网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第1张图片


鹤冈之家 / Kiyoaki Takeda Architects
Tsuruoka House / Kiyoaki Takeda Architects

由专筑网K&C,小R编译

人造产品增长已成顽疾 – 如今,有机产品和人造产品之间的平衡正处于交叉点。 我读到一篇发表在科学期刊上的文章,题为“全球人造质量超过所有活生物量”(于2020 年 12 月 9 日在Nature网络刊登)。 该文指出人造产品质量已经开始超过全球所有的活生物量。而且据文章分析,造成这一趋势的主要来源是建筑材料。这意味着当下环境已经达到了不断搭建 “人类专用架构”的极限。在这样的语境下,作为人类住所的建筑又将扮演什么角色?

Ingrained Artefacts Growth - Now, a balance between organisms and artefacts is at the crossover point. I encountered an article published in a scientific journal titled “Global human-made mass exceeds all living biomass” (Nature: published online 9th December 2020). According to the article, human-made artefacts referred to as anthropogenic mass has begun to surpass all global living biomass. Furthermore, it is reported that the dominant cause of this trend is construction materials. This condition implies it has reached a limit to keep generating the “architecture solely for humans” produced so far. In this context, what would be the role of architecture, a humans dwelling?

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第2张图片


从本质上讲,建筑的主要作用是保护自己免受自然力量的威胁。我们经历的自然灾害越多,自然与居住空间之间的隔墙就越坚固,人类和其他生命形式就更加割裂。与此同时,自然环境又是公认的富饶而美丽。这就是人们种植花园、进行墙体绿化和屋顶绿化的原因。然而,仅仅作为装饰和设施的景观植物不过是从人类视角进行规划种植。它们作为人类居住空间的延伸而存在,并不是野生动物的空间。 “人造产品增长已成顽疾”的现实,事实上就是“人类空间的不自觉扩张”。

Essentially, the primary role of architecture is to protect itself from the brutal force of nature. The more we experience natural disasters, the more solid the wall between nature and space has become. The separation of interior and exterior for humans and other life forms have been more distinctive. On the other hand, it is understood well that the environment nature provides could be rich and beautiful. That is why gardens are planted and façade and rooftops are greened. However, the plants grown as decorative and facilitated landscapes have been planned only from the human perspective. They exist as an extension of living space for humans, not as a space for wildlife. The reality of “ingrained artefacts growth” is, in fact, lies in “unconsciously expanding human space.”

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第3张图片


所有人类、植物、动物和昆虫,都在共同推进 “地球生存计划”。 地球是包括人类在内的各种生物的无形集合体。那么建筑能否成为容纳这些有机体的整体单元?

“鹤冈之家”是一座建筑,在容纳人的同时,试图容纳其他生命形式。

All humans, plants, animals, and insects have been co-proceeding the project “to live” on Earth. The earth is a formless assembly of various living organisms, including humans. Could architecture be a vessel to hold these organisms as one whole unit?
“Tsuruoka House” is an architecture that attempted to hold not only people but also other life forms.

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第4张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第5张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第6张图片


环境基础设施——为环境设置基础设施-一般情况下,场地通常在二维平面上被划分为“花园”和“建筑”。然而,这种设计方法导致自然与建筑之间的关系总是彼此相邻的。 那么,换成在横截面上将“花园”和“房屋”堆叠在一起呢?所有楼层都将是地面层,在下方形成类似“地下”的空间。 这也许会导向一种相互影响的关系。在设计时尽可能地增加土壤的厚度,从而让分层花园变为一个小森林,混合着地被植物、灌木和小型乔木。这种理念与追求轻薄土壤的现代屋顶绿化背道而驰。通过开放花园,为其他生命形式提供栖息地,共同创造社区,让“花园”变为“生境”。

Environmental Infrastructure – Infrastructure for Environment - Usually, the site is often divided into “gardens” and “houses” in a two-dimensional plane. However, with this design method, the relationship between nature and architecture tends to be just next to each other. Then, how about stacking “gardens” and “houses” on top of each other in a cross-sectional plane. All floors would be the ground level, providing underground-ish space below them. A relationship that influences each other is likely to emerge. The thickness of the soil was plotted as deep as possible so that the layered garden would be a small forest hosting a mixture of ground cover plants, shrubs, and small trees. This approach goes against modern rooftop greening, which pursues thinner soli. By opening the garden to other available life forms, providing them with a place to inhabit, and co-creating the community, the “garden” becomes an “environment.”

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第7张图片


要通过设计环境来支持其他生命形式居住,有一个基本条件,那就是土壤的雨水渗排得当。事务所反复研究哪种剖面能让雨水在重力作用下自然渗排,结论是使用连续的拱顶板。雨水从拱顶的“山顶”流向“山谷”,再从“山谷”垂直流过中心。水流过的形状,也就是建筑物的形状。这种途径就像是土木工程当中的灌溉渠和水坝。而项目工程需要保证在严酷的自然环境中还能有效地保持土壤和雨水的浓度。

An essential condition to design the environment to support other life forms of inhabitance was clear rainwater drainage in the soil. Following the repeated studies of the cross-section where rainwater naturally falls with gravity, a conclusion arrived at introducing continuous vault slabs. Rainwater flows from mountains to valleys of the vault slabs and is carried vertically from valleys through the core. The water flow generated the shape of the building. This approach is similar to the civil engineering design, such as irrigation channels and dams. The civil engineering design requires determined concentration in hold soil and shed rain efficiently within the harsh natural environment.

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第8张图片


事实上,要支撑起这块生境并不容易。与静态人造产品不同,自然环境是无法控制的。肥料已然很重,关键是还要考虑暴雨量、植物每年生长所增加的重量。当不可预测、永不稳定的有机体和小气候成为建筑设计的一环时,设计越是推进,就越是举步维艰。尽管如此,我们直面不可预测的自然风险,安装溢流管以应对暴雨、在植物根系可以到达的顶层放置保水的高密度堆肥、在下层放置排水清晰的低密度堆肥;并通过限定屋顶覆土位置来减轻重量,才有了这种层状结构的土壤基础,还能通过蒸腾作用吸收室内外边界的太阳热量。

In fact, it was not easy to hold up the natural environment. Unlike static artefacts, the natural environment cannot be controlled. The compost itself is already heavy. On top of that, there are weights of torrential rains, growing and increasing plants every year that need to be considered. When unpredictable and unstable organisms and climates became requirements for architectural design, the more the design progressed, the scarier it was to embrace the environment. Even then, we faced unpredicted risks of nature and managed to build “infrastructure for the environment” by installing over-flow pipes to cope with a downpour, designing the soil foundation with layer structure by placing high-density compost with water retention at the upper level where the plant roots can reach and positioning low-density compost with clear drainage at the lower level and reducing the weight by limiting soil location at the rooftop and around the border of interiors and exteriors that allow transpiration to soften solar heat.

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第9张图片


为什么我要把精力放在创造“环境建筑”上呢?是因为人们期待“为环境而建的建筑”能够为“人的空间”带来新的合理性。

Why have I put my energy into creating the “architecture for the environment.” It is because there was an expectation that “architecture for the environment” could bring new rationality for “spaces for people.”

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第10张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第11张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第12张图片


厚度达到一定程度的土壤包围着空间,如同洞穴,让人感到凉爽,隔绝夏季暑气。在地板和拱顶中心周围是很舒适的地方,内置冬日地板采暖产生的温暖土壤。泥土可能会对人们的日常生活产生积极影响。连续的拱顶板减少了积水,形成了较矮的空间。乍一看似乎很负面,但与一般的矩形空间相比,这种结构更适合生活。

By enveloping the space with fairly thick soil, there could be a cave-like place where you feel cooler, not feeling the heat from outside in summer. There could be a snuggly place around the floor and the core with warmed soil from the floor heating in winter. The earth may affect people’s daily life positively. The continuous vault slabs formed to shed rain offers an area with a shallow ceiling height. This may seem negative at a glance, but it would be a much more beckoning structure for one’s living compared to the general flat slab.

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第13张图片


拱顶的开放式天花板有3,500毫米高,在最低处的高度低至2,000毫米,伸手可及。 只要条件允许,吊环螺栓、环形螺母和电线可以连接到塑料锥上,就可以在需要的位置悬挂吊床、吊灯、花盆。 伸手可及的结构为日常生活带来创造力。它不仅支持生境,也支持生活。

The slab fabricates a 3,500mm open high ceiling at the top, and at the valley, the height lowers to 2,000mm, reachable by hand. If the structure is reachable, eye bolts, ring nuts, and wires could be attached to plastic end cones, and it will allow us to hung hammocks, pendant lights, planters at the desired location. Reachable structures might be able to generate creativity in one’s daily life. It would be the structure to support not only the environment but also the one’s living.

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第14张图片


与自然共生 - 在施工过程中,我心中浮现一个严重的疑问。由建筑结构——人造产品——支撑的环境是经人手“管理的自然”。然而,生境不应该意味着“未受破坏的自然”吗?

Living with Nature - During the construction, a serious doubt still remained in my mind. The environment supported by the building structure -artefacts- is “managed nature” by human hands. However, shouldn’t the environment mean “untouched nature”?

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第15张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第16张图片


在我思考时,我回想了学生时代的经历,有一次去调查意大利乌尔比诺的一个砖石村废墟。一座废墟散布于开阔的山顶。当我走进一个满是破洞屋顶的客厅时,竟然在房间内发现了一片小树林。如果没有建筑,这里一定只是一个长满野草的山顶。但是人工产品的遗迹显然使这个地方的生物更加多样化。石墙让原生常春藤垂直生长,屋顶保护灌木免受强烈阳光直射,地砖容纳了足够的雨水让树木生存。人造产品在环境中创造出不同的条件,为更多生物提供了场所。

When I was wondering, I remembered my experience as a student, visiting a masonry village in Urbino, Italy, for an investigation of the ruins. There was a ruin sat on the open hilltop. Entering a space that would have been a living room with a rotten holed roof, surprisingly, I found a small forest inside the room. If there was no architecture, this place must have only been a grassed hilltop. But vestige of artefacts built by humans clearly diversified a variety of organisms in this place. The external stone walls let native ivy grow vertically, the roof protected shrubs from intense sunlight, and the floor tiles held enough rainwater for small trees to survive. Artefacts generated variable qualities in the environment, providing a place for multiple organisms.

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第17张图片


回想起这段经历,我才重新认可了自己提出的项目理念,提出“人类建筑”也可以是环境,反之亦然。人与自然,土壤与植物,植物与动物。通过尊重所有生物之间的各方供求关系,建筑可以成为协调每种存在的角色的纽带。如果我们能够建立一个促进相互之间彼此补充的结构,那么就有可能为未来的建筑寻找方向。

Recalling this experience, I reacknowledged my aim for the project, to present that “architecture for humans” could also be for the environment, and vice versa. Humans and nature, soil and plants, plants and animals. By respecting supply and demand among all beings in every direction, architecture could be a link to harmonise everyone’s role in existence. If we could establish a structure that fosters mutual and complemental relationships with each other, it might be possible to seek a direction for future architecture.

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第18张图片


在“鹤冈之家”,随着时间的推移,植物会生长,会入住预料之外的鸟类和昆虫物种。最终会成长为一个小森林。也许几十年后的生命形式将生长到完全覆盖建筑物,最终,它们的生物质量必然超过人造建筑的质量。尽管,这栋房子不会给改善全球环境带来任何潜在影响。

At “Tsuruoka House,” over time, the plants will grow, and birds and insects will introduce unplanned species. Eventually, a small forest could appear. Then, after decades, existing life forms will grow and hide the building entirely, and ultimately, their bio-mass must surpass the mass of human-made architecture. Yet, this one house would not bring any potential effect to improve the global environment.

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第19张图片


然而,创造一种人类与其他生命形式互通你我的生活方式,并在生物体和人工制品之间达成平衡的环境中,保持舒适的距离来欣赏彼此的美好,我想实现的,仅仅如此简单罢了。

But instead, to create a life in which humans and other living forms could connect directly as a you-me relationship and keep a comfortable distance to appreciate each other’s blessing within the environment sustained by an appropriate balance between organisms and artefacts, this is what I simply wanted.

建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第20张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第21张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第22张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第23张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第24张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第25张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第26张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第27张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第28张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第29张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第30张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第31张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第32张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第33张图片


建筑与自然共生:日本鹤岗之家第34张图片


• 建筑事务所:Kiyoaki Takeda Architects
• 类型:住宅,室内设计
• 面积:206 平方米
• 项目年份:2021年
• 建筑摄影:kkpo
• 制造商:Atom Company、Sanko、TAJIMA ROOFING、Toyo Materia
• 建筑设计:Kiyoaki Takeda, Miyuki Sakuyama
• 结构设计:ASA, Akira Suzuki, ASA
• 灯光设计:Toshio Takeuchi
• 景观设计:Echigo Kokesho
• 家具设计:SIGN CRAFT、SIGN CRAFT
• 国家:日本

HOUSES, HOUSE INTERIORS,JAPAN
Architects: Kiyoaki Takeda Architects
Area: 206 m2
Year: 2021
Photographs: kkpo
Manufacturers: Atom Company, Sanko, TAJIMA ROOFING, Toyo Materia
Architectural Design: Kiyoaki Takeda, Miyuki Sakuyama
Structural Design: ASA, Akira Suzuki, ASA
Lighting Design:Toshio Takeuchi
Landscape Design Gardening:Echigo Kokesho
Furniture Design:SIGN CRAFT, SIGN CRAFT
Country:Japan

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

建筑 (12091 articles)


居住建筑 (3533 articles)


住宅 (2942 articles)


日本 (1002 articles)


2021 (193 articles)