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食品工业副产品的再利用——来自动物皮骨的食品包装第1张图片


Valdís Steinarsdóttir将动物的皮骨制成食品包装
Valdís Steinarsdóttir turns animal skin and bones into food packaging

由专筑网Cortana,小R编译

冰岛设计师Valdís Steinarsdóttir将肉类工业的副产品变成一种容器,这种容器由骨头和一种生物塑料材料制成,主要用于包装。

在Just Bones项目中,Steinarsdóttir用动物的碎骨制作了容器,Bioplastic Skin项目则是将动物的皮转化为相应动物肉品的包装材料。

这两种材料都可以在热水中溶解,并在数周内进行生物降解。

Icelandic designer Valdís Steinarsdóttir is turning byproducts from the meat industry into vessels made of bone and a bioplastic material for packaging.
The Just Bones project saw Steinarsdóttir create containers from ground animal bones, while Bioplastic Skin transforms animal skin into packaging for the same creature's meat.
Both materials dissolve in hot water and biodegrade within weeks.

食品工业副产品的再利用——来自动物皮骨的食品包装第2张图片


她试图提出新方式来重复利用屠宰场产生的大量废物。

“我发现肉制品加工是一个非常难且极具道德挑战的话题。”Steinarsdóttir说。

“事实上,正是这样的情况激励我走得更远,作为一位设计师,我们需要直面并设法去解决那些令人感到不舒适的问题。”

“为了有新的发现,我们通常要回顾过去,重新思考已接收的规范和既定的做事方式。”她补充道。

Her designs are an attempt to come up with new ways of reusing the amount of waste that is produced by slaughterhouses.
"I found meat processing to be both an extremely hard and morally challenging topic to explore," Steinarsdóttir told Dezeen.
"In fact, that was exactly what inspired me to go further, because I think as designers we need to be unflinching and ready to tackle uncomfortable issues."
"To make new discoveries, it is often good to look backwards and rethink accepted norms and established ways of doing things," she added.

食品工业副产品的再利用——来自动物皮骨的食品包装第3张图片


Steinarsdóttir从当地的屠宰场和农民那里获取材料,然后将它们转化为新材料。Just Bones的碗和花瓶都是用先进的砂浆机将骨头磨成粉末制成。

她将这一过程比作中密度纤维板的制作过程,中密度纤维板是将木材分解成细小的颗粒,用蜡和树脂黏合剂粘合在一起。

设计师通过将骨头放入酸果提取物中煮沸收集明胶,创造出可以粘合容器的胶水。

“首先当我混合材料时,它是液体状态,这样我便可以对它进行造型,类似于制作陶瓷的过程。一旦它变干,就会变得坚硬,我就可以用钻、锯或激光切割。”她解释道。

“此种材料可以生物降解,这是我所有材料研究的关键部分。”

Steinarsdóttir sources her materials from local slaughterhouses and farmers before transforming them into new materials. The bowls and vases for Just Bones are made by grinding down the bones to a powder, using an advanced mortar machine.
She likens the process to the creation of MDF, which is made by breaking down wood into fine particles that are bound together by wax and a resin binder.
The designer creates the glue that works as a binder for her vessels by putting the bones in sour fruit extract and then boiling them to collect the gelatine.
"First when I mix the material it is liquid so I can mould it, similar to moulding ceramics. Once it has dried, it becomes strong and I can drill, saw, and laser cut it, for example," she explained.
"The material is biodegradable, which is a crucial part of all my material research."

食品工业副产品的再利用——来自动物皮骨的食品包装第4张图片


用骨头制成的容器只要干燥就能够保持坚固,但并不防水,在热水中一周左右时间就会溶解。

不同颜色的器皿是由Steinarsdóttir在不同温度下加热材料所致,所有作品均出自她手。

“因为我制作的材料量比较小,所以我都自己准备。”她说,“我觉得这是项目的重要组成部分,我很想参与这个过程。”

The bone vessels stay firm as long as they're dry, but aren't waterproof and will dissolve in hot water in about a week.
The different colours of the vessels are created by Steinarsdóttir – who produces all her products herself – heating the bones at different temperatures.
"Because I make the material on a small scale, I prepare the bones myself," she said. "I find it an important part of the project because I want to stay close to the process."

食品工业副产品的再利用——来自动物皮骨的食品包装第5张图片


与Just Bones相似,Bioplastic Skin也被设计为容器,但它是由兽皮制成的更薄的材料, Steinarsdóttir设想将其用于食品包装,并基于一种古老的的方法来设计其生产过程。

“Bioplastic Skin的制作过程是通过煮沸兽皮来收集明胶。”她解释道。

“几个世纪以来,人们一直在使用这种方法来制作粘木头胶水。我对这种工艺进行了改进,以便创造出类似塑料的材料。”

Similar to Just Bones, Bioplastic Skin was created as containers, but it's a thinner material made from animal skins that Steinarsdóttir envisions being used for food packaging. The designer based its production process on a historic method.
"The process of making Bioplastic Skin involves boiling animal hides to collect gelatine," she explained.
"People have been using this method for centuries to make wood glue. I modified this process in order to create the plastic-like material."

食品工业副产品的再利用——来自动物皮骨的食品包装第6张图片


“我发现材料的自然状态是没有弹性的,所以实验需要找到干燥材料的最佳方法,以确保其不会变形。”她补充道。

“为了让材料变得柔软,我尝试着将不同比例的糖醇混入其中,以获得各种不同柔软程度的材料。”

"I found that the natural state of the material is inelastic so the experimentation involved finding the best way of drying the material correctly so it would not deform," she added.
"To make the material soft I experimented with mixing different ratios of sugar alcohol into it, to get a variety of flexibility."

食品工业副产品的再利用——来自动物皮骨的食品包装第7张图片


和用骨头制成的容器一样,Bioplastic Skin也是可生物降解的,Steinarsdóttir希望它最终可以被用到同一动物肉品的包装上,创造一种可持续的肉类包装方式。

这种需要几周时间进行生物降解的包装可作为食品新鲜程度的视觉标识。

“我希望材料的有效期可以和肉品一致。”设计师说。

“所以你可以不看食品的最佳食用日期,而是通过看包装本身是否变质来判断里面的产品是否过期。”

Like the bone vessels, the Bioplastic Skin packaging is biodegradable and Steinarsdóttir hopes it could eventually be used to contain meat from the same animal as the skin it came from, creating a more sustainable way of packaging meat.
The packaging, which takes a few weeks to biodegrade, could become a visual indication of how fresh the products it contains is.
"I would like the material to have the same expiration date as the meat inside it," the designer said.
"So instead of a best before date, you could see if the packaging itself is turning bad to determine if the product inside is expiring."

食品工业副产品的再利用——来自动物皮骨的食品包装第8张图片


使用这类材料不仅有助于避免浪费,还可以帮助充分利用有限的资源。

“我生活在一个岛上,在这里,人们必须意识到材料缺乏的问题。”Steinarsdóttir说,“从不同的角度探索废弃物,找到新的利用机会,这很重要。”

“在这个项目中,我的目的不是为了让动物产品有更多的需求,而是利用已有的东西来减少浪费,并尝试用废弃的材料来发掘它们的全部潜力。”

Steinarsdóttir入围了Dezeen Awards 2020年度新锐设计师。

一些设计师正在研究如何利用废品和有机材料创造新材料。Kathrine Barbro Bendixen用牛肠设计了灯具,而今年的首届James Dyson可持续发展奖则授予了Carvey Ehren Maigue用作物废料制作的太阳能板。

Using these kinds of materials doesn't just help to avoid waste, but can also help make the most out of limited resources.
"I live on an island where one has to be aware of materials or perhaps, the very lack of materials," Steinarsdóttir said. "It’s important to explore discarded matter from different perspectives and find new opportunities for utilisation."
"In this case, my aim is not to make more demand for animal products, rather use what is already there to reduce waste and experiment with disposed materials to discover their full potential."
Steinarsdóttir was shortlisted for emerging designer of the year at the Dezeen Awards 2020.
A number of designers are working on ways of creating new materials from waste products and organic materials. Kathrine Barbro Bendixen has designed sculptural lights from cows intestines, while this year's inaugural James Dyson sustainability award went to Carvey Ehren Maigue's solar panels made from waste crops.

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