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真正的光影魔术手——诺曼·福斯特第1张图片

© Rudi Meisel. Image Reichstag New German Parliament / Foster + Partners

为什么福斯特总是在建筑中强调自然光?
Why Norman Foster Scoops Daylight into his Buildings

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

许多建筑师都认为,通过窗户便能给室内充足的光线,但是建筑大师诺曼·福斯特对来自头顶的天光有着特别的需求。这位英国明星建筑师痴迷于路易斯·康、阿尔瓦·阿尔托的光线处理方式。在大型公共建筑中应用这些策略,能够创造让人舒适的空间效果。因此福斯特总是认为在诸如机场或是高层建筑等项目中,顶光的设置必不可少。但是这不仅仅是从美学的角度,福斯特认为:“除了自然光包含的人文与诗意之外,同时还具有能量。”

While many architects consider windows for brightening interior spaces, Norman Foster is intrigued by natural light from above. The British star architect has long held Louis Kahn and Alvar Aalto in high esteem for how they handled daylight - especially with regard to the roof. In particular large public buildings benefit from this strategy creating enjoyable spaces. Therefore, Foster regards daylight from above as indispensable when he develops megastructures for airports on the ground or tall skyscrapers for work. But daylight from above is much more than an aesthetic dimension, remarks Foster: "Quite apart from the humanistic and poetic qualities of natural light there are also energy implications."

真正的光影魔术手——诺曼·福斯特第2张图片

Stansted Airport / Foster + Partners. Image © Dennis Gilbert

伦敦斯坦斯特德机场(Stansted Airport)由福斯特设计,这座建筑包含有屋顶管道系统、吊顶、屋顶空调设备体系,以及灯具。总的来说,其中有大量的辅助设施,因此很难有自然采光。相比之下,其屋顶体系仍然独一无二。福斯特说:“建筑的设计表达了自然采光,其表面设置有一定比例的玻璃,让光线能够进入室内,而内部的‘日光反射镜’也能够将光线反射到天花板之中。在夜晚,人造光线能够达到同样的效果。”

At the time Foster designed Stansted Airport, typical architectural features of the typology included roof ductwork, suspended ceilings, roof-mounted air-conditioning units, and fluorescent lighting. In short, a lot of structural and servicing redundancy and very little natural light. By contrast, the roof of Stansted is unique."Its design is dedicated to natural light," explains Foster "with a proportion of the surface glazed to let sunlight in, and 'daylight reflectors' inside that bounce the light back up on to the sculptural shape of the ceiling. At night, artificial light achieves the same effect."

真正的光影魔术手——诺曼·福斯特第3张图片

© Nigel Young, Foster + Partners. Image Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong / China, 1986. Architecture: Foster and Partners.

为了做到这一点,福斯特将传统的航站楼模型翻转过来,并且将所有的重型设备都放置在主要大厅的空间下部。“我们将屋顶打开迎接太阳和光线。这种成果并不只是为了节约资源,同时还能够带来诗意的空间感受。”他在后来的航站楼设计项目中同样应用了这一策略,包括香港或北京的项目,其中顶光的作用不容忽视。

福斯特的灵感来自于美国国家航空航天局(NASA )太空实验室Skylab的能源收集面板,他在香港或上海银行的高科技项目中应用了这些策略。为了收集更多的太阳光,福斯特设计了这样的方案,即把太阳引入中庭的底部,然后通过镜面反射到地面层或广场。如果没有可利用的日光,这个概念就能够反过来应用,即夜晚的人造光同样能够照亮广场。通过日光来连接整座建筑的概念并不新奇,对于后来的项目,福斯特同样实现了没有大型动态采光体系中庭的做法,其中包括法兰克福商业银行项目。

To achieve this, Foster turned the conventional terminal model upside down and placed all the heavy equipment underneath the main concourse."We were able to open up the roof to sunshine and light. The results were not just great savings in energy, but also a far more poetic spatial experience." He repeated this approach in later terminal projects, including the ones in Hong Kong or Beijing the roof lights played an integral role again.
Inspired by the images of the NASA Skylab with panels for energy harvesting, Foster went a technical step further for his high-tech project Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank. In order to collect more sunlight, Foster devised a scheme where the sun would be scooped into the base of the atrium and bounced off mirrors to of the high and deep building. Mirrors reflect the daylight through the translucent glass floor of the plaza to the ground. If no daylight is available anymore, he turns the concept back: "At night the situation is reversed by light glowing through from below so that the plaza floor itself becomes crystalline and jewel-like." Linking the idea of daylight from above for office buildings is not new like the Willis Faber building in Ipswich from 1975 demonstrates. For later headquarters, Foster mainly realized atriums without large dynamic daylight system, like the Commerzbank in Frankfurt.

真正的光影魔术手——诺曼·福斯特第4张图片

Canary Wharf Station / Foster + Partners. Image © Nigel Young

这位英国建筑师甚至连地下的机会也不放过,他将日光引入地下,为使用者带来方向感,同时构成自然的气息。毕尔巴鄂地铁站和金丝雀码头地铁站(Canary Wharf)的玻璃入口也让日光进入车站内部。其设计概念来源于街道上的玻璃自动扶梯,玻璃自动扶梯将人们引入地下层,而阳光可以指引使用者来到地面,增强了方向感。

The British architect has even looked into the underground for opportunities to bring down as much daylight as possible to enhance orientation and to create a natural atmosphere. The glass-covered entrances at the Metro in Bilbao and the Canary Wharf Underground Station draw the daylight deep into the concourse. His concepts started at the street level with glass escalators guiding downwards. The pools of daylight indicate the commuters the exit after leaving the train and reduce the need for orientation signage.

真正的光影魔术手——诺曼·福斯特第5张图片

© Tim Street Porter.. Image Willis Building / Foster + Partners

柏林国会大厦已经有了采光穹顶,但是福斯特在设计时仍然强调了穹顶的应用。为大众而设计的螺旋形步道只是一个方面而已。福斯特还特别设计了一些镜面,来适应反射水平光线,这些光线会进入下方的空间,从而获得柔和的照明效果。这里有着充足的日光,因此需要控制眩光。穹顶上的大型遮阳板为人们带来视觉上的舒适感。另外,大型遮阳板也遵循了阳光的路径,同时为使用者阻挡过于强烈的日光。晚上,顶部的镜面被用在相反的方向,创造了一个城市标志的灯塔,办公室天花板上的聚光灯圈向上发出耀眼的光芒,为各项功能提供了便捷可控的设施。

Although the old Reichstag in Berlin already had a dome to admit daylight for the chamber beneath, Foster's redesign of the dome fulfilled more functions. Offering a spiral walkway for the public was just one side aspect. Additional mirrors were individually adjusted to reflect horizon light into the space below for soft general illumination. But with so much daylight, glare control is a crucial issue. The large sun-shield in the dome offered the necessary visual comfort for the politicians and television broadcasting. The large element follows the path of the sun but blocks the harsh direct sunlight. At night, the mirrors in the cupola are used in the opposite direction to create a beacon of light as an urban sign. In addition, a ring of spotlights at the chamber ceiling took the direction of daylight up offering a fully controllable infrastructure for all functions and times.

真正的光影魔术手——诺曼·福斯特第6张图片

Reichstag New German Parliament / Foster + Partners. Image © Nigel Young

从福斯特早期作品与近期作品之间的显著区别来看,人们能够感受到曾经更为定性的认知方面。自然光可以激发视觉感受,同时促进血液回流。这种性能提升的能力能够为大量高端项目提供更高的投资资金。光线作为一种定性资产,转变为量化资源,这也极大地促进了建筑行业的实践转变。福斯特曾经说过:“人文主义有着诗意与精神的层面,对我来说,建筑的‘呼吸’方式来源于技术,而亲近则来源于自然。”

What is fascinating about the difference between Foster's early and more recent projects is that one can now quantify cognitive aspects that were previously more qualitative. The physiological response to visually stimulating environments with natural light can be measured; increased patterns of blood flow would reach distinct zones of the brain. The ability to prove long-term performance increases has allowed the practice to justify higher invesment costs for a wide-range of high-end projects. The shift from viewing light as a qualitative asset to a quanitfiable resource has dramatically shifted the way the firm practices. As Foster remarks: "That humanistic, that poetic and spiritual dimension is for me completely wrapped up with the technology of how the building eventually 'breathes' and communes with nature."

真正的光影魔术手——诺曼·福斯特第7张图片

Stansted Airport / Foster + Partners. Image © Nigel Young

真正的光影魔术手——诺曼·福斯特第8张图片

Reichstag New German Parliament / Foster + Partners. Image © Flickr user Guillén Pérez

真正的光影魔术手——诺曼·福斯特第9张图片

Canary Wharf Station / Foster + Partners. Image © Nigel Young


“Light matters”是“光与空间”的专栏,由Thomas Schielke博士撰写。Thomas Schielke博士当前就职于德国,痴迷于建筑照明,同时是灯光公司ERCO的编辑。他发表过诸多文章,并合作著有《Light Perspectives》、《SuperLux》等著作。

Light matters, a column on light and space, is written by Dr. Thomas Schielke. Based in Germany, he is fascinated by architectural lighting and works as an editor for the lighting company ERCO. He has published numerous articles and co-authored the books “Light Perspectives” and “SuperLux”.

        
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