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村庄文化|一砖一瓦,寻回乡愁,婺源篁岭营造记第1张图片

摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


“徽之为郡,在山岭川谷崎岖之中。”地处古徽州的婺源篁岭正如古书所述,依山而建,“挂”于崖上。这座近600年的徽州村落,建筑随地势自由生长,与自然融合一体。

犹在三月春,百亩梯田的油菜花海映衬之下,大美不言,触动“质性自然”的共通情感,入选了UNWTO联合国世界旅游组织「最佳旅游乡村」,并亮相国际文化盛事法兰克福书展。

As recounted in ancient books, Huizhou was a region situated amidst rugged mountains, rivers, and valleys. Huangling Village, situated within Wuyuan County in northeastern Jiangxi, which was historically a part of Huizhou, lies a nearly 600-year-old settlement constructed upon mountainous terrain and perched on cliffs. In this village, the buildings organically grow with the landscape, seamlessly integrating with nature.
Each March, the village becomes particularly enchanting with the magnificent backdrop of a sea of blooming rapeseed flowers covering an extensive area of terraced fields. The indescribably beautiful sight evokes a universal sense of awe towards the natural world. In 2023, Huangling was selected as a "Best Tourism Village" by the United Nations World Tourism Organization and was exhibited at the world-class cultural event Frankfurter Buchmesse.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


如何让这座破败的古村焕发出新的生机?
为了回答这个问题,村庄文化团队,在篁岭的山野村舍中耕耘雕琢了15年。

如今深具代表性的徽派古村落,却曾是几乎被抛弃的荒村:旱季缺水,雨季洪涝,村舍破败,人去楼空。篁岭的涅槃,凝缩着村庄文化团队在山野村舍中持续耕耘的15年。

一群人,扎根乡土,用时间和经验,不断反复打磨雕琢一座古村。在流量至上求新求快的时代,显得如此格格不入,但或许正因长期主义之下的拙与执,方能雕琢出独一无二的经典。

How to breathe new life into this decrepit, ancient village?
For 15 years, the team at Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd. has tirelessly pursued this question, devoting their time and energy to the revitalization of Huangling Village.
Once desolate and neglected, Huangling Village struggled with water scarcity during the dry season, flooding during the rainy season, dilapidated houses, and a dwindling population. Now, it stands as an iconic ancient village characterized by Hui-style architecture — a testament to the relentless efforts of the project team over 15 years in restoring its built environment.
This group of people, deeply rooted in rural construction, has devoted countless hours in enhancing and revitalizing an ancient village. In an era dominated by social media, speed, and ever-changing trends, their efforts may appear out of place. However, it is their methodical and long-term commitment that has crafted an iconic destination with sustained development.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


壹章
新生
从衰败的百年村落到“最美乡村”


在90年代,第一次走入村庄文化创始人、篁岭总设计师汪万斌视野中的,完全是另外一番景象。这座古村建在山间陡坡之上,房屋零落参差,交通极为不便,村内可用地十分稀少,可谓“地无三尺平”。秋冬季节村民生活严重缺水,而汛期因街巷排水不畅,山体滑坡频发,篁岭逐渐沦为一个空心村,梯田抛荒,房屋倒塌,文脉断绝。

Chapter I
Rebirth
Evolving from a desolate century-old village into one of the "Most Beautiful Villages"
In the 1990s, when Wang Wanbin, the founder of Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd. and the chief designer behind the revitalization effort, first set foot in Huangling Village, he encountered a radically different landscape from what it appears nowadays. This ancient settlement, perched precariously on a steep mountainside, presented a disjointed picture. Houses were scattered across the terrain, transportation was severely hindered, and the available land within the village was severely limited, barely affording a flat ground to stand on. Villagers endured severe water scarcity during autumn and winter, and the rainy season brought frequent landslides due to inadequate drainage systems. As a result, Huangling gradually became an empty village, with its terraced fields left to decay, houses collapsing, and its rich cultural heritage lost to neglect.

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▲ 改造前的篁岭 © 婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司
Huangling Village before renovation © Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd.

自小习画的汪万斌,因采风写生而走遍这里,别人眼中衰败的古村,于他而言却有着独到的美:这座挂在山间的村落,拥有原生态的自然景观,并保留了不少传统徽派建筑风貌的古民居。这些独一无二的文旅条件与不忍传统村落日趋衰败的那份乡愁,让汪万斌相信篁岭的可能性,全然投身到村落的保护与改造之中。

Wang Wanbin has been immersed in the world of painting since childhood, and it was this passion that led him to encounter Huangling, where he explored for inspiration in his drawings. To him, this ancient settlement, perched precariously on the hillside, offered a unique beauty that others might overlook, with its unspoiled natural scenery and authentically preserved ancient houses. Recognizing the cultural and touristic appeal of Huangling and driven by a profound nostalgia for the traditional village confronting deterioration, Wang Wanbin devoted himself to conserving and rejuvenating this extraordinary village.

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▲ 篁岭晒秋 © 汪万斌
Shaiqiu in Huangling © Wang Wanbin

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▲ 婺源写生 © 汪万斌
A sketch of Wuyuan © Wang Wanbin


机遇出现在2009年,当地政府正式编制了篁岭村整体搬迁安置规划,由婺源县乡村文化发展有限公司出资对篁岭村进行整体搬迁,汪万斌作为合伙人之一,参与其中。基于同济大学编制的《婺源篁岭民俗文化村发展规划》,他带领村庄文化团队,展开篁岭古村的整体设计和施工。

In 2009, a turning point arrived when the local government announced plans for the overall relocation and resettlement of Huangling Village. With funding from Wuyuan Village Culture Development Co., Ltd., Wang Wanbin joined forces with other partners to spearhead the project. Guided by the "Wuyuan Huangling Folk Culture Village Development Plan" drafted by Tongji University, he steered his team in the overall design and construction endeavors in the old Huangling Village.

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© 婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司
© Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd.


如此大尺度建造连带多种诉求关系的复杂项目,相应的难度系数可想而知。一方面,依山而建的独特村落形式与山地地形的特殊性,为项目的设计施工带来极大挑战。另一方面,旧有屋舍众多,再利用与拆除之间如何评估,拆改之后又如何保留原有的古村肌理?此外,如何引水上山解决古村长久以来的干旱问题,汛期水土固化问题等等。

项目从整体村落的规划、建筑的修缮营造,再到景观环境的梳理规划,都需要村庄文化一一攻克。

Such a large-scale project presented multiple challenges. The village's unique mountainous terrain and scattered layout posed significant design and construction difficulties. Additionally, the presence of numerous old houses raised questions about the balance between restoration and demolition. How to preserve the essence of the ancient village while also improving its infrastructure? Furthermore, the long-standing water scarcity and flooding issues during the rainy season needed to be addressed.
From the master planning of the entire village to the restoration of individual buildings and the meticulous landscaping, Wang Wanbin and his team faced numerous challenges.

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▲ 篁岭改造过程,崎岖狭窄的山路无法让大型工程设备上山,只能肩扛手提 © 婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司
During the reconstruction process of Huangling, the rugged and narrow mountain roads presented a challenge for transporting large engineering equipment. As a result, the only feasible option was to carry the materials on the shoulders of workers up the mountain. © Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd.

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▲ 篁岭改造过程,修复改造对工程的挑战远比推倒重建大得多,村庄文化与匠人们紧密配合 © 婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司
The restoration and renovation of Huangling is much more challenging than mere demolition and rebuilding. This task necessitates tight collaboration between the project team and local skilled artisans. © Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd.

汪万斌带领团队及当地匠人走遍古村的各个角落,调研、勘测、记录、思考。在一线实践,从在地特质入手,以现实为依据寻找设计思路与解决方案。基于篁岭村的情况,开创性地制定“保环境、屋上山、貌还原”的整体建设方案;在整体规划层面,以村落主干道“天街”为主轴,遵循“最小干预”的原则,不做大拆大改,保留村落与自然交融的山居形式。

通过保护性建设与古建异地搬迁活化的方式,重塑传统古村建筑形制,融入当代村旅生活的功能与内容,从本质上将限制转换为创新的条件,复现山居古村的自然禀赋与人文烟火气。

Wang Wanbin and his team, along with local craftsmen, conducted a comprehensive investigation, survey, recording, and contemplation of every aspect of the ancient village. The design ideas and solutions were figured out based on on-site practices and local conditions. They developed a pioneering overall construction scheme for Huangling Village which focused on "protecting the environment, building houses on the mountain, and restoring the appearance." The master planning harnessed the village's main road "Tianjie" (which means Sky Street) as the primary axis, and adhered to the principle of minimal intervention without extensive demolition and transformation, in order to preserve the original mountain living style that harmonizes with nature.
Through protective construction, relocation, and revitalization of ancient buildings, the project team successfully reshaped the architectural environment of the traditional ancient village, seamlessly integrating the village with contemporary tourism. This transformative approach effectively turned constraints into opportunities for innovation, allowing for the revival of the natural resources and cultural heritage of this ancient mountain village.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


贰章
传承
异地搬迁,老宅修复


天街作为篁岭交通主道与游览主线,在改造初始面临着交通动线混乱,道路泥泞狭窄,原有建筑陈旧破败等诸多问题。为篁岭营造最优的路径体验,这条村中“主干道”的布局至关重要。

Chapter II
Inheritance
Relocation and restoration of old houses
The reconstruction of Tianjie, the main traffic road and primary tourist route in Huangling, faced numerous challenges, including disorderly traffic circulation, narrow and muddy roads, and existing dilapidated structures. The planning of this pivotal path was vital for creating an optimal experience for visitors to the village.

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▲ 改造前的天街,是村落里一段狭窄泥泞的土路,地基松垮,崎岖不平 © 婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司
Before transformation, Tianjie was a narrow rugged muddy road in the village, with a loose foundation. © Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd.


通过对老民居逐一排危与修缮,村庄文化将120栋原址民居修旧如旧,同时嵌入民宿、餐饮、展览等完整业态功能。

The project team examined all old houses within the village, restoring 120 buildings to their former appearances while incorporating comprehensive modern business functionalities such as hospitality, restaurants, and exhibition spaces.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


超出对建筑符号的表面保留,汪万斌认为,赋予老建筑以新生,才是保留它们的最好方式。为此带领团队走访古徽州各地,探寻保存完好的徽派古民居,通过异地保护重建、老屋“寄养”的形式,为篁岭“引入”20余座精美古民居。这些反映徽商精致生活的老宅,丰富了篁岭老村原本缺失的建筑典型性,使其成为婺源老建筑密度最大的村落之一,亦是座没有围墙的古建“博物馆”。

Wang Wanbin recognized that breathing new life into old buildings is the most effective way of preservation, rather than merely maintaining the architectural icons. He spearheaded visits all over the ancient Huizhou region to study well-preserved old homes, and introduced over 20 exquisite ancient houses from other places to Huangling through reconstruction and restoration efforts. These structures, emblematic of the refined lifestyle of ancient Huizhou merchants, have enriched the architectural fabric of Huangling Village, transforming it into a repository of ancient buildings without a parallel in Wuyuan, as well as an "ancient architecture museum" without enclosure walls.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


除了建筑本身,建筑周围的环境梳理,道路、排水的考量与景观设计的一体融合,都经过了设计建造团队的紧密配合与精心规划,以确保老宅的完善功能和可续保护。

In addition to the building structures, meticulous attention has been given to the surrounding environment, including road, drainage, and landscape design, to ensure holistic consideration. The close collaboration and careful planning of the design and construction team have ensured the comprehensive functionality and sustainable preservation of local historic dwellings.

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▲ 传统徽派民居采用砖木结构,村庄文化团队与当地匠人们以传统建造技艺复现 © 婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司
Traditional Huizhou-style residences are constructed using brick and wood structures. The project team, alongside local craftsmen, reconstructed traditional Hui-style houses through traditional construction techniques. © Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd.

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© 婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司(动图)
© Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd.

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▲ 徽州古民居的精美雕花,在保护修复后得以再次绽放,摄影:SFAP
The sophisticated carvings adorning Huizhou-style ancient houses have been preserved and restored, breathing new life into their exquisite beauty. Photography: SFAP


新老交接的民居古建沿着地势排布,交叠着构成天街极富空间体验性与古村烟火气的氛围。与此同时,隐性融入现代化的照明设计与街区景观优化,这条新生的古街与周围环境浑然相融。

The harmonious coexistence of old and new houses, gracefully following the terrain, has fostered a rich spatial experience and a lively atmosphere in the ancient village. Moreover, the modern lighting and thoughtfully designed landscapes seamlessly integrate into the renewed ancient street, harmonizing it with the surroundings.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


古宅修复重建的过程中,汪万斌带领团队与当地匠人们共同实践,活化了一批传统建造工艺,祖辈流传的技艺得以传承。而在传承之上,更以新旧结合,藏新于古的方式,将新旧结构与材料结合运用,整合空间的现代化功能、使用体验的舒适度与在地资源的联结性。

Throughout the restoration and reconstruction of the ancient houses, Wang Wanbin led his team and local craftsmen in a collaborative effort, revitalizing traditional construction techniques and inheriting ancestral skills and wisdom. While inheriting traditions, they adeptly combined old and new structures and materials to meet contemporary functional needs, ensure comfortable experiences and integrate local resources.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


叁章
保护
依山而建,生态宜居


建于山坡之上的篁岭,村前和后山均被红豆杉、枫香、香樟等千棵古树簇拥,自然环境优渥,但也存在旱季缺水,雨季内涝甚至山体滑坡的危险。如何在建设开发的同时,保护当地山水,结合建筑与既有景观优势,亦是村庄文化在篁岭建设中的一大挑战。

Chapter III
Conservation
Built on mountains, a livable ecological village
Situated on a picturesque hillside, Huangling is embraced by thousands of ancient trees such as yews, Chinese sweet gum trees, and camphor trees, creating a stunning natural environment. However, the village faces challenged such as water shortage during dry seasons, waterlogging, and landslides in the rainy season. Balancing the preservation of the local landscape with the architectural environment presented a significant challenge to the project team for the village construction.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


2017年6月,篁岭遭遇洪灾,村内多处山体滑坡造成大量植被冲毁,对环境带来了难以修复的破坏。改造项目需要针对性地恢复水毁的植被和环境,加入防水与引水工程,完善基础设施建设。

地质灾害造成黄土碎石雍塞山谷,施工难度大,交通运输非常困难。设计团队化困境为机遇,巧妙利用滑坡后改变的地势,就势修建为篁岭第二条极富特性的街道“花溪水街”。

In June 2017, Huangling experienced devastating floods, leading to multiple landslides that caused extensive damage to the vegetation and environment. The subsequent renovation endeavors aimed to restore the water-damaged landscape through targeted solutions, including waterproofing and water diversion programs, as well as infrastructure improvements.
Loess and gravel resulting from the geological disasters blocked the valley, which posed further challenges to construction and transportation. However, the design team seized this opportunity by leveraging the altered terrain after the landslides to create the distinctive "Huaxi Water Street" (which means Flower Stream Street), a second street with unique characteristics in Huangling.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


为了恢复水毁的植被和环境,设计团队在防洪工程基础上,采用传统营造方式修复加固,排除可能的地质隐患,利用水利技术引水筑溪,历时两年,根本性地解决了篁岭多年所困的地质灾害与水源匮乏问题。

To address the environmental damage caused by floods, traditional construction methods were employed to repair and reinforce flood-control engineering, mitigate geological hazards, and implement water conservancy techniques to redirect water and create streams. Over two years, these efforts fundamentally resolved long-standing geological disasters and water shortage issues in Huangling Village.

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© 婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司
© Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd.


在解决场地基础问题之后,利用地形和水流优势沿岸造景,对村内道路交通进行科学改造与梳理,依地形高差将不同大小的房屋错落排布在花溪两边,人工开挖孔桩水泥浇筑基础,预埋各种管线,留好排水排污口。

With the site foundation issues resolved, strategic landscaping was undertaken along the stream, accompanied by the scientific reorganization of road traffic within the village. Houses of varying sizes were strategically positioned on both sides of the Huaxi Stream to align with the natural terrain elevation differences, with foundations excavated and fortified with cement. Additionally, various pipelines were buried and drainage and sewage outlets were set up in advance.

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© 婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司
© Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co., Ltd.


遵循可持续发展的原则,设计最大限度地实现环境友好和资源循环利用,将修整的痕迹降至最低。充分利用场地已有的材料如红土、毛石等,结合传统的建筑工艺,构筑古朴灵动的多维度风景,与整个村落的氛围相协调。

景观、建筑、室内外一体化设计,古村落得以在“原真性”保护与“带动性”开发之中,达到多元而统一的价值平衡。

Adhering to the principles of sustainability, the design prioritized environmental friendliness and resource recycling while minimizing the footprint of renovations. Existing materials such as red clay and rough stone were maximized through traditional construction techniques to create a simple yet sophisticated multi-dimensional landscape that harmonizes with the village's overall ambiance.
The integrated design approach encompassing landscape, architecture, interior, and exterior elements has enabled Huangling to strike a balance between preserving its authenticity and driving development.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


肆章
复现
挖掘在地乡土民居,守住一方乡愁


作为入选“世界最佳”的中国乡村振兴的标杆项目,不止于保护修缮、融入现代功能、还原自然山居环境,村庄文化更通过内涵挖掘、文化灌注、业态整合等方式,提升篁岭的人文价值和乡村产值,而村民们已然成为这一乡建进程中的参与者和共享者。

成长于婺源农村的汪万斌相信,真正为当地社区创造福祉,让乡人找回身份认同与文化自信,才是乡村振兴和乡旅建设的终极意义。

Chapter IV
Reproduction
Delve into local vernacular houses, and resonate with nostalgia
The project has been widely recognized as a benchmark initiative for successful rural revitalization in China. Its scope extends beyond preserving, modernizing, and restoring the natural mountain living environment. It also places significant emphasis on unearthing cultural significance, infusing cultural essence, and integrating sustainable business models. The overarching goal is to enhance both the humanistic and economic value of the village. Local villagers have been actively involved in the construction and development efforts, thereby sharing the benefits of the village's renewal.
Wang Wanbin, a native of rural Wuyuan, advocates for the true essence of rural revitalization and tourism development, which lies in benefiting the local community and reinstating the cultural identity and confidence of rural residents.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


在徽州的历史人文调研上,村庄文化倾注大量的时间和精力,深入研究传统民居样态。老宅异地复建与修复涉及到了诸多的建造难题,与当地匠人通力合作,以极致匠心挖掘徽派建筑群的传统营造技艺,保护并修复精美的建筑砖雕及木雕。

The project team conducted extensive research of the historical and cultural contexts of ancient Huizhou, particularly in traditional house styles. The reconstruction and restoration of old houses in Huangling involved collaboration with local craftsmen to overcome all kinds of construction difficulties, striving to delve into traditional Huizhou-style construction and preserve and repair the sophisticated architectural brick and wood carvings.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


亦挖掘复现了酿酒、榨油、竹编等当地传统手工艺,将古村原有的生产加工作坊如水碓、油榨等,结合体验动线糅合成为具有记忆点的景观节点,为村落空间增添人文意趣。而大到一条街道的设计建造,小到一间民居里器物的展陈,背后都是设计团队常年扎根乡土,对当地乡村文化民俗的理解、提炼与再现。

Furthermore, efforts were made to revive local traditional handicrafts such as brewing, oil pressing, and bamboo weaving, which are integrated into landscape nodes to enrich the experience with cultural significance. Whether it is the meticulous design and construction of a street or the thoughtfully curated display of utensils in a folk house, each aspect serves as compelling evidence of the design team's extensive experience and deep connection to rural life. Every detail of the project reflects their understanding, refinement, and revival of local rural folk culture.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


民居也以古村文化元素为主线,遵循地域民俗文化特征,在保护基础上充分利用遗留闲置的生产、生活资料等资源,再现当地民俗文化。

“晒秋”这一在赣北多有分布的农俗,藉由篁岭当地独特的山居建筑形态与绵延有序、五彩斑斓的丰收晒秋场景,形成了篁岭独一无二的名片。农产品、非遗工艺、传统种植等地方业态,为原住民创造新的就业,支撑稳定的原生态社区模式。

The restoration of folk houses in Huangling emphasized the preservation of ancient village's cultural elements, aligning with regional folk culture characteristics and utilizing existing unused resources such as old utensils and furniture to reproduce local traditions.
The distinctive farming custom of "Shaiqiu" (or "drying crops in the autumn sunshine") prevalent in northern Jiangxi, has become synonymous with Huangling, showcasing the unique mountain dwelling architectural form and vibrant harvest scenes. This has not only created employment opportunities through local businesses related to agricultural products, intangible cultural heritage crafts, and traditional farming but also fostered an authentic local community model.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


本土化的语言天然具备可辨识的特色,与传统和文化产生更深层次的连接。“记得住乡愁,看得见未来”,这会是乡村建设和发展的绵绵不绝的内生力量。

The utilization of vernacular languages with identifiable characteristics has fostered a deeper connection with tradition and culture, serving as an intrinsic driving force for rural construction and development.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


从设计到建造,从传承到创新,从挖掘到复现,村庄文化用十五载光阴的纵深设计实践,保留了篁岭这座百年村落的“形”,更藉由古村价值赋能,将传统乡土文化的“魂”传承了下来。这座涅槃重生的徽派古村落,让每一个来到这里的人们,拾起乡愁,也为乡村振兴与传统村落的现代化村旅开发,提供了一个全球普适的生动范例。

Engaging in all aspects of design, construction, inheritance, innovation, excavation, and reproduction, Wang Wanbin and his team's fifteen years of dedicated practice have successfully retained the essence of Huangling, empowering it with the value of an ancient village while preserving the traditional local culture. This revitalized ancient village can evoke a sense of nostalgia and belonging in all who visit. It serves as a remarkable demonstration of rural revitalization and modern village tourism development, offering a globally applicable model for traditional villages.

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摄影:SFAP
Photography: SFAP


项目信息
项目名称:篁岭古村改造
设计单位:婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司
项目设计&完成年份:2009至今
主创及设计团队:汪万斌、洪平、潘焰鑫、汪建泓
项目地址:婺源县篁岭景区
建筑面积:26272.54m2
项目摄影:SFAP
项目客户:婺源篁岭文旅股份有限公司

Project information
Project name: Renovation of Huangling Ancient Village
Design firm: Wuyuan Village Culture Media Co. Ltd.
Design & completion year: 2009 - ongoing
Design team: Wang Wanbin, Hong Ping, Pan Yanxin, Wang Jianhong
Project location: Huangling Scenic Area, Wuyuan County
Area: 26,272.54 m2
Photography: SFAP
Client: Wuyuan Huangling Cultural Tourism Co., Ltd.


来源:本文由婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司提供稿件,所有著作权归属婺源县村庄文化传媒有限公司所有。

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