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由专筑网雷君,vigo,卢荣姝编译

单板小屋是由日本公司KMDW设计的成品,这是一间自制的胶合板房屋。设计的初衷是在经历过2011年地震和海啸的冲击,作为宫城Minamisanriku的社区中心为人们服务。这个公司也曾经担任了类似项目,比如为缅甸孩子设计教育中心,为菲律宾孩子的学前教育贡献力量。

经过海啸的洗礼,建筑过程就面临着建筑工人和材料的匮乏。为了解决这些问题,公司决定使用海水浸泡过的胶合板作为材料,既省时又省钱,无需技术工人。众所周知胶合板是随处可见的廉价材料,如同在缅甸的项目一样,只需锤子和钉子无需电力就能完成搭建。不过在菲律宾的项目就使用了最新的数字技术,采用了用胶合板块制成的框架,来预测极度精确的测量,并且和边框非常契合。因地制宜,顺势而为,建筑家使得当地居民和建筑已经融为一体了。

我们和KMDW的Hiroto Kobayashi谈论了有关项目的问题,他长期从事复合板搭建自建房屋的研究、设计和建造。

Designed by the Tokyo-based firm KMDW, the Veneer House is a self-build plywood house. KMDW designed and built the first Veneer House to serve as a community center for Minamisanriku, in Miyagi Prefecture, after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami devastated the town. The firm has since built similar structures to house an education center for children in Myanmar and a preschool in the Philippines.
The area impacted by the tsunami faced shortages of both skilled workers and construction materials. To overcome the problem, KMDW developed structure that used seawater soaked plywood and could be built quickly and cheaply without skilled workers. Because plywood can be found at affordable prices anywhere in the world, the architects were able to use the same type of structure in Myanmar, where it was built without electricity using only hammers and nails. In the Philippines, they adopted a frame made from plywood pieces precut to extremely accurate specifications with the latest digital machinery, and fit together with wedges. By tailoring the construction method to each location and participating alongside local residents in workshops to build the houses, the architects brought people and buildings closer together.
We talked about the project with KMDW’s Hiroto Kobayashi, who continues to research, design, and construct self-build houses made from plywood.

单板小屋 / KMDW第1张图片

Minamisanriku Veneer House/薄板屋 ( Photo © : KMDW )

请您大致描绘一下这个项目

该项目旨在开发一种用胶合板简单、低廉地建造建筑结构的新方法,胶合板是一种环保材料,具有标准化的尺寸和强度。胶合板可以用桌上型锯进行手工切割,或使用数控路由器切割,将这些组件组装成一个结构框架不需要专业知识或特殊工具。


在这个被自然灾害摧残的地区,熟练工人和人重型机器格外紧缺,而对新房屋的需求量却巨大。因此,普通人就能自行实施的建筑方法独具价值。在这个建筑过程中,每个参与者都成了利益相关者。这样的建筑方法着实提高了各社区之间,友邻之间的紧密联系。我还在努力地修改设计,以实现更简易的操作、更坚固的建筑、更节省材料这一目标。

Please give us an overview of the project.
This project aimed to develop a new method for easily and cheaply building structures from plywood, an environmentally friendly material with standardized dimensions and strength. The plywood can be cut either by hand with tabletop saws, or with digitalized CNC routers, and these parts then assembled into a structural frame without the need for specialized knowledge or tools. In disaster zones where skilled workers and heavy machinery are in short supply but the need for new buildings is great, a construction method that ordinary people can implement on their own has huge merit. Furthermore, through the process of assembling the structure, each participant becomes a stakeholder. This construction method thus has the added value of helping restore community ties and increasing people’s attachment to their neighborhood. I’m continuing to revise the design with the goal of achieving an even easier-to-build, stronger structure that can be created with fewer materials.

单板小屋 / KMDW第2张图片

Minamisanriku Veneer House construction/薄板屋 ( Photo © : KMDW )

设计过程中什么才是最重要的呢?

胶合板,特别是由未经开发的细木材制成的胶合板,是一种绝佳的建筑材料。它们价格合理,也很符合我们对于坚固质量的要求,随处可见,又是由可再生资源制成。我的目标就是尽最大可能开发这些积极属性,并琢磨出一个良好的建筑方式,使得每个人都能自己建造房子。通过简化传统的建筑方法,即使是从来没有建筑经验的人也能遵循这样的方法来建造房子。用这样的方式,让人们与建筑产生更紧密的联系,和更深的主人翁意识。我认为,简化二字最重要,这使得一切成为现实。为了降低成本,我尝试以多种模式来裁切胶合板组件,并且也在努力做到不浪费。

What was most important for you during the design process?
Plywood, and particularly plywood made from underutilized forest thinnings, is an excellent construction material. It’s affordable, conforms to strong quality standards, can be obtained anywhere in the world, and is made from a renewable resource. My goal is to capitalize on these positive attributes to the greatest extent possible and develop a construction method that anyone can successfuly use to build a home.  By simplifying conventional construction methods, it’s possible for even a beginner with no construction skills to build a house simply by following the instruction manual. Through this process people feel a closer connection to the building and a sense of ownership. I place great value on the simplicity of the method, which is what enables those things. In order to further reduce cost, I have experimented with various patterns for cutting parts from sheets of plywood, and aim to develop a design with no waste.

单板小屋 / KMDW第3张图片

Maeamihama Veneer House interior/薄板屋室内 ( Photo © : Manuel Oka )

单板小屋 / KMDW第4张图片

Maeamihama Veneer House/薄板屋 ( Photo © : Manuel Oka )


这个项目的设计过程中面临了什么挑战?你是怎么解决的呢?

房子的材料和形状在每个位置都各不相同。我们尽量做到易于搭建,并尽可能和当地文化相适应。我是这样想的,采用胶合板来作为框架,但外观则使用大家熟悉的材料,能够融入到整个环境且当地居民能长期地继续保持下去。我也在努力的提高人们参与其中的积极性和主动性。比如,在项目早期,我们举办工作室,讲解这个建造系统,以便让之前不了解它的人也能很容易加入其中,撰写一些简单易懂的建筑手册。为了把使用工具的可能性最小化,我以日式传统框架方法为灵感,采取了不需要使用钉子的嵌合方法。这种方法被用来将预切割的组件以CNC连接件装配在一起。

What challenges did you face in the project? How did you respond to them?
The materials and form of the houses vary with each location. I worked very hard to design structures that were easy to build but also made the best possible use of local cultures. The solution I settled on was to construct the frames from plywood, but finish the exteriors with familiar materials that would blend into the surroundings and that local residents would be able to maintain over the long term. I also tried to find innovative ways to increase people’s participation in the building process. For instance, we held workshops at early stages explaining the system so that even those with no prior knowledge of it could easily join in, and made easy-to-understand construction manuals. In order to reduce the use of tools during the construction process to a minimum, I turned to traditional Japanese framing methods for inspiration and incorporated joints that don’t require nails. These were used to assemble pieces pre-cut with a CNC router.  

单板小屋 / KMDW第5张图片

Manawhari Veneer House/薄板屋 ( Photo © : KMDW )

单板小屋 / KMDW第6张图片

Manawhari Veneer House workshop/薄板屋讨论 ( Photo © : KMDW )


你从本项目中获得了什么?你会撷取其中的什么成分来进行日后的设计呢?

自己建造房子不只是有趣那么简单,它能够改变你对房子的看法,使你更加乐意去呵护它。了解如何建造房屋还会使之后的维护更加容易。人们参与当地社区的建设其中,就能对自己的社区和土地更有归属感。我意识到人们为自己做事的重要性,房子开始个体化,尤其是对于灾区的人们来说。然而,房子的坚固性和耐用性暂时还得不到充分的考验,这就需要长期的探索和研究来达到更加坚固、耐用的结构。

What did you learn from this project? What will you take from it to future projects?
Building a house yourself isn’t just fun, it also changes your feelings towards the house and makes you want to take better care of it. Understanding how the house was built also makes maintenance easier later on. I learned that a building created through cooperative work centered in the local community strengthens people’s care for that community and land. I sensed the importance of people’s doing something for themselves, and of the house becoming something personal, especially for people living in a disaster area. However, the strength and durability of the structures hasn’t yet been adequately proven. Continued research is needed to achieve even stronger, longer-lasting structures.  

单板小屋 / KMDW第7张图片

A boy finds his own spot in the Manawhari Veneer House  在Manawhari 的薄木片房中,男孩拥有了自己的空间 (Photo © : KMDW )

单板小屋 / KMDW第8张图片

Cogon Veneer House/白茅片材房( Photo © : KMDW )

这个建筑是如何在可持续性、社会功能及技术方面顺应当代建筑的潮流的?

如今,建筑已经成为了极其专业化、技术先进的领域,建筑的艺术美和房屋居住者之间已经开启了一道鸿沟。我相信尤其对于住宅建筑来说,业主更应该了解他们的房子,从而在对其进行改造时与之更加亲密。另外,作为同社区的人们参与到建筑过程中,不仅更加热爱自己的建筑,也增长了对于社区的不少知识,文化也作为一种本土资源在不断的传递下去。每当我们前进的时候,社会并不需要遥不可及的先进技术,而是人们唾手可得的东西。

How does this project fit into current architectural trends such as sustainability, social function, or technology?
Today, architecture has developed into an extremely specialized, technically advanced field, and a great chasm has opened up between the act of building a house and the people who will use that house. I believe it’s particularly true for residential architecture that the owner should understand their own house and feel intimate enough with it to make changes to it. In addition, through the process of building a structure cooperatively as a community, people’s affection for the building not only increases, but the community’s knowledge and culture is passed down as a local resource for the next generation. As we move forward, society will demand not that advanced technology be something distant, but that it be something accessible for people to use.

单板小屋 / KMDW第9张图片

Cogon Veneer House/白茅片材房 ( Photo © : KMDW )

这栋建筑的社会功能是什么?

设计或建造某物的行为是一种将无形的想法或体系赋予物理形态的过程。这是专业的设计师、建筑师和技术工人的工作,但我相信,今天开始建筑师需要鼓励大多数人参加设计和施工的这一进程。通过这样的做法,建设成为他们自身的行为。它将别人为你做的事情变成了你自己为自己做的事情。由于这种方法的广发使用,我相信这将促成建筑实践履行它对于社会的责任。

What is the societal role of the architect?
The act of designing or building something is the act of giving an immaterial idea or system a physical form. That has been the work of specialized designers, architects, and skilled workers, but I believe that starting today architects need to encourage a wide range of people to take part in the acts of design and construction.  By doing so the act of building becomes theirs again. It changes from something another person does for you to something personal that you do yourself. As that approach spreads, I believe it will lead to an architectural practice that fulfills its responsibility to society.


本文由YunaYagi通过电子邮件参访编写 (日文翻译:Winifred Bird)

E-mail interview by YunaYagi (translated from Japanese by Winifred Bird)  

单板小屋 / KMDW第10张图片

Diagram of cutting patterns for the Cogon House/白茅屋组件切割示意图 ( Drawing © :KMDW )

单板小屋 / KMDW第11张图片

Frame configuration diagram of Manawhari Veneer House   Manawhari/薄板屋框架结构示意图 (Drawing © : KMDW )

单板小屋 / KMDW第12张图片

Floor plan of Maeamihama Veneer House   Maeamihama/薄板屋平面图 ( Drawing © : KMDW )

单板小屋 / KMDW第13张图片

Section of Minami-sanriku Veneer House   Minami-sanriku/薄板屋剖面图( Drawing © : KMDW )


项目1:Minami-sanriku 薄板材屋
时间:2012年
地点:宫城
委托方:Gyoryu no Yu Bathhouse
建筑设计:Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW) / Hiroto Kobayashi + SFC DESIGN/BUILD3.11 (Keiyo University)
主设计师:Hiroshi Kobayashi
项目团队:Wataru Doi, Kazumi Masaki, Yoko Tatemoto, Ayako Oda, Yumi Goto, Asuna Segawa, Ririko Mizukami, Naoyuki Sasaki, Katsuya Kawabata, Charles Lemonnier, Toshiko Shibuya, Akiko Noguchi, Feng Yuqiao, Nobuhiro Shimizu, Ryusuke Kawamori
副设计师:Yoshihiro Hiraoka (University of Miyagi)
结构工程:Akira Suzuki (ASA)
承包商:Hiroto Kobayashi + SFC DESIGN/BUILD3.11 + Akira Suzuki
施工经理:DESIGN/BUILD3.11 (Keiyo University)
施工协调:Kosaku Yamamuro, Yuri Kitamoto, Yutaro Muraji, Takahiro Sasak, Yoshiki Iriya, Ikue Sho, Eriko Masunaga, Sayuha Nagawa, Akihito Tanigaito, Shota Ando, Yuichi Abe, Masahiro Sasaki, Reiki Oya, Ryo Higuchi, Re Koizumi, Izumi Maekawa, Ruy Porto, Atsuro Abe, Robin Wills, Shima Matsui, Mariko Inoue, Chisa Toda, Keiki Toda, Yumi Ishigawa, Mariko Ichimura, Megumi Urayama, Takahiro Saito, Wataru Shinohara, Yumiko Tachibana, Nina Tsuchiya, Kengo Tereda, Koetsu Fujio, Ryusuke Fuda, Yuhei Miyaishi, Kazuya Yajima, Yoshio Yamazaki, Azusa Yoshimura, So Yokoyama, Keio-Minamisanriku Shien Project Team
占地面积:约 450 ㎡
建筑用地面积:67.1 ㎡
总建筑面积:67.1 ㎡

项目 2:Maeamihama 薄板材屋
时间:2013
地点:Miyagi
委托方:Maeamihama Fisheries Cooperative Association
建筑设计:Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW) / Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory Keiyo University SFC
总设计师:Hiroshi Kobayashi
项目团队:Atsuro Abe, Shima Matsui, Koetsu Fujio
结构工程:Akira Suzuki (ASA)
承包商:Maeamihama Fishing Cooperative Volunteers
承建经理:Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW)
金融支持:Architecture for Humanity
占地面积:166.72 ㎡
建筑用地面积:98.49 ㎡
总建筑面积:98.49 ㎡

项目 3:Manawhari 薄板材屋
时间:2013
地点:Manawhari, Pathein, Myanmar
委托方:Paathein YMCA
建筑设计:Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW) / Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory Keiyo University SFC
总设计师:Hiroshi Kobayashi
项目团队:Hiroto Kobayashi, Nobuhiro Shimizu, Reiki Oya, Eriko Masunaga, Asuna Segawa, Ikue Sho, Saori Katsube, Koichi Furukawa, Mayu Kimura, Atsuro Abe
结构工程:Akira Suzuki (ASA)
承包商:Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory (Keiyo University), YMCA Members, Local Residents
建筑协调:Koetsu Fujio, Kazumi Masaki, Moeko Miyamura, Shima Matsui, Yumiko Aizawa, Manoheri Villege Volunteer
金融支持:Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Foundation, Kajima Construction
预切割:Thu Yein Win (Lenz)
建筑用地面积:48.23 ㎡
总建筑面积:48.23 ㎡

项目 4:Cogon Veneer House 白茅片材房
时间:2014
地点:菲律宾Balilihan Bohol, Barangay Cogon,
委托方:Conon Barangay (社区)
建筑设计:Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW) / Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory Keiyo University SFC
总设计师:Hiroshi Kobayashi
项目团队:Hiroto Kobayashi, Nobuhiro Shimizu, Reiki Oya, Eriko Masunaga, Asuna Segawa, Ikue Sho, Saori Katsube, Koichi Furukawa, Mayu Kimura, Atsuro Abe
结构工程:Akira Suzuki (ASA)
材料强度测试:Keiichi Imamoto (东京 Rika大学)
顾问:Yutaka Tokushima (Seinen Kaigai Kyoryokutai)
承包商:Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory Keiyo University Students, local villagers
建筑经理:Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory, Keio University
建筑协调:JICA Overseas Cooperation Volunteers/City of Balilihan
金融支持:Kajima Construction
板材、胶合板、预切割:菲律宾Fablab Bohol
建设用地面积:45.65 ㎡
总建筑面积:45.65 ㎡

PROJECT 1 :
Minami-sanriku Veneer House
2012
Miyagi
Client: Gyoryu no Yu Bathhouse
Architects: Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW) / Hiroto Kobayashi + SFC DESIGN/BUILD3.11 (Keiyo University)
Design Principal: Hiroshi Kobayashi
Project Team: Wataru Doi, Kazumi Masaki, Yoko Tatemoto, Ayako Oda, Yumi Goto, Asuna Segawa, Ririko Mizukami, Naoyuki Sasaki, Katsuya Kawabata, Charles Lemonnier, Toshiko Shibuya, Akiko Noguchi, Feng Yuqiao, Nobuhiro Shimizu, Ryusuke Kawamori
Associate Architect: Yoshihiro Hiraoka (University of Miyagi)
Structural Engineer: Akira Suzuki (ASA)
Contractor: Hiroto Kobayashi + SFC DESIGN/BUILD3.11 + Akira Suzuki
Constr. Manager: DESIGN/BUILD3.11 (Keiyo University)
Constr. Collaborator: Kosaku Yamamuro, Yuri Kitamoto, Yutaro Muraji, Takahiro Sasak, Yoshiki Iriya, Ikue Sho, Eriko Masunaga, Sayuha Nagawa, Akihito Tanigaito, Shota Ando, Yuichi Abe, Masahiro Sasaki, Reiki Oya, Ryo Higuchi, Re Koizumi, Izumi Maekawa, Ruy Porto, Atsuro Abe, Robin Wills, Shima Matsui, Mariko Inoue, Chisa Toda, Keiki Toda, Yumi Ishigawa, Mariko Ichimura, Megumi Urayama, Takahiro Saito, Wataru Shinohara, Yumiko Tachibana, Nina Tsuchiya, Kengo Tereda, Koetsu Fujio, Ryusuke Fuda, Yuhei Miyaishi, Kazuya Yajima, Yoshio Yamazaki, Azusa Yoshimura, So Yokoyama, Keio-Minamisanriku Shien Project Team
Site Area: Approx. 450 ㎡
Building Area: 67.1 ㎡
Total Floor Area: 67.1 ㎡

_

PROJECT 2 :
Maeamihama Veneer House
2013
Miyagi
Client: Maeamihama Fisheries Cooperative Association
Architects: Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW) / Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory Keiyo University SFC
Design Principal: Hiroshi Kobayashi
Project Team: Atsuro Abe, Shima Matsui, Koetsu Fujio
Structural Engineer: Akira Suzuki (ASA)
Contractor: Maeamihama Fishing Cooperative Volunteers
Constr. Manager: Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW)
Financial Support: Architecture for Humanity
Site Area: 166.72 ㎡
Building Area: 98.49 ㎡
Total Floor Area: 98.49 ㎡

_

PROJECT 3 :
Manawhari Veneer House
2013
Manawhari, Pathein, Myanmar
Client: Paathein YMCA
Architects: Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW) / Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory Keiyo University SFC
Design Principal: Hiroshi Kobayashi
Project Team: Hiroto Kobayashi, Nobuhiro Shimizu, Reiki Oya, Eriko Masunaga, Asuna Segawa, Ikue Sho, Saori Katsube, Koichi Furukawa, Mayu Kimura, Atsuro Abe
Structural Engineer: Akira Suzuki (ASA)
Contractor: Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory (Keiyo University), YMCA Members, Local Residents
Constr. Collaborator: Koetsu Fujio, Kazumi Masaki, Moeko Miyamura, Shima Matsui, Yumiko Aizawa, Manoheri Villege Volunteer
Financial Support: Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Foundation, Kajima Construction
Precutting: Thu Yein Win (Lenz)
Building Area: 48.23 ㎡
Total Floor Area: 48.23 ㎡

_

PROJECT 4 :
Cogon Veneer House
2014
Barangay Cogon, Balilihan Bohol, Philippines
Client: Conon Barangay (Community)
Architects: Kobayashi Maki Design Workshop (KMDW) / Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory Keiyo University SFC
Design Principal: Hiroshi Kobayashi
Project Team: Hiroto Kobayashi, Nobuhiro Shimizu, Reiki Oya, Eriko Masunaga, Asuna Segawa, Ikue Sho, Saori Katsube, Koichi Furukawa, Mayu Kimura, Atsuro Abe
Structural Engineer: Akira Suzuki (ASA)
Material Strength Testing: Keiichi Imamoto (Tokyo Rika University)
Consultants: Yutaka Tokushima (Seinen Kaigai Kyoryokutai)
Contractor: Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory Keiyo University Students, local villagers
Constr. Manager: Hiroto Kobayashi Laboratory, Keio University
Constr. Collaborator: JICA Overseas Cooperation Volunteers/City of Balilihan
Financial Support: Kajima Construction
Veneer, plywood, precutting: Fablab Bohol, Philippines
Building Area: 45.65 ㎡
Total Floor Area: 45.65 ㎡


出处:本文译自www.world-architects.com/,转载请注明出处。


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