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石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第1张图片

Natural House / Ideo arquitectura. Image © Salva López

石灰如何为当代建筑增光添彩
How Lime Enhances Contemporary Architecture

由专筑网王沛儒,小R编译

石灰在建筑行业的应用历史可以追溯到数千年前,跨越了世界各地。事实上,在公元前 4000 年左右,古埃及人就将生石灰与水混合后用于搭建金字塔。石灰在食品和农业以及化工、采矿和钢铁行业有多种用途,在建筑领域,它也是主要的建筑材料,它具有粘附性、防水性、可加工性、凝固性和耐久性等多种特性,可以用来制作砌筑砂浆、室内或室外抹灰等等。

尽管石灰砂浆的历史能够追溯到更早的文明,但人们都认为石灰砂浆首次运用在建筑中是在古罗马时期, 3000 多年前,地中海的克里特文明使用石灰作为砌筑砂浆,中国的长城也使用了石灰砂浆。法国南部尼姆的加尔桥(Pont du Gard)水渠建于公元前 18 年,当时使用的是以水力石灰为基础的砂浆作为防水材料。

The history of the use of lime in the construction industry dates back thousands of years, spanning cultures and communities worldwide. In fact, around 4000 B.C., the ancient Egyptians used quicklime mixed with water as a building material for their pyramids. Although lime has multiple applications in the food and agricultural industries, as well as in chemical, mining, and steel industries, in architecture it is one of the main construction materials due to its versatility, adhesion, waterproofing, workability, performance, setting, and durability, which allow for the creation of masonry mortars, interior or exterior plasters, among other functions.
Although there are earlier civilizations that used lime mortars in the development of large structures, it is considered that the Romans were the first to use them in construction. More than 3000 years ago, the Cretan civilization in the Mediterranean used lime as a masonry mortar, and lime mortars were also used in the Great Wall of China. For example, the Pont du Gard aqueduct in Nîmes, in southern France, was built in 18 B.C. as a waterproofing case where a mortar based on hydraulic lime was used.

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Great Wall of China. Image © Airbnb

到了 18 世纪,Smeaton的作品让人们了解了水硬石灰的特性,这也是后来波特兰水泥技术和专利的由来。从 19 世纪到现在,波特兰水泥(OPC)的出现使石灰在建筑中的使用大幅减少,因为它在初始阶段可以快速硬化,使其早期强度快速增加。然而,在建筑中适当使用石灰,除其他因素外,可以在比 OPC 更低的温度下生产,还可以使其在煅烧过程中使用更少的能源,从而减少温室气体排放,减少收缩,防止开裂。

By the 18th century, Smeaton's work led to the understanding of the properties of hydraulic lime, which later resulted in the technology and patent of Portland cement. From the 19th century to the present, the advent of Portland cement (OPC) led to a significant decrease in the use of lime in construction due to its rapid initial hardening and greater early-age strength. However, appropriate use of lime in construction can involve, among other factors, production at lower temperatures than OPC and less energy during its calcination, resulting in lower greenhouse gas emissions and minimal shrinkage, preventing cracking.

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第3张图片

Great Wall of China. Image © Airbnb

石灰是一种无机白色粉末材料,由石灰石煅烧而成,石灰石是一种由碳酸钙组成的矿物。石灰石从采石场开采出来后,要经过粉碎,将其大小减小到 80 到 200 毫米,然后根据它们的粒度进行分类,再进行高温煅烧(900 至 1200°C),煅烧过程中会释放出二氧化碳,残留的氧化钙被称为生石灰。最后,生石灰被转移到储存筒仓中,以袋装或散装的方式进行分装。加入水后,生石灰通过释放蒸汽的放热反应转化为熟石灰或消石灰。在分离和研磨的过程中,可以得到普通熟石灰,如果将白云质生石灰通过水合器和研磨则可以得到压力熟石灰。为了适应不同的环境,还有其他类型的石灰,例如由 95% 氧化钙组成的脂肪石灰或空气石灰,或由粘土和氧化亚铁组成的水力石灰。

Being an inorganic white powder material, lime is obtained from the calcination of limestone, a mineral composed of calcium carbonate. Once extracted from a quarry, the limestone is crushed, reducing its size to a maximum of 80 to 200 mm, and classified according to its granulometry. It is then calcined at high temperatures (between 900 and 1200°C), causing the release of carbon dioxide and leaving calcium oxide as a residue, known as quicklime. Finally, the quicklime is transferred to storage silos where it is distributed in bags or bulk. By incorporating water, quicklime is transformed into hydrated or slaked lime through an exothermic reaction that releases steam. In a separation and grinding circuit, normal hydrated lime is obtained, while passing dolomitic quicklime through a hydrator and grinding produces pressure hydrated lime. Adapting to different environments, there are other types of lime such as fat or air lime, composed of 95% calcium oxide, or hydraulic lime, composed of clay and ferrous oxide.

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第4张图片

Mud House / Sketch Design Studio. Image © Jeevan Jyot

石灰的特性有防水性,可以防止水渗入,同时允许水蒸气通过,这样消除湿气,而且还能防止霉菌或细菌的繁殖;有高孔隙率,可提高空间的透气性,并有助于蒸发其中的水分;以及它在砂浆中的可塑性,有利于各种材料的放置和粘合;可以通过使用废料和手工制造方法降低生产成本;还有杀菌作用,防止微生物附着泛滥。

Among the properties of lime are its waterproof nature to prevent water infiltration while allowing vapor to pass through to eliminate moisture, as well as preventing the proliferation of mold or bacteria; its high porosity that improves the breathability of the space and helps evaporate moisture from it; its plasticity in mortars that facilitates the placement and adhesion of various materials; its binding capacity that reduces production costs by using waste materials and artisanal manufacturing methods; and its bactericidal action against the development of microorganisms.

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第5张图片

Can Bau / Paloma Bau Studio + Viraje arquitectura. Image © David Zarzoso

那么,石灰在当代建筑场景中的运用是怎样的呢?在石膏、砂浆和其他材料中使用时,要考虑哪些因素?一直到20世纪,石灰都是房屋建筑中使用的主要粘合剂,用于混凝土、砂浆和石膏。作为粘合剂并与其他材料如沙子和水混合,它通常用于砂浆和混凝土中连接砖、块和石头。例如,hilip Lütken在丹麦设计的祖母之家有着不规则的砖砌,厚石灰砂浆接缝填充空间。而且砖砌体中的石灰砂浆可以保护砖被再次利用。

Now then, how is the use of lime applied in the contemporary architectural scene? What factors are taken into account when using it in plasters, mortars, and other elements? Until the 20th century, lime was the main binding agent used in housing construction and applied in concrete, mortars, and plasters. Acting as a binder and mixing with other materials such as sand and water, it is commonly used for mortars and concretes in the joining of bricks, blocks, and stones. For example, the House for a Grandmother by Philip Lütken in Denmark features irregular brickwork with thick lime mortar joints filling the spaces. In fact, the lime mortar in the brickwork allows for the future reuse of the bricks.

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House for a Grandmother / Philip Lütken. Image © Kim Høltermand

石灰砂浆是一种动态材料,在碳化过程中硬化后能够与环境相互作用,并适应结构的变化。它们具有很高的可加工性(即流动性、保水性和凝聚性的适当组合)。虽然在非常恶劣的气候条件下,石灰砂浆和灰泥可能不是很耐用,但可以通过使用水力石灰或加入波特兰水泥来抵消这种情况。Cotton Estes建筑师事务所设计的巴雷拉住宅位于美国圣安东尼奥的一个历史街区内,旨在采用有利于资源保护和低维护的建筑系统和材料,在墙壁涂上了一层水力石灰抹灰。

Lime mortars are dynamic materials capable of interacting with the environment after hardening during the carbonation process and adapting to changes in structures. They have a high level of workability (that is, the proper combination of flow, water retention, and cohesion). Although in very harsh climatic conditions, lime mortars and plasters may not be very durable, this can be counteracted by using hydraulic lime or incorporating Portland cement. Located within a historic district of San Antonio in the United States, the Barrera House by Cotton Estes Architect aimed to apply construction systems and materials that supported resource conservation and low maintenance. The walls were coated with a hydraulic lime plaster.

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Barrera House / Cotton Estes Architect. Image © Dror Baldinger, FAIA

考虑到石灰是一种生态建筑材料,而且具有显著的环保优势,秘鲁的 Calx 可持续房屋应运而生。这些房屋的结构构件采用了强化石灰块,隔墙构件采用了简单的系统,可以优化和简化施工。Pezestudio 着重强调了石灰调节湿度的能力,以及它的隔热和隔音性能,从而降低了能源需求,为居民节约了经济成本,还减少了有毒气体的排放。

Considering lime as an ecological construction material and given its significant environmental advantages, the Calx sustainable houses in Peru were conceived. These houses implement reinforced lime blocks in the structural elements and a simple system for the partition elements to optimize and streamline construction. Pezestudio highlights lime's ability to regulate humidity as well as its thermal and acoustic insulation properties, which result in lower energy demand, economic savings for inhabitants, and reduced toxic emissions into the atmosphere.

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第8张图片

Calx Sustainable Houses / Pezestudio. Image © Gonzalo Cáceres Dancuart

此外,在石膏中混合石灰还能减缓凝结的时间,保障饰面的光洁度,使表面看起来很光滑,降低开裂的概率。除其他用途外,石灰还可用于墙壁和天花板的抹灰、涂料和饰面的制备、稳定土壤、改善道路和地基建设中的机械性能。在西班牙马略卡岛,石灰建筑是一种古老的技术,直到现在,这种技术只用于外墙和垂直表面。在 "自然之家 "项目中,Ideo arquitectura 还在地板和天花板上使用了石灰,为整个室内空间提供了美感和无缝的连续性。与此同时,在意大利, Andrew Trotter工作室在制作石灰抹灰和涂料的工匠的帮助下,将全石灰石膏应用于Casolare Scarani住宅的内部。

Additionally, the use of lime in plasters offers a slow setting time and an attractive finish, providing smooth surfaces and lower chances of cracking. It can be applied in the plastering of walls and ceilings, in the preparation of paints and finishes, in soil stabilization, and in improving mechanical properties in the construction of roads and foundations, among other uses. In Mallorca, Spain, lime construction is an ancient technique that, until now, was only used on facades and vertical surfaces. In Natural House, Ideo arquitectura also used it on floors and ceilings, providing an aesthetic and seamless continuity throughout the interior. Meanwhile, in Italy, Studio Andrew Trotter applied a full lime plaster to the interior of Casolare Scarani House with the help of an artisan who makes his lime plasters and paints.

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第9张图片

Casolare Scarani House / Studio Andrew Trotter. Image © Salva López

石灰的生产不需要大量资金,也不需要进口技术或设备。它可以在当地市场进行少量生产,降低运输成本,为当地工业提供发展机会。位于印度Alwar的Sketch设计工作室专注于使用当地材料和工艺技术,他们设计的"泥屋 "注重使用当地材料和工艺技术,其墙壁是用当地泥土混合石灰和葫芦巴种子等天然粘合剂夯实而成的。此外,墙壁和地基使用了回收的石材,石灰窑中石灰石加工后的残渣 Bagra 被用作石头砌筑的砂浆。实际上,使用石灰残渣的可持续建筑技术已在附近社区使用了几个世纪,其中一个用夯土建造的房间还使用了石灰抹灰,这种抹灰技术也得以保留。

Lime does not require large capital to start its production nor does it need imported technologies or equipment. It can be produced in small quantities for a local market, reducing transportation costs and providing development opportunities for the local industry. Focusing on using local materials and craftsmanship techniques, the walls of the Mud House by Sketch Design Studio, located in Alwar, India, were made with rammed earth using local mud mixed with natural binders such as lime and fenugreek seeds. Additionally, reclaimed stone was used for the walls and foundations, and Bagra, a residue left in lime kilns after limestone processing, was used as mortar for the stone masonry. Indeed, the sustainable construction technique using lime residues has been employed by nearby communities for centuries, and one of the rooms built with rammed earth featured a lime plaster finish, a plastering technique kept alive by a few artisans.

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第10张图片

Mud House / Sketch Design Studio. Image © Jeevan Jyot

从拉丁美洲的 Tatakua 住宅到欧洲的 Can Bau住宅,许多住宅都使用石灰作为饰面。在全球范围内,石灰在保护教堂、城堡等古建筑和古迹方面也发挥了重要作用。目前,石灰被用于玻璃生产、造纸、农业实践、化学工艺、石膏、砂浆和其他建筑材料。那么这种材料的未来会怎样?建筑专业的设计师们将如何重塑自己,可以充分利用石灰的特性?

The contemporary use of lime is utilized as a finish in numerous homes extending from Latin America, as in the case of Tatakua House (Paraguay), to Europe, as in Can Bau (Spain). Globally, it has also played an important role in the conservation of ancient buildings and monuments such as churches, castles, and others. Currently, lime is used in glass production, paper manufacturing, agricultural practices, chemical processes, plaster, mortar, and other construction materials. The question is, what will be the future of this material? How will architecture professionals reinvent themselves to make the most of its properties?

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Mas Auleda House / Contorns, arquitectura e interiorismo. Image © El Ramo Volador

Sources:
- Miguel Galván-Ruiz and Rodrigo Rafael Velázquez-Castillo, “Cal, un antiguo material como una renovada opción para la construcción [Lime, an ancient material as a renewed option for construction]".
- Practical Action, The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development; Lime Technical Sheet.
- Calidra, "2021 Sustainability Annual Report. Sustainable Development".

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第12张图片

Mas Auleda House / Contorns, arquitectura e interiorismo. Image © El Ramo Volador

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第13张图片

TD House / Skye Maunsell Studio + Jordi Veciana + Juan Gurrea Rumeu. Image © Salva López

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第14张图片

TD House / Skye Maunsell Studio + Jordi Veciana + Juan Gurrea Rumeu. Image © Salva López

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第15张图片

TD House / Skye Maunsell Studio + Jordi Veciana + Juan Gurrea Rumeu. Image © Salva López

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第16张图片

Casolare Scarani House / Studio Andrew Trotter. Image © Salva López

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第17张图片

Casolare Scarani House / Studio Andrew Trotter. Image © Salva López

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第18张图片

Calx Sustainable Houses / Pezestudio. Image © Gonzalo Cáceres Dancuart

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第19张图片

Casa para una abuela / Philip Lütken. Image Cortesía de Philip Lütken

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第20张图片

Stone House / Sketch Design Studio. Image © Purnesh Dev

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第21张图片

Stone House / Sketch Design Studio. Image © Purnesh Dev

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第22张图片

Mud House / Sketch Design Studio. Image © Jeevan Jyot

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第23张图片

Natural House / Ideo arquitectura. Image © Salva López

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第24张图片

Natural House / Ideo arquitectura. Image © Salva López

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第25张图片

Tatakua House / Rcubo. Image © Leonardo Mendez

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第26张图片

Tatakua House / Rcubo. Image © Leonardo Mendez

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第27张图片

Brick Manor / Bhutha Earthen Architecture Studio. Image © f/8

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第28张图片

Brick Manor / Bhutha Earthen Architecture Studio. Image © f/8

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第29张图片

Barrera House / Cotton Estes Architect. Image © Dror Baldinger, FAIA

石灰也是自然的建筑师,看它如何以环保之名重塑空间第30张图片

Can Bau / Paloma Bau Studio + Viraje arquitectura. Image © David Zarzoso


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