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马尔代夫最具代表性的生态度假村——The Westin度假村第1张图片


The Westin Maldives Resort / Peia Associati

由专筑网亚森君,王雪纯编译

2011年6月,芭环礁被联合国教科文组织列为世界生物圈保护区。对马尔代夫而言,这一重大成就使得其与印度尼西亚的科莫多岛、澳大利亚的乌鲁鲁(艾尔斯岩)和厄瓜多尔的加拉帕戈斯群岛一样,共同跻身为世界著名景点之一。

Baa Atoll was classified as a UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve in June 2011. This significant achievement for Maldives placed it within the elite categories of world famous sites such as Komodo island in Indonesia, Uluru (Ayer’s Rock) in Australia and the Galápagos Islands in Ecuador.

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1)旅游业是马尔代夫的经济支柱产业之一,但马尔代夫那每年以将近100万、以10%速度增长的游客数量所造就的繁荣景象,对当地50万的居民而言,是摧毁马尔代夫可持续发展经济的双刃剑。

2)由于两极的消融和气候变化,马尔代夫或将成为被海水淹没的首当其冲的国家之一。毕竟该岛的高度只在2.5米至1.2米之间,但未来50年海水或将上升50厘米。

3)度假区或许是实现可持续发展的最佳途径,因为只有这种情况下生态才真的意味着经济,不论是从煤油的成本到能源的生产,或是到微小的塑料污染。

1)Tourism is a major economical resource for the Maldives, but an economy destroying its own reason why for the 500.000 inhabitants and almost One Million of visitors per year with 10% annual increase.
2) Maldives will be one of the first lands to be submerged underwater due to the dissolution of the poles and climate changes. The height of the island ranges between 2,5 m and 1,2m with a forecasted 50 cm rise in the water level in the next 50 years
3) Resorts can be ideal opportunities to implement sustainability, where ecological would really mean economical from the cost of kerosene, to the production of energy, to the micro plastic pollution.

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在前期设计阶段,设计团队将上述所有前提条件都整合在一起,构思出一个基于现实的解决方案。而这个方案不仅能实现客户的目标,也可以作为地球上最复杂地区之一的可持续度假胜地对世界的宣言。

In the pre design phase, all of the above mentioned pre-conditions were integrated with the aim of conceiving a realistic solution. One that not only fulfills the client’s goals but also serves as a manifesto for sustainable resorts in one of the most intricate areas on the planet.

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本项目中,建筑与自然景观相互融合,并最大限度减少了人为因素对原有绿植的破坏(建造建筑并没有拆除现有的树木)和对栖息在珊瑚岛周围水域的海洋生物的干扰。

The architecture mirrors the natural elements of the island whilst minimizing the impact on the environment from the lush green foliage (where buildings were placed without the removal of existing trees), to the marine life that inhabit the waters around the coral island.

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经过规划,这个占地14英亩的岛屿被改造成了一个可容纳150名游客的度假村,包含70幢别墅和套房(岛上41个,水上29个)、3个餐厅、码头、迎宾大厦、健康中心、水上SPA、儿童俱乐部以及用于技术支持、储存和研讨会的辅助建筑等大量设施,共计98栋建筑,可支持25种复合类型功能,总体空间设计颇具特色。

This 14 acre island was transformed into a touristic village for 150 visitors with 70 villas and suites (41 on island and 29 overwater), 3 restaurants, arrival jetty, welcome building, wellness center, over water SPA, kids club and complementary buildings such as technical areas, storages, and workshops for 250 staff members with Back-of-House structures and MEP installations. The master plan includes 98 buildings with 25 alternating typologies and a unique integrated design.

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要知道,想在马尔代夫获得LEED认证几乎是不可能的事,因为所有材料都由进口获得,且电网能源是由柴油发电机供应。基于这些限制因素,设计秉承合理及可持续性的原则,最大限度地减少了化石能源消耗,同时还实行了“无塑料使用”的策略。(瓶装饮用水,只能由特定的瓶装厂、海水淡化厂和玻璃回收厂商经由定制后再行供应。)

Knowing that obtaining a LEED certificate is impossible in Maldives, due to the fact that all materials are imported and the out of grid energy system is supplied by diesel generators, the design follows binding rules that guarantee reasonable and affordable sustainability, from the maximum reduction of fossil energy consumption, to the all inclusive plastic free strategy.(the bottled drinking water only through a designed bottling plant and optimization of the desalination plant and a glass-recycling plant for other bottles for compaction and construction of building blocks).

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最大限度地减少度假村对环境的影响是设计的一个关键部分,通过与环境专家密切合作,设计团队找到了能够对抗沿海侵蚀的方法,同时通过计算海浪对岸边的压力与水位上升等级的关系,设计团队也更好地理解了如何在建筑设计中利用风力,以及如何保持屋内干燥,平衡由于季节性季风带来的天气变化。度假村的所有建筑都采用了白色的防水立方体建造,顶部是自然形状的木屋顶,并通过双层屋顶结构创造了一个自然通风系统。此种结构方式是以热吸收和热质量作为冷却剂。结果显示,与其他度假村相比,此处空调的使用率减少了40%。

Minimising the resort’s impact on the area was a key part of the design brief, working closely with environmental experts to find solutions that would combat coastal erosions, calculate wave pressure on the shore and the rising water levels ,better comprehend how to utilize winds within the architectural design, and how to adhere to the changes between dry and monsoon season that affect the island’s geometry and size. All of the resort’s buildings were constructed with waterproof white cubes topped by organic shaped timber roofs that create a natural ventilation system through the double roof structure. This combination of material allows heat absorption and thermal mass to act as a coolant. The result, shows a 40% decrease for the use of air conditions, when compared with other resorts.

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别墅的弧形屋顶的灵感源于对当地珍贵海洋生物(如海龟,鲸鲨和蝠鲼)的仿生设计;平屋顶则便于布置太阳能光伏板,以及便于水果和蔬菜的水培种植,这些策略都是为了最大限度地减少岛上对进口食物供应商的依赖。码头与儿童俱乐部的形态则与别墅形成了鲜明对比,他们更像是融合了巨型蛤蜊白色外壳与木偶奇遇记中白色鲸鱼的混合体。这些拉伸的结构形态,是由ETFE厂商所提供的镀锌轻白钢弯曲框架在顶部拉伸的结果,这些框架不仅耐海风侵蚀,也可抵挡海盐的腐蚀,在形态上如同白帆,可以最大限度的减少太阳直射带来的热量并增加反照效果。这些构筑物的形态显然是来源于空气动力学的影响,对乘飞机直达此处游览的游客们来说,在空中时看到这度假村时,即可将度假村的特征与海洋生物结合起来,因此这些形态十分受欢迎。这个经验告诉我们,在总体规划中鸟瞰图是启发游客感知本土特色的重要因素。

Contrasting the curved roof which mimic’s the local marine life jewels like turtles, whale sharks and mantas, the Back-of-House flat roofs are used for solar and photovoltaic panels as well as for hydroponic cultivation of fruits and vegetables to minimize unjustified imports to supply the need of food on the island. The shape of the arrival jetty and the kids club, have a clear analogy by mixing the white shell of a giant clam and the White or Pinocchio Whale. In both cases, a tensile structure supplied by ETFE fabric is stretched on top of a galvanized light white steel curved skeleton resistant to sea, wind and salt that creates the effect of white sails employed to minimize the heat of the sun and increase the Albedo effect. The shape is just an aerodynamic factor, however; it is appreciated by visitors due to the ability to instantly link it with marine life upon their arrival by seaplane. The aerial view of the master plan is an important factor in the perceptual approach.

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在材料方面,设计团队选择了来自指定造林地区的木材与快速成材的处理木材,以及其他度假村几乎不会使用的稀有柚木来进行装饰。因此,为了实现双屋面的弯曲形态,双屋面的结构是由胶合木材中的较小梁片形成。另外2栋公共建筑采用机械施工手段,对预制的构件进行现场组装,以减少能源运输与使用过程中的浪费。设计还考虑了“二次生命”的概念,以保证材料的可持续循环利用,例如用剩余的木桩来形成栅栏。

We opted to use engineered and fast-growing treated wood from controlled forestation areas for decking where other resorts used rare and endangered teak. For this reason and due to the curved shape, the structure of the double roofing is formed by smaller beam pieces in glue lam timber. As for the other 2 public buildings, mechanical construction was used, prefabricated buildings were assembled on site to reduce waste, energy usage and transportation needed. The design strategy applied the “second life” concept for most materials possible for example using the piles which were left to form a fence.

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潜水中心则是由改造后的集装箱组成,这些集装箱最初用于运输,后来又被当做工地的办公室。现在则采用悬臂式木材将其覆盖,配备了双层屋顶和交叉通风系统。防波堤的骨架采用预制混凝土系统建造,通过对海床的详细研究,设计师使用桩系代替基础基座,并尽可能减少了柱子的使用,从而最大限度减少了建造时间和建筑基础在珊瑚礁上的占地面积。防波堤的甲板不是由稀有的柚木制成的,而是由新西兰快速再造林种植园的热带松木木材制成。除了使用创新和耐用的材料外,室内设施还采用了天然材料,如小木材、死珊瑚和钙基灰泥。还有特定陶瓷饰面的地板、泳池和浴室中可持续的合成产品。所有水龙头都做了更为环保的处理,如选用不锈钢AISI 316,拒绝有害的镀铬材料。

The dive center, formed of refurbished shipping containers, were initially used for transportation and later as site offices, were covered with a cantilevered timber wood implementing the double roof and cross ventilation system. The skeleton of the jetties are built with the use of a prefab concrete system that, with specific studies of the sea bed, minimized construction time and footprint on the reef, with the least amount of columns possible, by using the piling system in place of foundation plinths. The jetty’s deck is not made of rare teak wood, but is made of tropical pine wood timber from New Zeeland’s fast reforestation plantations. Natural materials were used even for the interiors like small timber, dead corals and calcium-based plasters, in addition to the use of innovative and durable materials. For example creating particular ceramic finishings for the floors, incorporating sustainable synthetic products for pools and bathrooms. All taps and faucet are without hazardous and chrome finishing, but in “more green” and eternal Stainless Steel AISI 316.

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该度假村已于2018年11月开业,吸引了众多游客,当然他们欣赏的不仅是岛上独特的自然美和珊瑚礁,还有不同于马尔代夫其他度假村的建筑特色——一处真正兼顾地方风格与自然村落布局特色的度假区。度假村内设有环保目录,以激发游客的好奇心去观察度假村是建成过程。设计团队的意图是,通过更为强烈的建筑表现形式来刺激旅游业,使其意识到当前严峻的环境问题。

The resort opened in November 2018 and many visitors were attracted, not only by the unique natural beauty of the island and its coral reef, but by the architectural features unusual for the Maldives, where a false localism and a non-existent vernacular matrix prevail within the typical resort design. A green directory is present in the resort to stimulate the curiosity of the visitors with insights on how the resort was built. The intention is always, and here more than ever, to explain the architectural expressiveness, in order to stimulate tourism that is aware of environmental problems.

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项目信息:
年份:2018
设计时间:2017年
建成时间:2018年
主要结构:木材
业主:Belluna Tokyo,Asia Capital Colombo
承建商:三健海外(Pvt)有限公司
阶段:已建成所属类型:滨水区/港区/单户住宅/多户住宅/酒店/度假村/养生设施/spa/旅游设施/沙滩设施/餐厅/室内设计/定制家具/灯光设计/家具设计

Project details
Year: 2018
Work started in: 2017
Work finished in: 2018
Main structure: Wood
Client: Belluna Tokyo , Asia Capital Colombo
Contractor: Sanken Overseas (Pvt) Ltd
Status: Completed works
Type: Waterfront/Port Areas/Single-family residence/Multi-family residence/Hotel/Resorts/Wellness Facilities/Spas/Tourist Facilities/Beach Facilities/Restaurants/Interior Design/Custom Furniture/Lighting Design/Furniture design

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