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中世纪的韵味,是老城区的象征丨西班牙Banyoles老城改造项目第1张图片


Banyoles老城的重新设计突出了这座城市的中世纪韵味
Banyoles Old Town Redesign Highlights the Medieval Footprint of the City

由专筑网孙佳,曹逸希编译

在具有历史背景的城市,露天公共空间的设计常常借鉴过去的设计灵感。例如古典主义、文艺复兴和中世纪等时期在欧洲的各大城市里都留下了浓厚的印记,而大城市周边的小城镇也保留着传统的韵味。

The design of open-air public spaces in cities with historical backgrounds usually borrows inspiration from the past. Periods such as the Αncient Τimes, the Renaissance, and the Μiddle Αges left strong footprints in major capitals of Europe, but these periods also left their marks in smaller towns.

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班约莱斯是加泰罗尼亚地区的一个小镇,这里的游客们觉得自己仿佛回到了过去。因此,当MiàsArquitectes决定将该小镇的中世纪特色运用于新改造的小镇中心时,也就不足为奇了。而建筑师的设计理念也来源于建筑的地理位置及其周围环境。

MiàsArquitectes的设计引用了中世纪城市的历史元素,同时在功能和美学特征之间达成了平衡。班约莱斯设计改造项目成为该团队的一大成功典范,并获得了多个奖项和多方认可,其中包括加泰罗尼亚建筑奖(2009年)和赫罗纳地区建筑奖(2007年)。

Banyoles is one such small town in Catalonia where visitors feel like they are traveling back in time. So, it comes as no surprise that Miàs Arquitectes decided to bring back the town’s medieval character to the newly renovated town center. Their decision was based on the center’s location, surrounded by old buildings and architectural features with a strong past.
Miàs Arquitectes’ design references the medieval past of the city, while also striking a balance between the functional and aesthetic features. The Banyoles redesign project became one of the most successful projects the team has designed and it received several awards and recognition including the Catalonia Construction Award (2009) and Girona Area Architectural Awards (2007).

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历史的印记

公元9世纪,Sant Esteve修道院的僧侣们通过挖掘周围的土地,建造了一个排水管道系统。这个系统也将这个城市与班约莱斯湖(Lake Banyoles)联系在一起。排水渠道的目的是向城市供水,为城市提供防洪设施。水源还被用于农业综合企业和工业工艺系统。这条运河的足迹得到了很好的维护,在城市建筑布局中仍然有其存在的价值,而这些传统建筑大多是由石灰石制成。

The Historical Footprint
In the 9th century, the monks of Sant Esteve Monastery excavated the land around Banyoles to create a drainage canal system, which also linked the city to Lake Banyoles. The purpose of the drainage channels was to supply the city with water from the lake and to offer flood protection for the city. The water was also used in agribusiness and pre-industrial craft works. The footprint of the canal was well maintained and can still be seen in the layout and architecture of the remaining buildings. Many of these buildings are made of travertine stone, found locally in the subsoil of the town.

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当代的形势淡化了历史印记

在现代,排水渠被覆盖,并最终与城市的下水道系统连接,失去其主要特点的班约莱斯成为了一个缺乏魅力的场所。在城镇中心狭窄道路人车混行,在中心广场周围的通道和行人区常常用于停车,这种情况促使镇政府寻求一种能够吸引游客,并优化城镇中心的解决方案,同时结合更为现代的建筑形式。

The Modern Situation Downplayed the History
In modern years, the drainage channels were covered and eventually joined with the city’s sewer system. Losing its key feature, Banyoles became a deteriorated zone without charm. The urban framework of narrow sidewalks in the town center was essentially a point of cohabitation between pedestrians and vehicles with covered channels and pedestrian areas around the Central Square used as periodic parking spaces. This situation led the town authorities to search for an architectural solution that would bring the attraction back and form a significant center, combined with a more contemporary aspect.

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塑造城市的多个层次

班约莱斯市议会委托MiàsArchitects重新改造设计班约莱斯中心。这是一座历史悠久的城市,建筑师首先应该决定城市的整体基调,中世纪的班约莱斯镇拥有最多的建筑,所以设计师们认为这将是修复改造的最佳时期。建筑师认为,几乎所有可进入的区域都应该无车行驶,并将旧的人行道拆除,这样能够使城镇的历史层次得以展现,包括建筑遗迹、旧运河和古墓。

Sculpting the Layers of the City
The Banyoles City Council commissioned Miàs Architects to redesign the center of Banyoles. As a city with a long past, the first decision was to choose which previous era should be brought back to the surface. The medieval town of Banyoles provided the most architecture, so designers decided it would be the best time period to restore. The design stated that almost all of the accessible areas should be pedestrianized, removing the old sidewalks. The removal of the old sidewalks allowed the historical layers of the town to emerge, including the remains of buildings, old canals, and tombs.

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石灰华的颂歌

石灰石、石灰华等材料经常用于班约莱斯的建筑中。考虑到这一点,建筑师设计了一个连接城市广场的步行网络。这个计划以一系列连续的广场为基础,其中包括‘Plaçadels Turers'、‘PlaçaMajor'(中央广场)、‘Plaçadels estudis'(研究广场)、‘Plaçade la Font'(水源广场) 、‘Plaçadel teatre'(剧院广场)、‘圣玛利亚广场'(Plaçade l'esglésiaSanta Maria')和‘Plaçadel monestir'(修道院广场)。广场的名字来源于其中的重要建筑物,主要是博物馆或者教堂。

MiàsArquitectes的建筑理念是把中心广场作为其出发点,延伸至周边开阔空间,并主要运用石灰石马赛克镶嵌手法。就一个完整的项目来说,这里看上去已经具有中世纪特征,神秘的建筑、纪念碑和教堂一直都保留于此,通过建筑师的设计,让它们更加绽放光彩。

An Ode to Travertine Stone
The calcareous stone, travertine, resides in the subsoil of Banyoles and was often used in the architecture of Banyoles. With this in mind, the architects designed a pedestrian network that unites the squares of the city. The plan was based on an arrangement of successive squares, among them the ‘Plaça dels Turers’, ‘Plaça Major’ (Central Square), ‘Plaça dels estudis’ (Studies Square), ‘Plaça de la Font’ (Water Source Square), ‘Plaça del teatre’ (Theater Square), ‘Plaça de l’església Santa Maria’ (Square of the Church of Santa Maria), and the ‘Plaça del monestir’ (Monastery Square). The squares were named for the important buildings located within them, mainly museums or churches.
The architectural idea of Miàs Arquitectes ‘covers’ the city center in a travertine stone mosaic with the Central Square as its departing point and extending out to the open spaces of smaller squares. As a complete project, it looks like the ground has lifted to form the medieval houses, mysterious buildings, monuments, and churches, even though they have always been there.

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漂浮的水元素

水流是城市日常生活的一个关键要素。该项目的第二个强大功能是通过灌溉渠将水带回城市。已经被覆盖多年的运河重新被挖掘出来,并且部分运河河段被制成石板地面,吸引着孩子们在这里玩耍,而运河的其他河段则保留水元素,让居民在“新”城市漫步时感到宁静。

在设计中,建筑师几乎没有使用过多的城市小品元素,突出了水和石头这两个主要特点。木制座椅被放置在一个开放的空间里,以一种线性的方式在周围的落叶树木区形成一个小“社区”。树叶的变化在四季中形成了交替的景色。

Floating Over the Past
The flow of water was a key element of the city’s everyday life. The second strong movement of the project was to bring water back into the city through the irrigation canals. The existing canals that had been covered for years were exposed and new ones were created as sections to the stone ground. In some canals, the ground increases infinitely, attracting children to play, while other canals allow water to flow around the center, giving inhabitants the sense of serenity while wandering in the ‘new’ city.
The urban furniture used in the design is quite minimal, highlighting the two main features, water and stone. Wooden seats have been placed in groups, in the open spaces, creating small ‘neighborhoods’ with deciduous trees placed around them in a linear fashion. The change in the foliage of the trees creates  alternating scenery through the seasons.

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由于这座城市融合了历史的层次感,因此,班约莱斯老城设计项目将过去作为当代公共空间的一种元素。建筑理念的逻辑避免了通常的做法,即在城市中添加层次,而是通过强调传统元素来让城市空间带有不同的感受。

建筑师JosepMiàsGifre说:“我们选择的材料通用于各个城市中心,我们打破了人行道的线性排布方式,将其重新划分,让人们感受下部的水流气息,我们坚信,通过老城的改造,当地的人们能够充分感受到中世纪时期的传统韵味。

As the city is a fusion of historical layering, the Banyoles redesign project uses the past as a material for a contemporary public space. The logic of the architectural idea avoided the usual practice of adding one more layer to the city, and instead, turned to the daylighting of an older layer.
In the words of the architect, Josep Miàs Gifre, “We chose the same material in which all the city center is built. We break the linearity of the pedestrian paths, making cuts in their surface so the flow of water can be felt. We strongly believe that the old town will now become a sequence of paths in which the inhabitants would have the possibility to enjoy the historical center and its 12th century architecture.”

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项目信息
建筑设计:JosepMiàs(MiàsArchitects)
项目组:Silvia Brandi,Adriana Porta,Mario Blanco,Josep Puigdemont,Fausto Raposo,Mafalda Batista,Judith Segura,Sophie Lambert,Sven Holzgreve,Thomas Westerholm,Oliver Bals,Marta Cases,Julie Nicaise, LluísA. Casanovas,AnnaMallén,BárbaraFachada,Marco Miglioli
完成时间:2011年
地点:西班牙,赫罗纳,班约莱斯
客户:公众-班约莱斯市政厅
规模:18.000m2
预算:4百万欧元
技术负责人:Albert Ribera
工程设计:Josep Masachs
摄影: AdriàGoula
所得奖项:2007年,PREMIS D'ARQUITECTURA COMARQUES DE GIRONA获奖者
2008年,欧洲城市公共空间大奖决赛入围
2008年,第五届ROSA BARBA欧洲风景名人奖决赛入围
2008年,PREMIO ESPACIOPúBLICOEUROPEO CCCB决赛入围
2009年,PREMI CATALUNYACONSTRUCCIó优胜者
2010年,PREMIS FAD决赛入围
图片:Adrià Goula

Project Information
Architect: Josep Miàs (Miàs Architects)
Project team: Silvia Brandi, Adriana Porta, Mario Blanco, Josep Puigdemont, Fausto Raposo, Mafalda Batista, Judith Segura, Sophie Lambert, Sven Holzgreve, Thomas Westerholm, Oliver Bals, Marta Cases, Julie Nicaise, Lluís A. Casanovas, Anna Mallén, Bárbara Fachada, Marco Miglioli
Completion date: 2011
Location: Banyoles – Girona – Spain
Client: Public – Banyoles City Council
Size: 18.000 m2
Budget: 4M€
Technical Architect: Albert Ribera
Engineer: Josep Masachs
Photographer: Adrià Goula
Awards: 2007, PREMIS D’ARQUITECTURA COMARQUES DE GIRONA Winner
2008, EUROPEAN PRIZE FOR URBAN PUBLIC SPACE Finalist
2008, 5th ROSA BARBA EUROPEAN LANDSCAPE PRIZE Finalist
2008, PREMIO ESPACIO PúBLICO EUROPEO CCCB Finalist
2009, PREMI CATALUNYA CONSTRUCCIó Winner
2010, PREMIS FAD Finalist
All images courtesy of Adrià Goula.


出处:本文译自land8.com/,转载请注明出处。

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