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中国农村发展新策略,自给自足的绿色小村落第1张图片

Rural Urban Framework在中国设计建造灾后住宅
Rural Urban Framework builds post-disaster housing in China featuring rooftop farms

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

在中国四川省这些可以在屋顶种植作物的住宅由Rural Urban Framework事务所设计,这是为受自然灾害影响而无家可归的人们所建造的新家园。

金台村位于四川省广元市,2008年的汶川地震让这里受灾严重。而在2011年,该地区又遭受了洪水和山体滑坡,许多已经重建的家园再一次遭到破坏。

Crops are planted on the roofs of these houses in China's Sichuan Province, which were designed by Rural Urban Framework as a possible solution for accommodating people affected by natural disasters.
Jintai Village is located near Guangyuan, Sichuan Province, which was one of the areas worst affected by the devastating Wenchuan Earthquake of 2008. The area also suffered floods and landslides in 2011, which destroyed many of the rebuilt homes.

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在政府与非政府机构的支持下,Rural Urban Framework事务所构思了重建方案,为那些遭受巨大灾难居无定所的人们建造新家园。

Rural Urban Framework事务所是个非盈利组织,以香港大学支持为基础,由John Lin和 Joshua Bolchover主持领导,他们以社会和环境的可持续发展为出发点,解决不同人群的不同需求。

With support from the local government and NGOs, Rural Urban Framework developed an architectural solution that provides appropriate accommodation for people who suddenly find themselves homeless following such destructive events.
The non-for-profit research and design studio – led by John Lin and Joshua Bolchover and based at The University of Hong Kong – came up with a socially and environmentally sustainable proposal that addresses the unique needs of various users.

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建筑师解释说:“本次方案提供了四种不同类型的住宅,它们的大小、功能与屋顶结构都不尽相同。”

“这些住宅展示了当地材料、绿色退台屋面、沼气技术以及牲口棚的多种新用途。”

"The design strategy provides four different types of houses, differing in size, function and their roof sections," the architects explained.
"These demonstrate new uses of local materials, a green stepped-roof, biogas technologies, and accommodation for pigs and chickens."

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该项目包括22座住宅和一座具有屋顶花园的社区中心,住宅紧密排布,从而最大限度地利用空间,并且创造出类似城市中浓郁的邻里氛围。

该项目通过雨水收集、充分利用自然采光以及通风,从而大大促进了当地的可持续发展。

The project comprises 22 houses, as well as a community centre with its own rooftop garden. The houses are packed tightly together on the site to maximise the available space and create a similar feel to that of some inner-city neighbourhoods.
The overall approach promotes sustainable ecological behaviours, with rainwater harvesting, natural light and ventilation all incorporated into the design of the buildings.

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建筑师认为,应当鼓励当地村民的自给自足行为,于是,建筑师为每个家庭都设计了露台种植屋面,村民们可以在屋顶上种植作物。

“通过将村里的各种活动与生态循环联系起来,当地的环境的响应性得到加强,从而将该村落转变为附近地区发展的代表模式。”事务所负责人说。

“因为可供房屋建造的场地十分有限,所以在村落的设计中充分考虑结合城市空间的密集肌理。”

Encouraging self-sufficiency was a key concern for the architects, who planned the houses to accommodate family-run workshops on open ground floors and to include space for growing food on the roofs.
"By relating various programs of the village to an ecological cycle, environment responsiveness is heightened, transforming the village into a model for nearby areas," the studio suggested.
"Because the land available for house building is limited, the village combines dense urban living in a rural context."

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这些住宅沿着狭窄的街道排布而成,一层空间部分架空,形成主入口前的灰空间,所以人们能够坐在门口售卖农作物,或者与附近的村民沟通交流。

每座住宅都运用了裸露的混凝土框架,内部通过砖砌而成,透过砖墙突出的混凝土窗框可以让光线到达内部。

The buildings are arranged along narrow streets, with the upper storeys cantilevered over a sheltered porch that allows people to sit outside and sell their products or interact with passers by.
Each house features an exposed concrete framework with contrasting brick in-fill cladding. Concrete window frames that protrude through the brickwork allow light to reach the interiors.

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不同的结构也形成了不同的屋顶形状,有脊形屋顶,也有钻石型屋顶,还有朝着相反角落上升的带斜沟的屋顶。

相同的是,所有的屋面都呈现退台状,村民在这里能够种植各种蔬菜或者农作物供住户消费。

Different configurations result in the roof shapes of the houses, varying from ridged roofs, to roofs with a diamond-shaped mono-pitch, or valley roofs that rise up towards opposite corners.
All of the roofs are stepped to create a series of terraces that can be planted with vegetables or crops for consumption by the occupants.

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“我们对现代农村生活做了大致的调查。”Rural Urban Framework总结说,“近年来,中国的新农村规划成千上万,然而人们所面临的挑战却是,如何通过直接来源于自然环境的空间组织与理性表达来建造一个真实存在的新农村。”

2005年,中国政府宣布了一项计划,在2030年之前,至少完成3.5亿农村人口的城镇化进程,因此,John Lin和Joshua Bolchover于2005年建立了Rural Urban Framework事务所,帮助慈善机构以及各个非政府组织改善农村居民的生活。

"This is an investigation into modern rural livelihood," Rural Urban Framework concluded. "With tens of thousands of newly planned villages occurring in China today, the challenge is to plan villages as authentic places whereby the spatial organisation and physical expression is derived directly from its relationship to its natural environment."
John Lin and Joshua Bolchover established Rural Urban Framework in 2005 to help charities and NGOs improve life for people living in rural communities, following the Chinese government's announcement of a plan to urbanise half of the country's 700 million rural citizens by 2030.

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Rural Urban Framework事务所在中国农村已经完成了超过15个项目,其中有学校、社区中心、医院以及住房和基础设施等,同时,这些建筑师们也致力于通过这些乡村项目来探索社会、经济以及政治发展历程。

2015年,Rural Urban Framework事务所荣获了柯里史东设计奖。该事务所完成的项目包括为一所小学设计的新厕所,这个厕所运用了镜面瓷砖,还有一座青砖医院,其特点是延伸至屋面的坡道。

图片来源:John Lin、 Joshua Bolchover

Through developing and executing more than 15 projects in rural China, including schools, community centres, hospitals, housing and infrastructure, the studio has been able to explore the social, economic and political processes involved in transforming these villages.
In 2015, Rural Urban Framework was awarded the Curry Stone Design Prize for humanitarian architecture. The studio's completed projects include a new toilet block at a primary school that is clad entirely in mirrored tiles, and a grey-brick hospital featuring a ramp that extends up onto its roof.
Photography is by the architects.

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项目信息:
建筑设计:John Lin、 Joshua Bolchover
景观设计:Dorothy Tang
项目负责人:Kwan Kwok Ying (农村住宅), Liu Chang (社区中心), Viola Huang (景观设计)
项目团队:Ashley Hinchcliffe, Huang Zhiyun, Ip Sin Ying, Eva Herunter
赞助商:Nan Fung Group

Project credits:
Design: John Lin and Joshua Bolchover
Landscape design: Dorothy Tang
Project leaders: Kwan Kwok Ying (Village Houses), Liu Chang (Community Center), Viola Huang (Landscape)
Project team: Ashley Hinchcliffe, Huang Zhiyun, Ip Sin Ying, Eva Herunter
Donor: Nan Fung Group


出处:本文译自www.dezeen.com/,转载请注明出处。

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 匿名

  • 迈耶008
  • 2017.11.09 15:23
    屋顶阶梯式,种植很不错。不知道民居室内的采光如何,还有村民的聚集地,混凝土用的太粗糙了,其实即使是农村,也有着高雅纤薄的需要,总之是个不错的探索,日后,如果能加入民宿旅客以及村落整体景观的考虑,会更好。
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