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6项关于材料与建筑的思考:如何提高人们的生活质量第1张图片


6 Thoughts On Materials and Construction: Decisions That Improve People's Quality Of Life

由专筑网王雪纯,吴静雅编译

材料,产品和建筑系统遵循着新技术、新发现和市场趋势不断地发展。问题是:作为建筑师,我们是否也在一同进步?我们听说过在建筑工地上工作的机器人、智能材料,以及3D打印技术的持续发展,但是在开始新设计的那一刻,它们是否都是白噪声?更重要的是,这些新技术在没有敏感地甚至有效地考虑到人们的生活质量的情况下,它们能否继续发展?

我们应该如何使用传统形式和未来概念的材料——才能使我们的设计为人类的居住方式做出贡献?

为了发展,我们必须知道答案,我们值得对这些问题展开讨论。

Materials, products, and construction systems are constantly evolving and following new technologies, discoveries, and market trends. The question is: are we, as architects, evolving with them? We have heard about robots working on construction sites, responsive and intelligent materials and the continued rise of 3D printing, but is it all white noise at the moment of starting a new design? More importantly, could these new systems continue to progress without sensitively and effectively taking people's quality of life into account?
How should we use materials—both in their traditional forms and in their future conceptions—so that our projects are making relevant contributions to the way we are inhabiting our planet?
In order to evolve, we have to know how, so it’ s worth beginning a discussion around these issues.

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数字时代的结构与材料

作者:Antonia Piñeiro

由于建筑工人这个职业看似会一直存在,但建筑业的深层基层似乎在现代化方面有些落后。直到现在也是如此。

由可持续概念驱动的大型社会运动似乎是对促进当地手工艺生产力的经济系统作出的响应。在尊重环境的同时实现效率,这样的竞赛已成为推动行业融入新制造和建造流程的强大动力。快速大规模生产技术的发展——例如预制,3D打印和协助工作的电脑软件——已经被认为是第四次工业革命。

这些新技术和智能产品可以在多大程度地改变人们的生活质量?

诸如循环利用和智能生产(机械和高级生产系统的大规模开发)等概念试图减少传统材料和工艺的环境成本。投资商和承包商投资于劳动力培训和机器人技术,希望能改善劳动条件,并能形成更有效和安全的方法。建筑也开始通过家庭自动化接受人工智能,这对人们的日常生活有直接的影响。技术的确是实现保护环境和提供个人舒适的盟友。

“建筑业的缓慢革命为建筑设计提供了新的令人兴奋的机会。作为建筑师的挑战不是将这些机会留给其他领域的人士,而是让其他领域的人适应这些技术,支持共同的、宜居的和良好的设计。”

Construction and Materials in the Digital Era
By Antonia Piñeiro
With the seemingly permanent presence of the construction worker on site, the deep foundations of the construction industry seemed to be somewhat behind in relation to modernization. Until now.
Large social movements, driven by the concept of sustainability, have appeared as a contemporary reaction to economic systems that promote productivity over local artisanal work. The race to achieve efficiency while still respecting the environment has become a powerful driving force that moves the industry to incorporate new manufacturing and construction processes. The development of technologies for rapid mass production—such as prefabrication, 3D printing, and collaborative software—has come to be considered as a fourth industrial revolution.
To what extent can these new technologies and smart products make a difference in the quality of life of people all over the world?
Concepts such as up-cycling and intelligent manufacturing (large-scale development of machinery and high-level production systems) seek to counteract the environmental cost of traditional materials and processes. Stakeholders and contractors are investing in workforce training and robotics in the hopes of improving labor conditions and incorporating more efficient and safe methods. Architecture is also starting to embrace artificial intelligence through home automation, which has a direct impact on everyday life. Technology has been shown to be an ally in the pursuit of environmental protection as well as in individual comfort.
“The slow revolution in construction has opened new and exciting opportunities for architectural design. Our challenge as architects is not to leave these opportunities in the hands of other professionals, but to appropriate them to use them in favor of community, livability, and good design.”

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通用设计和自动化:有利于健康的材料

作者:José Tomás Franco

“无障碍”在我们的建筑设计中是必不可少的。虽然这通常与强制性法规相关(在每个国家都有所不同),但是对不同人群的考虑和关心应该是建筑的所有元素和空间中存在的本质的一部分。

但无障碍性不仅仅是一个设计问题。材料和系统的选择很大程度上决定了人与建筑空间的互动方式。此外,一些建筑可能会因产品和材料选择不当而受到破坏。

例如,在有视力障碍的人群的情况下,纹理和环境条件(例如温度和声学)是很重要的,建筑必须具有高对比度的颜色处理。在室内和室外,触觉表面可以帮助提供纹理代码以方便视障人士的运动。还可以结合盲文系统,声学设备或GPS以支持所有这些操作。对于行动不便的人,可以设定防滑表面,允许他们能在表面上移动轮椅或用拐杖行走;在墙壁和危险区域(如楼梯和浴室)添加支撑配件也是设计的关键。

智能家居设备和自动化是实现无障碍性的一些主要设施,允许残疾用户通过传感器和预定环境使用空间。创意地使用一些可用的材料和产品能提供意想不到的甚至更好的结果(如果您认为不可能,请查看由So&So Studio设计的这个神奇的房子)。我们迫切希望看到这种意识的建立——仅仅基于常识——能使建筑师将智能元素加入空间设计。

Universal Design and Automation: Materials That Favor Wellness
By José Tomás Franco
Accessibility in our architectural designs is something that shouldn’t have to be discussed. Although it’s something that is usually associated with mandatory regulations (that vary in each country), the awareness of and care for the different people that will use our projects should be part of the essential essence present in all of its elements and spaces.
But accessibility is not just a design issue. The choice of materials and systems greatly determines the way users interact with the built space. Furthermore, some architectural decisions can be undermined by a poor selection of products and materials.
In the case of people with visual impairments, for instance, textures and environmental conditions (such as temperature and acoustics) gain importance, as well as the handling of colors, which must have a high level of contrast. In both interiors and exteriors, tactile surfaces can help to deliver textured codes that facilitate the movement for the visually impaired. Braille systems, acoustic devices or GPS can also be incorporated to support all these operations. For those with reduced mobility, slip-resistant surfaces can be specified to allow movement in a wheelchair or walking with a cane; adding support accessories on walls and in dangerous areas, such as stairs and bathrooms are also key to designing for reduced mobility.
Smart home devices and automation could be some of the main tools to achieve more universal accessibility, allowing users with disabilities to use the spaces through sensors and predetermined environments. Being creative with available materials and products is something that can also offer unexpected and even better results (if you don't think it's possible, check out this amazing house designed by So & So Studio). We are eager to see how this conscience –based simply on common sense– will force architects to intelligently rethink spatial design.

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舒适的密集城市:共享小规模的生活

作者:Eduardo Souza

城市是人类最伟大的集体成就。到2050年,地球将有近100亿人口,其中有约60%的城市人口。就算以可持续的方式设计基础设施,但要为所有人提供充分的服务,规划师,建筑师和政治家会因此焦头烂额。同时,我们的生活方式也会不可避免地发生变化。

尽管经过数十年的实验,密度和生活质量之间的关系似乎仍然是一个悬而未决的问题。摩天大楼还是低层建筑?小房子也可以是很好的选择,利用以前废弃的空间。各种形式的公共空间消解了我们先入为主的家庭观念:共享区域,混合用途空间,集体厨房,社区区域等。设计适应这些新需求的建筑是至关重要的,我们作为建筑师,需要深入了解材料,以便充分利用它们。

设备,家具和新技术变得越来越灵活、高效和“智能”,能提供舒适性并改善居民在私人和公共场所的生活。我们需要重新考虑自然资源的使用和保护以及空间限制——无论极小型住宅、大型多户住宅、人行道或城市公园—— 建筑师都有很大的责任去选择能够让人有尊严地生活的材料和结构。人们在未来,可供设计的面积超出平方米。

Dense but Dignified Cities: Shared and Small-scale Life
By Eduardo Souza
Cities are the greatest collective achievement of human beings. By 2050, almost 10 billion people will share our planet, with about 60 percent of them living in cities. Thinking about all of the infrastructures to adequately serve the entire population, in a sustainable way, is something that causes anxiety for planners, architects, and politicians. But it’s inevitable that our way of life must also change.
The relationship between density and quality of life still seems like a still-pending issue after decades of experimentation. Skyscrapers or low rise blocks? Tiny houses can also be good options, occupying previously disused spaces. Various forms of cohabitation dematerialize our preconceived notions of home: with shared areas, mixed-use spaces, collective kitchens, community zones, among others. It's vital that architectural products adapt to these new demands and that we, as architects, delve into understanding the materials in order to get the most out of them.
Equipment, furniture and new technologies have become increasingly flexible, efficient and “smart” to provide comfort and to improve coexistence of citizens in both private and public spaces. Whether it's the need to rethink the use and conservation of natural resources or space constraints—in extremely small homes, massive multifamily housing, or in sidewalks and urban parks—architects have a great responsibility to choose materials and systems that will allow a dignified life for people in the future, beyond the square meters available to design.

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翻新:专注于心理健康的室内设计

作者:Soledad Sambiasi

随着神经科学研究的兴起,室内设计领域在过去十年中发展迅速。有几个神经科学研究发现与室内设计及其主要原则有关:平衡,比例,对称和节奏都对我们的情绪反应有直接影响。有许多项目进行了深入研究,例如明尼苏达大学的对零售空间中天花板高度的研究,其中“三个实验研究了高(10英尺)和低(8英尺)天花板高度对个体自由与禁闭概念的影响,以及这些影响是否影响信息处理”。 研究人员得出结论,天花板高度直接影响个人的自由,创造力和专注概念,也证明了他们的情绪得到了显着改善。

随着城市变得更加密集,我们在建筑物内将花费更多时间,室内设计成为决定人们生活质量的关键因素,因为它直接影响我们情绪的健康。

办公空间也在发生巨大变化。二十年前,霍沃思的企业客户只保留了大约10%的空间工作公共用途;如今这一比例接近40%。随着现在这种新的工作动态,更多的公司分配资源来投资室内设计。关于这个具体问题,有一些有趣的发现和举措,例如Herman Miller的“生活办公室”,或者Velux开发的关于日光对我们日常生活影响的研究。

因此,与色彩,照明,宽敞度,家具和自然元素相关的决定可以有意识地塑造人类的反应,如创造力,和平感和幸福感。随着城市的密集化,新建筑物的空间将会减少,翻新工程也将获得成功。

Refurbishment: Focusing On Interiors to Impact Psychological Health
By Soledad Sambiasi
With the rise of studies in neuroscience, the field of interior design has evolved at a very fast pace during the past decade. Several discoveries have been made related to how interior design and its main principles: balance, proportion, symmetry, and rhythm have a direct impact on our emotional responses. There are many studies that dig deeper into this, for example the Ceiling Height in Retail Spaces study, from the University of Minnesota, where "three experiments investigated the effects of high (10 ft) and low (8 ft) ceiling height on individuals’ notions of freedom versus confinement, and whether such effects influenced information processing". [1] Researchers concluded that ceiling height has a direct impact on the individual’s notion of freedom, creativity, and focus, it also proved how their mood is significantly improved.
As cities become more dense and we spend more time inside buildings, interior design becomes a key factor in determining the quality of life of people, particularly because of its direct impact on our emotional health.
Office space is dramatically changing as well. Twenty years ago, Haworth’s corporate clients reserved around 10 percent of space for communal use; today it’s closer to 40 percent. With the new working dynamics of this generation, more companies allocate resources to invest in redesigns and new furniture. Regarding this specific issue, there are interesting discoveries and initiatives such as Herman Miller’s 'Living Office', or the research developed by Velux in relation to the impact of the daylight in our daily life.
Thus, decisions related to color, lighting, spaciousness, furniture and natural elements can consciously shape human responses such as creativity, peace, and happiness. As cities densify, there will be less space for new buildings and refurbishment will gain ground.

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处理最小空间的环境质量

作者:Audrey Migliani

2019年的居民正在被越来越多地视为“室内一代”,他们生活在混凝土环境中,周围几乎没有植被存在。主要存在的问题是人们缺乏与自然联系;户外带来的优势任何技术都无法再现。例如,阳光可加速新陈代谢,提高皮质醇和褪黑激素,激素的含量,直接影响睡眠质量,从而影响日常健康。此外,医生和专家说,自然通风可以减少过敏,烦躁和呼吸问题。

在森林中间​​的房子或海边的建筑物中很容易提供这些条件,但在过度拥挤的城市中就不是那么简单了。对于当今和未来的建筑师来说,最大的挑战之一是在多户住宅建筑中提供健康的生活空间,其中小型住宅单元是当代大都市的特色。

如果我们真正了解可用的选项(特别是如果我们想要避免消耗大量电能的空调或排气系统),那么使用尽可能高效的产品和材料。在新的项目中,可以选择安装双层玻璃(或反光)PVC框架,以获得更温暖和更安静的环境。或考虑采用Brises-Soleil和通风外墙等系统,因为它们可显着改善自然通风和光照。对于无法进行翻修的建筑物,可以采取措施以达到足够的隔音效果。理想的是采用隔音毯和更安静的地板,如乙烯基或凸起造型,因为它们可以作为隔音屏障。石膏板可以在隔壁公寓之间衰减高达30 dB,因此它在设计过程中也是一个很好的选择。

然而,当这些投资或变化无法实现时,我们仍然会有一些有趣的选择:木材和石膏板带来热量;浅色和石头有助于降温。家具较少的房间有利于空气流动,这是非常好的。而且众所周知,盆栽植物可以增加空间的新鲜度,因此在阳光照射最多的墙壁上种植垂直花园是很有用的。

对人们身体健康的积极影响设计是一项重要且有价值的挑战,可以恢复我们职业的相关性。

Dealing With The Environmental Quality of Minimum Spaces
By Audrey Migliani
The 2019 citizen is being considered, more and more, as part of an 'indoor generation' who lives surrounded by concrete and almost no vegetation around. The major concern is the lack of connection with nature; the outdoors brings advantages that no technology can ever reproduce. Sunlight, for example, speeds up metabolism and improves levels of cortisol and melatonin, hormones that directly influence sleep quality and, consequently, daily well-being. In addition, doctors and experts say that natural ventilation decreases allergies, irritability and breathing problems.
It's easy to deliver these conditions in a house in the middle of the forest, or in a building by the sea, but it becomes more complex in an overcrowded city. One of the great challenges for architects today—and in the future—is to provide healthy living spaces in multi-family buildings with small housing units that are characteristic of the contemporary metropolis.
Being as efficient as possible using the right products and materials can be easy if we truly appreciate the available options (especially if we want to avoid using air conditioners or exhaust systems that will consume a large amount of electrical energy). In new projects, a good option is the installation of double-glazed (or reflective) PVC frames, to get warmer and quieter environments. Systems such as Brises-Soleil and ventilated facades should be considered as they significantly improve natural ventilation and light. For buildings where refurbishment is out of question, it’s possible, for example, to take actions to achieve adequate levels of soundproofing. it's ideal to adopt an acoustic blanket and quieter floors such as vinyl or raised options because they act as a noise barrier for neighbors. Drywall attenuates up to 30 dB between next-door apartments, so it’s also a good ally in the design process.
However, when these investments or changes are not possible, we still have interesting alternatives: wood and drywall bring heat; light colors and stones help to get cooler. Rooms with less furniture facilitate air flow which is pretty good. And it's also known that potted plants increase the freshness of the space, so it's useful to plant a vertical garden on the wall that has the most sunlight exposure.
Our positive influence on the good health of people is an important and valuable challenge, that could restore the relevance of our profession.

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原始建筑:外露材料的质量和美感

作者:Eduardo Souza

涂层可以改善室内的热舒适性,同时还可以产生美观均匀的外立面,甚至可以隐藏一些立面上错误和不准确之处。然而,巴西“Brutalismo Paulista”的先驱之一Vilanova Artigas在许多其他事情中辩护说,“工人之手”应该在最后的工作中显而易见,以显示谁真正建造了这座建筑。这是现代巴西建筑的一个不变的方面,只要有可能,原材料就会被凸显。

这些决策往往更多地考虑到审美方面而不是技术或经济问题,但不可否认的是,原材料创造了更多的历史。无论是支撑混凝土模具的钉子的遗产,还是显示树木生命的木材的结和纤维,它都恢复了工艺感和独特性,而这在更均匀的结构中,这些历史特征并不明显。

虽然看似矛盾,但制作材料是一种更昂贵的选择,因为在生产的所有阶段都需要更加小心。然而,它的美丽使它仍然成为所有类型客户的选择,建筑行业通过开发产品以及适当的价格提供自然和质朴的结果——来自新型混凝土和模制品,来自密封剂和保护剂,木材和砖块以及金属和玻璃,具有新的热学和美学特性。同样,关键是做出正确的搭配并加深每种材料的固有特征。

寻求模仿他人的低质量材料在本地法规薄弱的市场中获得了空间,投资者也在努力降低成本。在竞争激烈的建筑世界中,有着不可预测性的原材料似乎并不受欢迎。但是,在一个似乎越来越失去与真实自然联系的世界里,不断重复“回归”原材料——永远不会忘记 ——建筑的表面那种惊喜的粗糙的感触难道不是很重要的吗?

也许这是接受这些新技术的好方法,同时又不失去敏感性,正是这种敏感性让我们选择了这个职业。

图片:José Tomás Franco

Raw Architecture: The Quality and Beauty of Exposed Material

By Eduardo Souza
Cladding can improve the thermal comfort of interiors while also generating aesthetically uniform façades. And they can also hide some errors and inaccuracies during the constructive stage. However, Vilanova Artigas, one of the forerunners of Brazilian “Brutalismo Paulista”, defended, among many other things, that "the hands of the workers" should be apparent in the final work to show who actually made the building. This was a constant facet of Modern Brazilian Architecture, where raw materials were left, whenever possible, apparent.
These kinds of decisions often take the aesthetic aspect more into account than technical or economic issues, but it’s undeniable that raw materials carry much more history. Whether it is the legacy of the nail that supported the concrete mold or the knots and fibers of the wood that show the life of the tree, it revives a sense of craftsmanship and exclusivity that’s not apparent in more uniform construction.
Although it seems contradictory, making materials visible is a more expensive choice, since it requires greater care during all stages of production. However, its beauty makes it still an option required by all types of customers, and the construction industry has responded to this by developing products that deliver natural and rustic results with moderate prices–from new types of concrete and moldings, from sealants and protectors for wood and bricks and to metals and glass with new thermal and aesthetic properties. Again, the key is to make the right choices and to deepen the inherent behavior of each material.
Layers and layers of low-quality materials seeking to imitate others have gained space in markets with weak local regulations and with investors that push the reduction of costs. The unpredictability of the future of raw materials doesn't seem to be very welcome in the competitive world of construction. But, in a world that seems to be losing more and more its connection to real nature, wouldn't it be important to continually 'return' to the effects of raw materials to learn –and never forget– the feel, roughness, and surprises of its surfaces?
Perhaps it's a good way to embrace these new technologies, without losing the sensitivity that made us choose this profession in the first place.

[1] Joan Meyers-Levy and Rui (Juliet) Zhu. (2007). The Influence of Ceiling Height: The Effect of Priming on the Type of Processing That People Use. January 2019, from InformeDESIGN <https://www.informedesign.org/Rs_detail/rsId/3387>

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