网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第1张图片

Image © Luc Roymans

项目中该如何正确选择玻璃?
How to Choose the Right Glass for Your Projects

由专筑网小R,王雪纯编译

玻璃技术的进步给建筑的方案设计带来了诸多可能,因为选择太多,因此研究的对象也愈来愈多,我们需要了解它对于建筑的影响,其中最典型的就是建筑门窗。

在使用玻璃时,我们应该考虑哪些要素呢?美学与功能是否能够兼得?在本文中,我们会一起了解复杂的玻璃世界,更好地了解玻璃的不同类型与性能,以及最佳使用方式。

Today, improvements in glass processing technology have made it possible to render specific and effective solutions for a wide range of architectural projects. In fact, there are so many options available that it's almost necessary to research different products and their properties, and how this will impact, for example, the windows and doors that you are designing.
What variables should be considered – and prioritized – when choosing the glass used in a project? How can aesthetics coincide with function and efficiency? We sat down with the experts at Cristales Dialum to delve into the complex world of glass and to better understand the hows and whys of choosing the best type of glass for your projects and ensuring the best results for your clients.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第2张图片

Image © Nico Saieh

基本要素:尺寸与玻璃类型

玻璃面板的标准尺寸一般为2.5 x 3.6米,通过切割来满足不同项目的不同需求。玻璃基本无色透明,其中还包含有诸如热舒适、视觉通透、声学等要素。

另外还有一种5.0 x 3.0米的巨型尺寸玻璃。在智力圣地亚哥的At  Dialum工厂,一个世界上较为重要的玻璃生产商,同时也是美洲最为现代化的工厂,该工厂可以生产6.0 x 3.3米的玻璃面板,面积约为19平方米,重量接近1吨。

宽度超过4.5米、高度超过2.5米的玻璃具有纪念性质。

The Basics: Dimensions and Types of Glass
Glass panels are normally sold at a standard size of 2.5 x 3.6 meters. Starting at this size, the glass is cut to meet a project's specific needs. The glass can be basic and colorless or include elements that improve their thermal, visual, and acoustic qualities, as well as many others.
Although less-used, Jumbo glass panels, measuring approximately 5.0 x 3.0 meters, are also an option. At  Dialum's processing plant in Santiago, Chile, one of the 10 most important plants in the world and one of the 5 most modernized in the Americas, they can produce panels measuring up to 6.0 x 3.3 meters, reaching almost 19 square meters and close to a ton of glass.
The panels surpassing 4.5 meters wide and 2.5 high could go so far as to be considered monumental glass.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第3张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

纪念性玻璃

一般来说,纪念性玻璃会用于建筑的一层、接待区以及大堂等位置,其尺度较大,看起来会有无缝的效果。为了达到精致的效果,这种玻璃必须和能够承重且不受控于结构的框架相结合使用。铝材较为经济,因此在建筑中的使用也比较广泛,但是,如果玻璃的高度超过了6米,那么铝材就应该和钢材结合使用,这也会让玻璃外框的尺寸加大。

那么,什么材料厚度又小,又能承重呢?答案是钢材。

Monumental Glass
Mainly used in first floors, reception areas, or Lobbies, Dialum's Monumental Panels produce impeccably seamless results thanks to their great size. To achieve this subtlety, it's essential to choose frames that can withstand the weight of the panels without dominating the structure. Aluminum is the most widely used in constructing frameworks thanks to its economical cost; however, for projects with glass panels measuring more than 6 meters high, the aluminum should be reinforced with steel, which adds to the size of the framework.
What material allows for slimmer frameworks while also being sturdy enough to withstand the weight of larger glass panels? Steel.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第4张图片

Image © Luc Roymans

金属框架

木材是人们最早开始使用的材料。但在20世纪初期,工业化与理性主义同时开始对建筑造成了影响,而钢材也逐渐发展成为门窗的首选,后来人们逐渐开始使用聚氯乙烯和铝材。在今天,钢材重新得以重视,其框架尺寸很小,但是又保持有一定的强度与耐用性。

Metallic Frameworks
Wood was the first material used in carpentry. At the beginning of the 20th century, around the same time when industrialization and Rationalism began to shape architecture, steel became the go-to material for the construction of doors and windows, before being replaced by the emergence of new technologies like PVC and aluminum. Today, steel is back on top, having evolved to minimize its dimensions without losing its strength and durability.  

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第5张图片

Cortesía de Jansen

Jansen的钢材框架的强度是铝材的三倍,并且还结合了经典美学和现代特征,呼应了玻璃的精致特征。为了拥有更大尺度的玻璃形态,诸如纪念性玻璃,铝材框架应当得以加强,构成更加复杂、尺度更大的结构体系。钢材框架与大型玻璃能够很好地搭配,保持玻璃精致且简约的形态。

Three times stronger than aluminum, Jansen's steel frameworks integrate classic aethetics and modern style that work in sync with the specifications of good glass work. To achieve larger glass fixtures, like the Glass Monuments, aluminum frameworks should be reinforced, resulting in a more complex and voluminous structure. Steel frameworks work well with larger glass fixtures while maintaining their clean and simple form.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第6张图片

Cortesía de Jansen

另外,钢材能够焊接,因此不会出现节点,也不会有弯曲和位移等问题。能够通过最少的步骤来完成最精致的任务。

Furthermore, the welding capacity of steel takes away the need for jointed unions, eliminating problems like bending and shifting. This enables us to undertake more complex designs with less effort.  

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第7张图片

Cortesía de Jansen

如何在每个建筑项目中选择最高效的玻璃制品

首选,建筑师需要了解项目的实际需求,并且了解门窗的特性与功能,但是有时候其中的花销很大,并且成果也不显著。其实,建筑师可以为不同的表面选用不同的玻璃,但是这个过程较为复杂。

因此,建筑师们需要综合考量各个要素,例如阳光直射、极端天气等问题。

How to choose the most efficient glass fixtures for every project
First, you need to understand the realistic needs of the project. You can add every available characteristic and property to your windows, but this usually turns out to be an exaggerated - and costly - move that won't benefit the final product in any significant way. In fact, you could choose different types of glass for every specific surface, but the project might end up being more complicated than necessary.
So we recommend looking for an integrated solution that addresses the predominant environmental conditions, for example, intense sun exposure or harsh cold.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第8张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

双层玻璃的重要作用

建筑师首先要了解,双层玻璃保证玻璃使用效率的最低要求,这对于热传递与遮阳方面表现得特别显著。在一些特殊的项目中,建筑师可以使用经过热处理的单层玻璃。


防晒功能

玻璃的选择

太阳能够散发光和热。在阳光直射较强的地区,既要保证室内的光线充足,又要尽可能为结构体系降温。

因此,建筑师应该研究玻璃的各种选项,然后进行筛选,控制进入室内的光线和热量的比例。玻璃的选择性能越高,其通过的光线与热量就越少。空间的冷却相较于升温要昂贵一些,因此在选择玻璃制品时要充分考虑这一要素。

The Importance of Double-Paned Glass in Every Project
Before seeking out more specific results, it's important to understand that double-paned windows are a minimum requirement to ensure the efficiency of glass fixtures in a project, especially in terms of the thermal transmittance and sun protection required by the structure based on its location and orientation. In special applications, you can use monolithic glass fixtures but they should be thermally treated.

Solar Protection

Glass Selectivity
Solar rays emit both heat and light energy. In areas with stronger sun exposure, it's important to avoid the overheating of the structure while at the same time allowing light to enter.
For this, you should research glass selectivity, choosing a glass fixture that filters and "selects" the specific percentages of light and heat that will enter the interior space. The more selective a glass, the more light and less heat that it will let pass through. It's three times more expensive to cool than to heat a space, making solar protection an essential factor to consider when choosing glass fixtures.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第9张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

热保护

双层玻璃

在寒冷气候中,空间的保温性能是建筑设计的关键要素。热量会从建筑中的最热区域传递到最冷区域,如果有开窗,热量就会分散。那么热量的损失会有多少?这和窗户的性能息息相关。

如果建筑师选择的是单层玻璃,那么就会损失较多的热量,如果选择双层玻璃,那么损失的热量就会减少一半,就是说可以节约50%的成本。但是,如果使用诸如Low-E等先进玻璃,那么就能节约80%的成本。

Thermal Protection

Double Paned Glass
In cold climates, a space's ability to retain heat is a key factor to address when designing and executing a project. The flow of heat passes from the warmest to the coolest areas of the structure, and if there is a window, heat escapes through it. How much heat is lost? That depends on how well your windows work.  
If you choose a monolithic (or single-paned) glass, you are losing a certain number of Watts per every square meter of window. This number can be cut in half if we install a basic double-paned window, saving you almost 50% in energy costs; however, with an even more advanced window fixture, like Low-E, which have low emissivity, you can save up to 80% on energy costs.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第10张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

声学性能

聚乙烯玻璃面板

在较为嘈杂的地区,双层玻璃能够很好地阻抗高频噪音,但是聚氯乙烯玻璃面板对此则更为有效,而且它还能有效地阻抗低频噪音,比如那种很难检测到但是对人的影响很大的持续嗡嗡声。

在诸如机场等极端情况下,加大玻璃面板之间的距离,能更有效消除噪音及其影响。

Acoustic Protection

Polyvinyl Panes
In noisy areas, double-paned glass is effective against high-frequency sounds and they can be even more effective with acoustic Polyvinyl panes, which protect against low-frequency noises as well (constant buzzing sounds that can be harder to detect but very irritating).
In extreme cases, such as airports, this solution could be even more effective by widening the space between the panes, which would significantly lower outside noise by decibels.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第11张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

防盗与安全保护

夹层玻璃

夹层面板由两层玻璃面板和中间的塑料薄膜构成,这样能够有更多的保护。想要打破玻璃,就必须打破第一层玻璃、塑料薄膜、第二层玻璃。因此,在建筑中如果想要维护使用者的安全,那么可以在天窗等窗户中应用夹层玻璃。

玻璃地面则可以多用几层夹层,来支撑荷载。

Anti-Theft Protection and Security

Laminated Glass
Laminate, made up of two glass panels with a plastic film between them, offers more protection against vandalism. To break through, you would have to break the first glass panel, then the plastic film, and then the second panel. This feature is especially important for skylights or other windows on the roof if you want to guarantee the security of the building's inhabitants.  
Glass floors require many layers of laminate to support the weight of the people walking on them.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第12张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

机械阻力与加热

钢化玻璃

钢化玻璃较重,但是也易碎,诸如热度增强等热处理方式促进了钢化玻璃的机械阻力,这种阻力能够达到普通玻璃的5倍。因此作为玻璃门,钢化玻璃是个好选择,因为玻璃门在启闭时会承受一些力。

如果建筑受到的阳光直射较多,就会面临由于温度过高导致玻璃表面破裂的风险。钢化玻璃则具有很好的耐热性与耐高温性。

Mechanical Resistance and Reheating

Tempered Glass
This glass is heavy but fragile. Thermal treatments like tempering or heat-strengthening increase glass' mechanical resistance up to 5 times that of non-treated glass. This is an excellent option for glass doors which have to withstand constant force when being opened or closed.
In buildings with high sun exposure and heat intake, there is a greater risk for breaks in their surfaces thanks to overheating. Tempered glass gives increased resistance to heat damage and high temperatures.  

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第13张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

太阳能控制与设计

丝网印刷/数码印刷

诸如数字印刷等表面印刷,包含一层通过加热来渗透进入玻璃的涂层。建筑师可以根据玻璃的形态来进行选择,例如图案、功能,或是太阳能性能。距离来说,如果在玻璃上增加白点,那么这就会在内部空间中构成阴影点。

在采光井中,就可以应用双点技术,比如依据某个比例在玻璃上绘制小点。玻璃的外部有着白色圆点,这可以反射阳光,减少阳光直射,而黑色的圆点则位于内部,起到遮挡阳光的作用,但是人们仍然可以看到室外空间。

对于项目的细致分析能够得到最高效的结果。在塔楼之中,许多施工方会结合使用上文描述的不同种类玻璃,即将双层玻璃、夹层玻璃、钢化玻璃结合起来。

Solar Control and Design

Screen Printing / Digital Printing
Surface printing, or digital printing, consists of applying a layer of paint that permeates the glass through heating. You can choose based on the look of the glass, like adding images, or the function, like solar performance. For example, if you add white points on the glass, this will create shade spots in the interior space.
In the case of light shafts, you can use the double point technique, painting dots over a certain percentage of the glass (for example, 50% of the surface). White dots are painted on the exterior and reflect the sunlight and prevent it from passing through while black dots painted on the interior, while blocking the sun, still allow you to see everything outside the window.   
Analyzing the particulars of every project will allow you to get the most effective results from the fixtures you choose to build with. In high towers, for example, many builders opt for a mix of the previously mentioned solutions, combining Double-paned, laminated, and tempered glass.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第14张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

耐火性

耐火玻璃/防火玻璃

这种玻璃有两个类型。首先,耐火玻璃能够阻止火焰和火灾中的有毒气体进入,而防火玻璃则可以阻止火灾的蔓延、温度的升高。防火玻璃就如同一道屏障,能够吸收部分热量,在一定时间内阻止火势的蔓延,因此,它又分为F30、F60、F90、F120几个等级。

Fire Resistance

Fire Resistant Glass / Firewall Glass
There are two types of this glass. First, you have fire resistant glass that stops the fire and the toxic gases (the principal cause of death during a fire) and then the fire wall which stops the fire, the toxic gases, and the increase in temperature. The latter acts as a barrier that absorbs the necessary percentage of heat that prevents the fire from spreading for a given amount of time (F30, F60, F90, F120).

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第15张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

重要考量

规范的重要作用

规范和条例能够在设计过程中成为指导方向,这包括在设计、建造整个过程,同时也减少了其他不合理选项。

在阿根廷,IRAM便是监督体系,在智利则为NCH,欧洲是EN,在美国,则是ASTM,诸如此类。在每一项规范之中,对于设计与施工都有不同的明确规定,另外还有根据国际标准进行产品的认证,比如夹层玻璃的ANSI SGCC和双层玻璃的IGCC。

如果对于项目有疑问,可以参考当地的规范,确保方案的有效性,同时在任何情况下,也都必须先对规范进行查阅,得到相应领域的专家支持。

Important Considerations

The Importance of Norms and Regulations
Regulations provide guidelines for executing processes correctly, be it manufacturing a product or designing and constructing and building, and eliminate the possibility of arbitrary decisions.
In Argentina, IRAM is the regulatory body, while in Chile it's the NCH, in Europe the EN, in the US the ASTM, and so on and so forth in every country in the world. Within every regulation, there are specifications that dictate every facet of design and construction and there are even certifications for products according to international testing, such as the ANSI SGCC (for laminated glass) and IGCC (for double-paned glass).
If you are unsure of the regulations that correspond with your project, it's possible to refer to the current regulations found in Europe or the United States as a way to ensure the efficacy of the solutions you have chosen for your project. In any case, it's essential to review the technical specifications of the products you have chosen and to ensure the support of the specialists from your supply companies.  

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第16张图片

Cortesía de Dialum

关键设计要素

• 相信专业人员:建筑师并不一定了解玻璃,同时也没必要专门去研究。但是如果选择错误,会造成长期的麻烦后果,比如空调成本的浪费;
• 了解玻璃的特性:地点、方向、功能、使用时间等其他变量;
• 越大的玻璃,也会越宽:玻璃至少需要有一些机械阻力;
• 玻璃的外观形态在安装之后不会有太大变化:一些外部条件会影响玻璃的形态。

Key Recommendations for Design
• Trust in the specialists' assessment: As architects, we're not necessarily experts in glass, nor do we have reason to be. Choosing the wrong solution could have grave long-term consequences, such as excessive air conditioning costs.
• Understand the project and the characteristics of the glass: Location, orientation, function, and specific hours of use, among other variables.
• The bigger the glass, the wider it should be: Or, at least, it should come with the necessary treatments to ensure its mechanical resistance.  
• When looking at the glass' appearance, verify that the appearance won't change once it is installed: Certain conditions can alter the appearance and behavior of glass.

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第17张图片

Image © Luc Roymans
        
玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第18张图片

Image © Luc Roymans

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第19张图片

Cortesía de Jansen

玻璃应用小贴士:种类和规模第20张图片

Image © Luis Izquierdo


【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

建筑 (10702 articles)


材料 (161 articles)


玻璃 (1789 articles)


规模 (8 articles)


类型 (8 articles)


框架 (3 articles)


聚乙烯 (4 articles)


钢化玻璃 (13 articles)