束后被打包带回家,有些艺术品在现场被烧毁,这构成了独特的建筑挑战。建造这些建筑的人们必须提前规划它们,以适应在沙漠中工作的所有挑战,但结果是值得的 - 一个只维持一个星期、引人注目的独特城市,通过民主建造以对抗沙漠的环境。

我们由一个访谈来了解Burning Man这个活动,受访者Kim Cook是Burning Man艺术与公民参与总监。Kim Cook和团队的任务是增加Burning Man的艺术和公民行动的影响力。她的角色是与艺术家和社区领袖合作,增加资金、协作和学习的机会。

David Basulto:Burning Man已经成长为一个短暂的城市。下一个问题是如何管理这个挑战?  

Kim Cook:这座城市几乎完全由志愿者建造。Burning Man拥有100名全年雇员,700名季节性雇员和7000名志愿者来建造城市。因此,我认为重要的是如何关心和管理志愿者。必须考虑如何提高志愿者的经验,以及如何为志愿者提供新的机会。如果没有提供足够的空间来做志愿者,将会失去对于志愿者的承诺。

此外,随着Burning Man的知名度的增长,每年吸引35%的新参与者来到这里。因此,在遇到这些新的文化习俗和行为的同时,我们必须考虑如何支持他们,并且希望帮助他们获得所需的体验和经验。

另一个挑战是,像任何一个城市一样,城市的基础设施老化。我们使用集装箱和起重机以及其他各类设施,所有这些设施都需要进行维护和资金支持。

DB:这座短暂的城市吸引了无数的建筑师,他们年复一年地建造出有趣的装置。在为Burning Man设计结构时,他们面临的主要挑战是什么?

KC:我知道来到黑石城的主要建筑师实际上是建筑学生。事实上,现在德国和英国的大学希望把学生带到沙漠去执行他们的建筑项目。我看到他们因条件和供应不足而苦苦挣扎,所以希望尽可能提供他们所需的建造条件和环境。

Every year in August, a temporary metropolis is erected in Black Rock City, Nevada. This is Burning Man, an annual event of art and architecture that attracts some 70,000 participants. The people who come to Burning Man come from all walks of life. What is incredible is that they come together to construct an ephemeral city that lasts for 7 days. These people assume the role of architects and construction workers and use the desert to build all sorts of shelters in a fast, sustainable way. The desert is so remote, and everything built in Black Rock City is packed and taken home at the end of the event, and some of the art is burned on site. This poses a unique architectural challenge. The people who have come to build these structures have to plan them way in advance to accommodate all the challenges of working in the desert, but the result is worth it - a striking, unique city, democratically built, set against a desert landscape, and for only one week.
We had the chance to interview Kim Cook at the World Architecture Festival in Berlin. Kim Cook is Director of Art and Civic Engagement at Burning Man. Kim Cook and her team are tasked with increasing the impact of Burning Man’s arts and civic initiatives. As part of her role, Kim engages with artists and community leaders to increase opportunities for funding, collaboration and learning.

David Basulto: Burning Man has grown in scale to resemble an ephemeral city. How can this challenge be managed?  
Kim Cook: Well, one of the things is that the city is built almost entirely by volunteers. Burning Man has 100 year-round staff, 700 seasonal hires and 7,000 volunteers that build the city. With that, one of the things that I think is really important is the caring of the volunteers. We have to think about how to invest in the quality of the experience for the volunteers as well as how to present new opportunities for people to volunteer. Where is the next wave of commitment going to come from if you don’t make space for other people to volunteer?
Furthermore, as Burning Man’s visibility has grown. Every year, 35% of the attendees are here for the first time. So we’re always bringing people into the community and we have to think about how to support them as they encounter these new cultural practices and behaviors. We want to help them have the experience that they’re seeking.
Another challenge is that, like any city, you have aging infrastructure. We use containers and cranes and various other kinds of physical objects, all of which need to be maintained and invested in.

DB: This ephemeral city has attracted countless architects, who come to create interesting installations year after year. What are the main challenges they face when designing structures for Burning Man?   
KC: Well, the main architects that I know that come to Black Rock City to build things are actually architectural students. In fact, there are a couple of universities now, one in Germany and one in the UK, who bring their students to the desert to execute their architectural projects. I see them struggle. They struggle because of the conditions, and because of the lack of supplies. Whatever they have with them is what they have to work with.

Burning Man——向死而生的建筑第2张图片

Tangential Dreams by artist Arthur Mamou-Mani. Image © Debra Wolff

所以,来这里的人必须快速学会如何自我组织,如何保持耐力,如何在创作这件作品时照顾自己。这些是我看到人们所面临的挑战,但是这是值得的,因为他们在完成设计时了解自己的能力。

我认为,在极端环境下,你设法寻求成功时,就会有希望获得胜利。有一种从自己的局限性中释放出来的感觉。现在你可以想象你在做一件不可能的事情,这非常奇妙。

So, the people that come here have to quickly learn how to self-organize, how to maintain their stamina, how to take care of themselves while creating this work. These are the challenges I see people wrestle with, but it is rewarding because they learn about their own capability when they manage to complete it.
I think that there is something triumphant that happens when you have the extreme nature of the environment working against you and you manage to succeed anyway. There is a feeling of being liberated from the limitations of one’s own possibility. Now you can imagine the impossible and imagine doing it. It’s pretty terrific.

Burning Man——向死而生的建筑第3张图片

Tangential Dreams by artist Arthur Mamou-Mani. Image © Ales, Dust to Ashes

DB:有没有特别具有挑战性的建筑装置,给你留下了深刻印象?

KC:去年,有一个名为“黑石灯塔服务 ” 的项目。从一开始,这种在沙漠中建设的灯塔的想法就非常吸引人。他们把灯塔做的像石英晶体,所以它们不是完全垂直的。

DB: Is there any particularly challenging architectural installation that you remember, that left an impression on you?
KC: Yes. There’s so many. I will refer to two from 2016. Last year, there was a project called “The Black Rock Lighthouse Service.” From the start you have this idea of lighthouses in the desert and that kind of symbolism alone is very appealing. They made the lighthouses structured like quartz crystals, so they were not entirely vertical.

Burning Man——向死而生的建筑第4张图片

The Black Rock Lighthouse Service by Jonny & Max Poynton. Image © Joe Sale

每座灯塔都献给来自不同文化的不同女神。内部空间以这些女神的风格进行装饰,你可以在其中穿行。最后他们烧毁了整个作品,有人创造出美丽的东西,然后抛弃它,这有点令人惊讶。

同一年,另一位艺术家提出了一个名为“ 面纱墓穴 ” 的项目,它就像一个大金字塔,有三个金字塔结构。这是一个巨大的项目,他没能像他想象的那样完成它。活动开始时他还在建造,所以我们无法打开它。最终,在烧毁前只剩48小时的开放时间。

我认为金字塔项目很成功在于他与志愿者合作的方式。他有50或100个志愿者,每个人吃饭休息,并试图完成他们已经着手做的事情。他们相互扶持,这本身就是成功的。它最终不仅仅是结构,也是体验的过程。

这座城市每年都有这些符号化的建筑作品,与社区中的情感相对应,自身形成有趣的环境。

DB:你认为在Burning Man继续发展的过程中你将面临的挑战是什么?

KC:我认为这些挑战把我们带回我们将如何致力于发展和整合文化的完整性的问题上,但同时我们必须小心,不要将目标与经验相混淆。

我与加州一个名为圣何塞的城市有合作关系。它位于旧金山南部,是一个177平方英里的大城市。文化部长和经济发展部门想在城市中心安装艺术作品。这是一个有趣的想法,我在想如何使用这些装置来点燃其他可能性,使它成为一个象征,而不仅仅是一个对象。

现在,这座城市正在与我们共同创建社区公园指导计划,以便Burning Man的艺术家可以与社区成员一起工作,设想在公园里共同建造他们想要艺术装置。我们想要更多的关注社区文化。

重要的是让人们生活在文化之中。人们来到这里,他们可以参与和表达自己。这里需要有一种融入的感觉,如果人们开始去Burning Man,以便他们可以感受到Kool Aid,而不是帮助制作Kool Aid,那么突然之间它变得商品化。我认为这是最大的风险。

DB:Burning Man活动每年都会在其他地区开展。你能介绍下它在世界各地的影响吗?

KC: 燃烧无国界,Burning Man组织在世界各地有34个部门,这给予了我们独特的组织能力。这样做会在社区中创造更多的公民责任和个人责任。

例如,在德克萨斯州科珀斯克里斯蒂多年来,他们一直在清理七英里长的海滩。他们每年从这个海滩清理5吨垃圾。他们一直这样做,终于把这个县命名为Burner Beach。这种合作使我们与社区的关系更具韧性。

这是Burning Man活动的一个非常重要的方面。每年你建立一个临时城市,你在极端条件下使用重型设备,你知道如何建造一个可以承受每小时100英里风速的住所,而当节日结束时,你也会扩大自己的社交网络,这是意义非凡的。

另一个例子是,活动参与者去了加莱和塞萨洛尼卡,并为那些未被接纳进官方难民营的难民建造安全的避难所。有一位女性艺术家来到Burning Man ,她在希腊的悬崖建造了一个灯光装置,以便于船在悬崖上迷路时,他们可以跟随灯光的指引着陆,我可以预见这件事的非凡性。

另一件我认为非常有趣的事情,我正在考虑将目光如何从Burning Man转向这个世界。我们有700到800名被称为流浪者的志愿者,他们作为人们与执法者之间的中介。流浪者有一套专门的训练方式,他们认为自己是从支持者那里获得的权威。

流浪者不会使用武力或强迫别人,他们实际上是一种资源。因此,我们一直在与美国和平研究所讨论联合国维和人员的培训方式,并探讨是否可以在维护人员和联合国维和人员之间进行一些交叉培训。

Each of the lighthouses was dedicated to a different goddess from a different culture. The interior spaces were decorated in the style of these goddesses and you could climb up inside of them and between them. It was absolutely stunning. And they burned the entire work at the end. Just like that - someone creates something that beautiful, and then surrenders it. It’s sort of astonishing.
That same year, another artist proposed a project called “The Catacomb of Veils” and it was sort of like a big pyramid, with three pyramidal structures. It was a massive project. He was not able to complete it as he had imagined. He was still building when the event began, so we couldn’t open it. Eventually, it was opened for visitors, but we only had 48 hours before it had to be burned down.
I found the Pyramid project to be just as successful, because of the way that he worked with his volunteers. I think he had 50 or 100 volunteers, and everybody was cooking meals together, and trying to complete what they had set out to do. Everybody was treating each other with kindness and encouragement, and that was a success in itself. It ends up not being just the structure but also the process that affects the experience.
There’s also something about this architecture of these symbolic pieces every year, of the city, that is created to correspond to the emotion in the community. That itself is really kind of interesting.

DB: What do you think are the challenges you will face as Burning Man continues to evolve?
KC: Well, I think the challenges really comes back to how we want to be committed to a cultural integrity but at the same time we have to be careful not to confuse the objective with the experience.
I have a partnership with a city in California called San Jose. It’s just south of San Francisco, and a much larger city. 177 square miles. The Cultural Affairs Director and the Economic Development Department wanted to install artworks in the center of the city. It was a lovely idea and I wanted to work on how to use these installations to ignite other possibilities, so it becomes an invitation and not just an object.
Now the city is working with us to create neighborhood park mentorship programs so that the artists of Burning Man can work with members of the community to imagine what sort of art installations they would want in their park, and then to co-create it. We want to focus on the culture of the community.
The reason that it is important, is that people live the culture. People come and they participate and they give and they express themselves. There needs to be a sense of being a part of the culture. If people start going to Burning Man just so they can get a taste of the Kool Aid instead of helping to make the Kool Aid, then all of the sudden it’s just like anything else that’s become commercial. And I think that’s the biggest risk.

DB: Burning Man goes beyond what happens in Black Rock every year. What can you tell us about its impact around the world?
KC: Burners Without Borders, a civic initiative from Burning Man, has 34 chapters around the world, and this gives us the unique ability to organize together and to make something or to do something. Doing so creates so much more civic responsibility, and personal responsibility in the community.
For example, in Corpus Christi Texas, for many years now, they’ve been doing a clean up of the seven-mile strip of beach. They clean maybe five tons of garbage every year from this beach. They’ve done it so consistently that finally the county named it Burner Beach. This history of working together makes our communities more resilient.
This is a very significant aspect of the Burning Man event that evolved over time. Every year you build a temporary city, you work with heavy equipment in extreme conditions, you know how to make a shelter that can withstand 100-mile-per-hour winds, and when the festival is over,  you also come away with an extraordinary capability to reach out across a large social network of participants– that is remarkable.
Another example is that burners have been going to Calais and to Thessalonica and building secure shelters for refugees that aren’t accepted into official refugee camps. There’s this one woman who comes to Burning Man; she’s an artist and a model. She went to the cliffs of Greece built a light installation so that when people landed with their boats and they couldn’t find a path on the cliff, they could follow the light. I saw a visual of it, it was extraordinary.
Another thing that I think is very interesting and that I’m thinking about is how to shift from looking at Burning Man to looking out into the world. We have 700 to 800 volunteers that are called the Rangers and the rangers function as intermediaries between the people and law enforcement. They have a set of training called the Ranger Academy and they consider themselves as deriving their authority from the people they support.
They’re not a force or an imposition. They’re actually a resource. And so, we have been talking to the United States Institute of Peace about the way in which UN Peacekeepers are trained and exploring whether or not there can be some cross-training between the rangers and the UN Peacekeeper because UN Peacekeepers are primarily military forces that are brought in to keep the peace.

Burning Man——向死而生的建筑第5张图片

The Space Whale by The Pier Group with Matthew Schultz, Android Jones and Andy Tibbetts. Image © Zipporah Lomax

另一件事与艺术的制作方式有关,它允许从未拿起焊枪或锤子的人参与学习并成为建筑和制作的一部分。我认为这对那些生活在困难环境中的年轻人尤其有帮助,因为他们觉得自己无法控制生活中的任何事情。在Burning Man可以提供某种形式的治疗或放松。

The other piece has to do with the way in which the art is made, which is really allowing someone who’s never picked up a welding torch or a hammer to engage and to learn and to be a part of building and making something. I think this can be helpful particularly for young people who are living in difficult situations where they feel like they have no control over anything in their environment, and this is even more so the case with youth who are traumatized. The Burning Man can offer some form of therapy or release.

Burning Man——向死而生的建筑第6张图片

The Space Whale by The Pier Group with Matthew Schultz, Android Jones and Andy Tibbetts. Image © Mark Hammon

这些是参与Burning Man建造节的一些经历。

Those are just some examples of how the experience of participating in Burning Man can be thought about in other contexts.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

新闻 (471 articles)


访谈 (72 articles)


装置 (172 articles)


沙漠环境 (4 articles)


美国 (1184 articles)


内华达州 (9 articles)


2018 (503 articles)