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Making Camp

由专筑网逸希,杨帆编译

露营不仅仅是对场地的实践,同时也是一个永恒的过程。—查理•黑利,营地(2008)

Camping is both locative practice and timeless process.
—Charlie Hailey, Campsite (2008)

露营营地规划设计第1张图片


上图摘录于一本记录休闲露营发展历史的小册子,讲述了露营所需的工具与惯例以及典型的露营形式。

A pamphlet documenting a brief history of recreational camping, gear associated with camping rituals, and typical formats of campsites.

露营地的类型

一个在北美流传的神话中讲述到,人类集中向外蔓延扩张的道路总是崎岖的,并且背离民族景观。从梭罗在树林里的小屋,到19世纪中提供给都市人在夏季远离城市喧嚣的农舍,休息寓所的概念和身临其境的景观体验形成了北美人思想意识的一部分。直到二战结束后,露营活动在北美才得到了大规模的发展,闲暇时间的增多和汽车进入了人们的生活以及非机动车也可以参与到露营活动中来使这项活动得到了更大程度的展开。这种增长需要能提供一系列可以得到很好露营体验的公共和商业服务露营地。

The Format of Campsites
A foundational myth of North America is our collective relationship to the expansive, often rugged, and remote national landscapes. From Thoreau’s cabin in the woods, to 19th century cottages offering urbanites respite from the city in the summer, the notion of retreat and the restorative role of immersive landscape experiences has formed part of the North American conscience. Camping in North America did not develop on a large scale until after World War II, when increased leisure time, car access, and the possibility of camping with motorized vehicles greatly expanded the activity. This growth was served by public and commercial campsites which offered a range of camping experiences.

现代露营是一个多元化的产物,同时是在上世纪中不断演变的结果。立法而后建立国家公园,露营工具的改变也预示着新材料和新技术的出现,露营地的造型和布局也得到了很大的改变。私人露营地在风景如画的地方提供铺装停车场来迎合开车度假的人们。公共露营地往往在国家或省级公园附近提供远程露营地和更方便的汽车露营地。大多数营地的布局则是在郊区的环绕中,甚至有一些死胡同。露营地的分布则被掩映在树丛中,但是又在人们能够相互听到和看到的范围内,车子驶进停车场被当作建立露营地的第一步。

Modern-day camping is the product of multiple, simultaneous evolutions over the past century: legislation that created national parks; the evolution of camping gear which shadowed the advent of new materials and technologies; and transformations in the actual configuration and layout of campsites. Private campgrounds catered to recreational vehicles by offering paved parking areas in picturesque locations. Public camp grounds, often in national or provincial parks offered remote campsites and more accessible car camping. The layout of most campsites embrace a suburban plan, even with cul-de-sacs. A distribution of camping plots are sheltered by trees but within viewing and hearing distance of each other. The car pulling into each lot serves as the first act of setting up camp.

露营营地规划设计第2张图片


露营在过去一个世纪里对人们具有持续的吸引力,因为它是逃避欲望、压力并放松身心、舒缓神经的场所。由于人类原始的对自然的兴趣,人们更希望远离钢筋混凝土的包围,渴望身临其境地去体验大自然。然而,我们却少有这方面的经历,去拥抱荒野和大自然。建筑师查尔斯•黑利认为露营是阶段性的过程:“我们离开家乡,我们到达场地,我们清理这片场地,我们建造场地然后在离开前将我们露营所建造的空间打破。”(黑利,2008)

The enduring appeal of camping over the past century is driven by the desire to escape modernity, and a primal interest in the “primitive hut.” The desire for immersive experiences by reducing the envelopes and infrastructures that traditionally separate us from our environment. Yet, we are increasingly far from this experience, embracing a suburban relationship to wilderness. The architect Charlie Hailey identifies camping as a phased process: “We leave home, we arrive at site, we clear an area, we make and then finally break camp before departing.” (Hailey, 2008)

露营营地规划设计第3张图片


露营营地规划设计第4张图片


随着人们对露营场地的装备和材料创新越来越多的关注,很少有人注意露营场地自身的规划及设计。该项目将露营地发展前景作为一个设计问题,考虑是否有其他形式的露营集中性可应用于建设在偏远地区的营地?营地场地规划建设的一系列提案考虑了集体露营的新的可能性及需要的过程,它对露营地的形式提出疑问,根据经验和露营基础设施创造环境。该项目突出强调了露营协调环境和空间秩序的五种形式,并着重分析和探索如何促进露营者们相互之间的关系,如何制定露营规则和空间秩序以及营地规划设计如何与环境进行融合。

正如人们通常会选取一个公园作为露营地,一系列的关于露营的册子,如何能够使一个普通的场地变为定向的营地。对营地规划的建议考虑了露营者的类型,所需要的或不需要的各种工具,适当的景观配置,季节性的分析,以及如何在营地内设置和选择站点。

With so much attention placed on gear and material innovation, little attention has been paid to the campsite itself. This project foregrounds the campsite as a design question. Is there a possibility for other forms of collectivity in the remote? The Making Camp series of proposals consider new possibilities of collective camping and the processes they entail. It questions the role of the campsite, the experiences enabled by it, and the environments created by camping infrastructures. The project highlights five possible formats for camping that synchronize environment and spatial order. The designs explore how campers related to each other, how camping rituals are enacted and inform spatial order, and how the campsite interacts with its context.
As one might typically find a park campground, a series of brochures orienting a camper, and qualifying the how-to of the campsite were produced for each campsite. The campsite proposals were considered for the type of camper, the gear needed or not needed, the appropriate landscape, seasonality, and how to set-up and select a plot within the site.

露营营地规划设计第5张图片

关于露营营地规划设计的6本小册子
Series of six pamphlets produced for the Making Camp campsites.

露营营地规划设计第6张图片

封闭的环形露营场地设计结合了浅脚印露营者的心愿
The Closed Loop campsite integrates the ambitions of the low foot-print camper.

露营营地规划设计第7张图片

悬浮型露营地可以将露营场地升起使其掩映在树丛中
The Suspend campsite elevates the campsite to be in and among the tree canopy.

露营营地规划设计第8张图片

眺望型露营地同时也是一个垂直的散热塔,为场地提供热量
The Lookout campsite is a vertical stack of radiating camp grounds.

露营营地规划设计第9张图片

离网的露营技术是一个关于露营规则技术整合的开放性领域。
The Off-Grid campsite is an open field of technology-integrated camping rituals.

露营营地规划设计第10张图片

营地的保温层通过使用一系列保温的热活性材料来对抗极端寒冷的天气。
The Thermal Layers campsite allows for extreme cold camping with a series of thermally active material layers.

露营营地规划设计第11张图片

眺望露营地模型外部细节(Details of Lookout campsite base)

项目团队:Lateral Office
Lola Sheppard, Mason White, Alex Bodkin, Miriam Alexandroff, Quinn Greer, Sarah Gunawan, Kinan Hewitt, Laurence Holland, Daniela Leon, Karan Manchanda, and Safoura Zahedi,John H.
约翰•H•丹尼尔斯学院:
Johnny Bui, Paul Kozak, Deagan McDonald
支持:
非常荣幸该项目获得了芝加哥建筑双年展以及格拉哈姆基金会对于美术领域高级研究和约翰•H•丹尼尔斯景观建筑设计学院的支持。

Project Team: Lateral Office
Lola Sheppard, Mason White, Alex Bodkin, Miriam Alexandroff, Quinn Greer, Sarah Gunawan, Kinan Hewitt, Laurence Holland, Daniela Leon, Karan Manchanda, and Safoura Zahedi,John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture:
Johnny Bui, Paul Kozak, Deagan McDonald
Support:
The project is generously supported by the inaugural Chicago Architecture Biennial, the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, and the John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design.
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  • 迈耶005
  • 2016.03.03 11:17
    露营营地越来越引起国家规划部门的重视
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