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Image © Clément Guillaume

拆解设计指南
A Guide to Design for Disassembly

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

近年来,"拆解设计"(简称DfD)的概念得到了越来越多的关注,因为它解决了建筑行业内资源消耗大、回收率低的问题。下面的内容详细介绍了这一方法,并介绍了有利于未来建筑拆卸设计过程的指导方针,其目的是在当前实践和循环经济的大框架下,让人们更好地理解这一原则。

The concept of Design for Disassembly (DfD for short) gained increasing traction in recent years, as it addresses the growing concern around the high consumption of resources and low recycling rate within the construction industry. The following article details on the method and features guidelines for a design process that facilitates the dismantlement of future buildings, with the scope of providing a better understanding of this principle within the broader framework of the current practice and circular economy.


什么是设计到拆解?


关于未来建筑材料再利用的思考讨论第2张图片

Image © Clément Guillaume

从定义上看,拆解设计是指对建筑进行设计,以适应未来部分或整体的变化和拆除,从而回收系统、部件和材料,并且确保建筑在全寿命周期内能够尽可能有效地循环利用。该方法的基础是人们越来越认识到,大多数建筑的寿命是有限的,每座建筑都是资源的储存地,这些资源与其最终被送往垃圾填埋场,不如重新回到"减少、再利用、再循环"的流程中去。因此,"设计促进发展"涉及了解结构的完整生命周期,并为其各部分的再利用作出规定,以减少资源消耗和污染。

What is Design to Disassembly?
By definition, Design for Disassembly is the design of buildings to facilitate future changes and dismantlement (in part or whole) for recovery of systems, components and materials, thus ensuring the building can be recycled as efficiently as possible at the end of its lifespan. The strategy builds on an increasing acknowledgment of the fact that the majority of the built environment has a limited lifespan and that every building represents a depository of resources, which, rather than ending up in a landfill, should find their way back into the "reduce, reuse, recycle" loop. As such, DfD involves understanding the structure's complete life-cycle and making provisions for the reuse of its parts, in order to reduce both the consumption of resources and pollution.

关于未来建筑材料再利用的思考讨论第3张图片

Image Courtesy of William McDonough + Partners

这个概念最初定义于20世纪90年代,是一个相对较新的概念,因此很少有项目在设计时考虑到拆解的问题,更少有项目对该方法的结果进行测试。尽管如此,这种趋势变得愈发主流,其中一个例子是新的伦敦规划,相关条例要求规划申请证明建筑部件如何拆卸和再利用。此外,欧盟项目"建筑材料库"(BAMB)和美国环保署(EPA)都为这一设计过程制定了指导方针,而一些可持续发展认证也为拆解设计加分。

First defined in the 1990s, the concept is relatively new, therefore few projects have been designed with disassembly in mind, and even fewer have tested out the outcome of the strategy. Nonetheless, this pursuit is now making its way into mainstream practice, one such example being the new London Plan, which will require planning applications to demonstrate how the building components can be disassembled and reused. Furthermore, both the EU project Buildings as Material Banks (BAMB) and EPA (the United States Environmental Protection Agency) have drawn out guidelines for this design process, while several sustainability certifications award points for the design for deconstruction.


机会与挑战

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Image © Simon Kennedy

建筑业是世界上最大的原材料消耗者,而其中大多数材料并不会进行循环利用,将DfD战略纳入建筑过程将减少建筑业的能源消耗和碳排放,因为它将大大减少第一次使用材料的消耗。然而,设计发展的过程也充满挑战。缺乏对回收材料的监管,以及废旧材料质量和数量的不确定性,仍然是阻碍"设计拆解"方法的因素。目前,另一个重大的挑战是这一过程的成本和速度,因为拆除被认为比逐个拆开建筑更经济高效。然而,环保局的研究表明,如果有足够的可回收材料和良好的市场价值,抵消较高的劳动力成本,那么拆解再利用在成本上可以与拆迁相媲美。

Opportunities and Challenges
The construction industry is the world's largest consumer of raw materials, and most of them never return to the material loop. Incorporating the DfD strategy into the architectural process would reduce the embodied energy and carbon emissions of the construction sector, as it would significantly curtail the consumption of first-use materials. Nonetheless, the DfD process is not without its challenges. The lack of regulation regarding recycled materials and the uncertainty around the quality and quantity of used materials are still disincentives to the DfD method. Another significant challenge, for the time being, is the cost and speed of the process, as demolition is considered cheaper and faster than taking a construction apart piece by piece. However, research by EPA demonstrated that deconstruction could be cost-competitive with demolition if there are sufficient recoverable materials with a good market value to offset the higher labour costs.


设计原则

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Image © EFFEKT Architects for SPACE10

DfD过程需要在设计阶段的早期进行大量的规划,并且需要考虑一些策略和原则,确保建筑对象在其寿命结束后保持价值。以下是在进行拆解设计时需要遵循的几个一般准则。

Design Principles
The DfD process requires a significant amount of planning early on in the design phase, and there are strategies and principles to consider, to ensure the architectural object holds value once it has reached its end of life. The following are a few general guidelines to follow when designing for disassembly.


规划拆解

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Image © Arup Associates

DfD要求制作一份详细的拆解计划,包括拆解元素的说明,以及对建筑组件和材料的审查,以及如何重复使用、回收或再生。Arup在其研究《建筑环境中的循环经济》中提到,预计将使用基于云的BIM模型来记录和跟踪材料和组件的生命周期,以及使用从设计到拆卸的全生命周期标准。

Planning the Deconstruction
DfD requires generating a detailed deconstruction plan, including instructions for the disassembly of elements, as well as a review of the building components and materials and how they should be reused, recycled or reclaimed. In their research The Circular Economy in the Built Environment, Arup foresees the use of cloud-based BIM models to record and track materials and components through their life-cycle, as well as a standard in using full life-cycle contracts from design to disassembly.


评估材料

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Image © Rasmus Hjortshøj

拆解设计需要对建筑材料进行广泛的研究,以选择无毒、高质量(经得起组装和拆卸)和具有良好回收潜力的材料。在选择材料的过程中,围绕着这样的问题:一个部件在其寿命周期结束后会发生什么?如何重复使用,或者是否可以退回给供应商?有一些软件可以通过生成特定输入材料的生命周期评估(LCA)来帮助判断。

Assessing Materials
Design for Disassembly requires extensive research into construction materials for selecting the ones that are non-toxic, of high quality (to withstand assembly and disassembly) and have good recycling potential. The process of choosing materials within this design method revolves around questions such as: what happens to a component at the end of its life? How can it be reused, or could it be returned to the supplier? There is software that could help make this evaluation, by generating Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of specific input materials.


选择连接细节
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Image © Shinkenchiku Sha

“设计发展”的一项基本原则是建立无障碍连接,并选择适当的连接方式,以方便拆卸,避免使用重型设备或过多的工具。重点应放在机械连接上,使用螺栓、螺丝或钉子连接,而不是使用不可拆卸的化学连接,如粘结剂、密封剂、胶水或焊接,这样会使材料难以分离和回收。

Choosing Connection Details
One fundamental principle of DfD is creating accessible connections and choosing the appropriate joinery in order to ease dismantlement and avoid the use of heavy equipment, or too many tools. The focus should be on mechanical joinery, using bolted, screwed or nailed connections, as opposed to non-removable, chemical ones such as binders, sealers, glues or welding, which would make the material difficult to separate and recycle.


适应性设计

关于未来建筑材料再利用的思考讨论第9张图片

Image © Rasmus Hjortshøj

虽然"拆解设计"是建筑的寿命终结,但这种方法似乎是延长建筑使用期限的绝佳策略。因此,将不同的建筑系统分离开来,降低对整体建筑的破坏性,为未来的改造创造了更大的机会。MEP系统就是这样,其寿命比建筑内其他系统的寿命要短得多,DfD可以使有选择地拆除特定元素变得更加容易,从而减少浪费。在装配和部件的设计过程中,倾向于模块化和标准化,也有利于重复使用。

Designing for Adaptability
Although Design for Disassembly focuses on the life end of a building, the method seems to be an excellent strategy for extending a construction's use. Thus, separating different building systems and making their replacement less disruptive to the overall building creates a greater opportunity for future renovations. This could be the case of MEP systems, whose lifespan is much shorter than that of other systems within the building and where DfD could make the selective removal of specific elements much easier, resulting in less waste. Favouring modularity and standardization in the design process of assemblies and components also facilitates reuse.

关于未来建筑材料再利用的思考讨论第10张图片

Image © Leonardo Finotti

目前,为拆解而设计并不是一项容易的工作,它带来了额外的责任,并要求包括建筑师在内的所有参与施工过程的各方作出巨大的努力。而令人担忧的是,以这一程序设计的少数项目实例是否会按照建筑师的意图进行拆解和再利用,这存在不确定性。由于DfD还处于起步阶段,最终结果还未见分晓,这个结论很可能要在未来几十年后才能得出。不过,建筑业每年都会消耗过多的资源和材料,因此,在减少浪费方面,应该不遗余力地采取各种有效的策略。

For the time being, designing for disassembly is not an easy endeavour, bringing an added layer of responsibility and requiring a significant effort from all parties involved in the construction process, architects included. Less encouraging is the uncertainty regarding whether the few examples of projects designed with this process in mind will be deconstructed and reused as to the architects' intent. Since DfD is still in its infancy, end-results are yet to be seen, and the conclusions lie decades in the future. Nonetheless, as the construction industry engulfs an excessive amount of resources and first –use materials each year, no effort should be spared, and all strategies should be considered when it comes to reducing waste.

关于未来建筑材料再利用的思考讨论第11张图片

Image © Bertram Radelow


References
Brad Guy and Nicholas Ciarimboli, Design for Disassembly in the built environment: a guide to closed-loop design and building, 2005
The American Institute of Architects, Buildings that last: design for adaptability, deconstruction and reuse
Akinade, O.O., et al. Design for Deconstruction (DfD): Critical success factors for diverting end-of-life waste from landfills. Waste Management, 2016, available here.

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