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建筑是对生活最真实的反映——记录墨西哥与美国移民的点滴第1张图片


建筑是墨西哥和美国之间移民的反映
Architecture as a Reflection of Migration Between Mexico and the United States

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

“被放弃的复制品”是艺术家Sandra Calvo在2016年至2018年期间创作的一个研究项目,由电影、档案、图纸、采访和视频组成,2021年威尼斯双年展期间在墨西哥馆展出。该项目强调建筑是墨西哥和美国之间移民过程的反映,比较和对比了移民在美国工作的建筑和他们在墨西哥建造的建筑,及其经济来源。

“Abandonment Copies” is a research project created between 2016 and 2018 by artist Sandra Calvo consisting of a film, archives, drawings, interviews, and a video display which was exhibited in the Mexican pavilion during the 2021 Biennial of Venice. The project highlights architecture as a reflection of the migration process between Mexico and the United States, comparing and contrasting the houses where migrants work in the US and the ones they build in Mexico with the remittances they send.

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该项目向为建造一个可以称之为家的地方而进行的持续斗争致敬,体现了无数移民前往美国,在不稳定和非法的条件下生活和工作的状态,同时为建造他们自己的别墅而努力,这近乎是个幻想。尽管近年来取得了进展,但美国的非正式移民仍然面对不平等和暴力。迄今为止,墨西哥人仍然占生活在美国的外国出生移民中的最大比例,他们与新发现的社区形成的文化桥梁越来越明显。

如该项目所示,在美国怀俄明州,80%的拉丁裔人口来自墨西哥的特拉斯卡拉州,特别是来自Hueyotlipan市。这是整个墨西哥侨民在美国的一个趋势,来自普埃布拉的人绝大多数定居在纽约,来自图兰辛戈的人定居在加利福尼亚的萨利纳斯,这里仅举几例。

The project pays tribute to the constant struggle to build a place to call home as seen in the journey countless migrants take to the United States to live and work in precarious and illegal conditions while saving up to build their own mansion-inspired villas that border on fantastical. In spite of the progress made in recent years, informal migration to the US is still marred by both inequality and violence. To date, Mexicans continue to make up the largest percentage of foreign born migrants living in the United States and the cultural bridges they form with their newfound communities are increasingly visible.
As the project shows, in the US state of Wyoming, 80% of the Latino population hails from the Mexican state of Tlaxcala, specifically from Hueyotlipan municipality. This is a trend across the Mexican diaspora in the US, with people from Puebla overwhelmingly settling in New York and people from Tulancingo in Salinas, California, just to name a few.

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该项目强调了两国生活的相似性和差异性,包括个人愿望和原始现实,以及建筑如何与这些因素联系在一起,同时为周围的环境所塑造。该项目分为三个部分。

  • 有人居住的房子:移民在杰克逊霍尔工作时居住的房屋、拖车和房间只能满足最基本的需求。这些空间往往在一个屋檐下容纳两到三个核心家庭,设施稀缺,甚至床都必须共享。在这些与世隔绝且不受管制的定居点,驱逐的威胁一直伴随着他们,同时租金很高,占了工人工资的大部分。


The project highlights the similarities and differences of life in the two countries, including individual aspirations and raw realities, and how architecture ties into these factors, simultaneously shaping and being shaped by the context surrounding it. The project is divided into three parts:
The inhabitated house: The houses, trailers, and rooms where the migrants live while they work in Jackson Hole cover only the most basic of needs. These spaces often house two or three nuclear families under one roof and scarce amenities, even beds, must be shared. The threat of eviction is a constant companion in these isolated and often unregulated settlements where rents are high and take up the majority of the workers' wages. 

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  • 样板间。这些是移民在怀俄明州的高档社区建造的房屋,这些价值百万美元的豪宅通常在一年中的大部分时间里都是空置的,但全年都得到维护、清洁和供暖。正是这些房子成为移民工人返回墨西哥家乡后为其家人建造房屋的灵感来源。


The model house. These are the homes built by the migrants in the upscale neighborhoods of Wyoming. These million-dollar mansions often remain vacant for most of the year but receive year-round maintenance, cleaning, and heating. It is often these same houses that serve as inspiration for the homes that the migrant workers will build for their families once they return to their hometowns in Mexico.

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  • 梦想之家。这些房子是移民回国后建造的,也是他们从美国寄回汇款的主要原因。这些梦想之屋的建设可能持续数十年,但由于各种原因,大多数仍未完工——通常是因为房主无法返回墨西哥,资源不足,或者家庭收到犯罪团伙的威胁,要求从国外寄来的钱中分一杯羹。这些房子模仿了怀俄明州的样板房,有弯曲的楼梯、坡屋顶、拱门、柱子、车库和院子。然而,尽管它们有豪华的装备,但它们与公共服务没有联系,它们所建的地块没有什么货币价值。建设的资金是由不断的杂志剪报、照片和手绘的图片引导的,显示出所需的最终产品。建房的地块靠近这些家庭目前的住所,突出了所有权和必要性的感觉。


The Dream House. These are the houses that the migrants build once they return home and the primary reason for the remittances sent back from the US. Construction of these dream houses can last for decades and the majority remain incomplete for a variety of reasons--usually because the owners can't return to Mexico, insufficient resources, or the family receives threats from criminal gangs that demand a cut of the money sent from abroad. The houses mimic the model mansions Wyoming with curved staircases, gabled roofs, arches, columns, garages, and yards; however, in spite of their luxurious outfitting, they have no connection to public services and the plots they're built on have little monetary value. The construction is funded by the money guided by a constant flow of magazine cutouts, photographs, and hand-drawn pictures displaying the desired final product. The lots where the houses are built are close to the families' current dwellings, highlighting the sense of ownership and necessity.

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没有专家参与设计这些房屋,设计和建造完全掌握在居民手中,所采取的艺术自由决定了所产生的结构。然而,缺乏建筑师并不等同于缺乏建筑,这个过程是基于修改和自我构建的可能性。空间保持开放,以至于很难分辨出房子是在建设中还是被遗弃,建设过程来源于使用者的直觉和愿望。

No specialists are involved in designing these houses. The design and construction is solely in the hands of the future inhabitants and the artistic liberties taken define the resulting structure; however, the lack of architects doesn't equate to a lack of architecture. The process is based on the possibility of modification and self-construction. The spaces remain open to the point that it's difficult to tell whether the house is in the middle of construction or abandoned. Construction proceeds according to the intuition and aspirations of the inhabitants. 

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一个可能永远不会有人居住的房子,但它的建造是动力和骄傲的来源,是对其居民所面临的严酷现实的一种逃避。它代表了对美好未来的希望,这种现象反映在全国各地的建筑中,这些建筑是为了应对民众所面临的社会经济现实而出现的。它们是对遗弃行为的反馈,是对一个地区、一个家庭和一个剥夺行为的反馈。

The idea of a house that may never be inhabited, but whose construction serves as a source of motivation and pride, serves as an escape from the harsh realities faced by its inhabitants. It represents hope for a better future. This phenomenon is mirrored throughout the country in the architecture that springs up in response to the socioeconomic realities faced by the populace. They are reflections of abandonment,  of a territory, of a family, and of a dispossessed landscape. 

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该项目包括移民的个人陈述,包括Abraham Hernández Bautista,而这只是在本土建筑中的关于寻找更美好明天的众多故事之一。

The project includes various personal accounts from migrants, including that of Abraham Hernández Bautista. This is just one of many stories about the search for a better tomorrow as seen in home-grown architecture.

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