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为什么中国领导人对“奇奇怪怪的建筑”说“不”?第1张图片

据报道,中国国家主席习近平,在最近的讲话中透露了不希望中国再出现“奇奇怪怪的建筑”,特别是在首都北京。在为时两小时的文艺工作座谈会里,习近平表示艺术应该为人民服务,应该更具有精神力量,并表示类似OMA设计的CCTV大楼的建筑不应该再在北京出现。
     中国建筑业的蓬勃发展已经成为当今建筑最受关注的话题——很多西方事务所希望通过奢华另类的建筑来支撑他们的事务所——中国领导人的这番言论将会对全球建筑实践景观产生潜在影响。不过这背后说明了么?让我们继续读下去吧。


The President of the People’s Republic of China, Xi Jinping, has reportedly called for an end to the “weird buildings” being built in China, and particularly in the nation’s capital, Beijing. In a two hour speech at a literary symposium in Beijing last week, Mr Xi expressed his views that art should serve the people and be morally inspiring, identifying architectural projects such as OMA’s CCTV Headquarters as the kind of building that should no longer be constructed in Beijing.
With China’s construction boom being one of the most talked about features of today’s architecture scene – and many a Western practice relying on their extravagant projects to prop up their studios – the Chinese leader’s comments have the potential to affect the landscape of architectural practice worldwide. But what is behind these sentiments? Read on after the break to find out.



为什么中国领导人对“奇奇怪怪的建筑”说“不”?第2张图片
这栋大楼被北京市民称为“大裤衩” © OMA / Philippe Ruault

或许,习总书记的建筑言论最简单的解读是,由建筑延伸到中国政府内部打击腐败和铺张浪费中,因为直至8月份51名政府官员被免职。尽管有较高的国际知名度,CCTV总部大楼从完工以来就备受批判(该建筑原计划于2008年奥运会时启用),并因其与众不同的形状被当地人民成为“大裤衩”。
     习总书记关于艺术应该启迪思想,温润心灵,陶冶情操并摒除不良风气的言论,将艺术与道德上的纯洁性联系在一起。或许正是这种引人注目的奢侈贵气是习总书记希望避免的,特别是像CCTV大楼这样的国有建筑。


Perhaps the most simple reading of Mr Xi’s pronouncement on architecture is that it is an extension of his mission to crack down on corruption and extravagance within the Chinese Government, having removed 51 officials from government as of August. Though high-profile and popular with the international press, CCTV Headquarters has been criticized for being a number of years late to complete (it was originally intended to be open for the 2008 Olympics), and has been nicknamed “Big Pants,” by locals thanks to its unusual shape.
In particular his statement that art should “inspire minds, warm hearts, cultivate taste and clean up undesirable work styles” seems to link art with moral purity, and it is this kind of attention-grabbing extravagance that Mr Xi perhaps wants to avoid, particularly in state-owned buildings such as CCTV.



为什么中国领导人对“奇奇怪怪的建筑”说“不”?第3张图片

福布斯杂志的Wolfgang Georg Arlt给出了另一种诠释,习总书记的言论是跟建筑旅游联系起来的,“中国出境游客曾对他们在国外看到的像迪拜、伦敦那些未来派的建筑印象深刻,不过越来越多的类似建筑在北京建成,如此一来,这类建筑的吸引力逐渐消失了。
      Wolfgang Georg Arlt也发现去北京旅游的外国游客近几年在逐渐减少,但是他总结道“或许习总书记的这个言论会帮助支撑世界级建筑师未来的项目”,但是这也可能会产生相反的效果:或许习总书记意识到那些奇奇怪怪的建筑不足以支撑中国的旅游业,因此不值得投入如此巨大的投资及名誉风险。
      无论如何,对习总书记的艺术言论最有力的诠释是,这个言论反映了他对中国民族主义的倾向。《纽约时报》引用了他的一段讲话,讲道艺术应该“传递当代中国的价值观,体现中国传统文化并反映中国人民的审美追求“。这并不能延伸出习总书记对奇奇怪怪建筑的批判等同于对西方建筑师及建筑风格的批判,据报道,习总书记这个在社会媒体中的演讲已经得到了人民的支持,人民表示“中国不是外国人”的试验场。


Another interpretation, offered by Wolfgang Georg Arlt in Forbes Magazine, links Xi Jinping’s comments to architectural tourism, saying: “Chinese outbound tourists used to be impressed by futuristic buildings they encountered in places like Dubai and recently also London, but with more and more of such projects realised in Beijing… the pull factor of contemporary architecture for them is diminishing.”
Arlt also notes that the number of foreign tourists visiting Beijing has steadily declined in recent years, but while he concludes that ”maybe this argument will help to sustain future projects by world-class architects,” it could also have the opposite effect: perhaps Mr Xi realizes that the draw of “weird architecture” is not strong enough to sustain China’s tourism industry, and therefore not worth the financial and reputation risks it poses.
However, maybe the strongest interpretation is that Mr Xi’s comments on art reflect his tendency towards Chinese nationalism (part of what some people last year rather hastily referred to as Xi Jinping’s ‘Maoist turn’). The New York Times quotes one section of his speech where he says that Chinese art should “disseminate contemporary Chinese values, embody traditional Chinese culture and reflect Chinese people’s aesthetic pursuit.” It is not such a stretch to equate his criticisms of “weird buildings” with either Western architects or even simply a Western style of design, and his speech has reportedly been met by support on Chinese social media with people saying that “China is not foreigners’ test field.”



为什么中国领导人对“奇奇怪怪的建筑”说“不”?第4张图片

在此之前,中国文化被认为太简单,在没有外国建筑师的帮助下,不够强大到可以支持中国建筑的蓬勃发展:在2012年初,胡锦涛总书记写到“西方文化很强大而我们很弱“。不过仅仅几个月以后,王澍获得了普利茨克建筑奖,成为获奖的第一个土生土长的中国建筑师。此外,王澍因其融合了西方现代主义及中国传统的批判地域主义建筑手法而得到关注。
      而今跟王澍齐名的也有不少新一代中国建筑师,如MAD的马岩松,其山水城市概念因受到国画的激发而形成。看到这些中国传统文化对建筑的启迪,或许习近平总书记认为,现在是时候采取行动来呼应胡锦涛对于“采取有力措施保护并回应中西文化”间的冲突的号召。


Previously it had been thought that Chinese culture was simply not strong enough to support its building boom without the help of foreign architects: in early 2012, Mr Xi’s predecessor Hu Jintao wrote that “the international culture of the West is strong while we are weak.” However, mere months later, the Pritzker Prize was awarded to Wang Shu, the first time it had been awarded to an architect both born and working in China. Furthermore, Wang Shu has been noted for his Critical-Regionalist approach, combining Western modernism with traditional Chinese influences.
Wang Shu is currently being joined by a new generation of Chinese architects such as Ma Yansong of MAD Architects, whose Shanshui City concept is explicitly inspired by traditional Chinese painting. With this renewed interest in traditional inspirations for Chinese architecture, perhaps Mr Xi sees now as the time to take action on Hu Jintao’s call to “take forceful measures to be on guard and respond” to the “ideological struggle” between Chinese and Western culture.



为什么中国领导人对“奇奇怪怪的建筑”说“不”?第5张图片
© MAD Architects

在今年的威尼斯双年展,CCTV大楼的设计师莱姆库哈斯在其“吸收现代性”中带有挑衅地感叹世界各个城市的同质化。讽刺的是,他似乎是第一个被反弹出来的人物。


In his provocation for “Absorbing Modernity,” this year’s national pavilion theme at theVenice Biennale, the designer of CCTV Headquarters Rem Koolhaas lamented the homogenization of cities worldwide. Ironically, it seems he is the first to be caught in the backlash.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
编辑:vigo,刘庆新
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