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诠释过去与未来丨澳大利亚伊斯兰中心第1张图片


Australian Islamic Centre / Glenn Murcutt + Elevli Plus

由专筑网小R,王雪纯编译

本文由Ewan McEoin撰写,是澳大利亚墨尔本维多利亚国家美术馆建筑与当代设计馆的高级策展人。该项目是位于澳大利亚墨尔本的一座伊斯兰中心,也是第一座真正意义上的现代澳大利亚清真寺,是当地伊斯兰新理念下的建筑与社会标志。澳大利亚当地有着较多的穆斯林人口,该项目尊重当地的历史伊斯兰设计传统,同时也是对清真寺的全新未来的诠释。
   
Text by Ewan McEoin. The Hugh Williamson Senior Curator of Contemporary Design and Architecture, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. As perhaps the first truly contemporary Australian mosque, the Australian Islamic Centre in Newport, Melbourne, is an architectural and social marker of a new perception of Islam in Australia. By respectfully recalibrating historical Islamic design conventions for contemporary Australia – a country with a well-established and growing Muslim population – this project heralds a new interpretation of mosques as a future part of our suburbs.

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在项目的设计中,普利兹克建筑奖获得者Glenn Murcutt考虑了现代主义原则,同时呼应了建筑的社区与传统文脉。这座建筑的施工期为2006年至2018年,在此过程中,建筑师对整个项目进行了多方调整与协调。整个设计方案开放且透明,也打破了传统建筑的特征,打造了全新风貌与形态,其自身其实就代表着交流的形式。

In designing this building, Pritzker Architecture Prize-winning architect Glenn Murcutt has drawn on modernist principles while responding to the project’s community and traditional contexts. The building’s construction, from 2006 to 2018, is as much a story of Murcutt’s architectural capacity as it is of his adeptness at mediating a range of viewpoints. Through the transparency and openness of its formal design, this mosque offers a new look inside walls traditionally closed to outsiders, and thus acts as a form of communication in itself.

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设计方案结合了澳大利亚现代建筑,同时也通过积极的方式对澳大利亚郊区建筑特征进行了全新的诠释。建筑委员会针对适合该项目的建筑师进行了研究,最终确定建筑师为Murcutt,Murcutt是伊斯兰建筑国际设计奖Aga Khan建筑奖的评审团主席。

The brief was for a modern and Australian building that would contribute to a positive interpretation of the mosque as a welcome architectural feature of suburban Australia. A building committee conducted research into suitable architects for the project, identifying Sydney-based Murcutt through his role as a chair of the jury for His Highness The Aga Khan’s Awards for Architecture, an international awards for the design of Islamic buildings.

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在当时,Murcutt的建筑作品并不包括对伊斯兰建筑的设计,同时对于澳大利亚伊斯兰社区的了解也并不多。当建筑委员会邀请他进行清真寺的设计时,他的有些惊讶:“我虽然感到很兴奋,但是在郊区设计清真寺确实有些困难。我知道,要做一个高水平的建筑是多么困难的事,这时的我紧张多过于兴奋。我希望能够和有伊斯兰背景的建筑师进行合作,有人给我推荐Hakan Elevli,在一次会面之后,他便加入了这个项目。”

At the time, Murcutt’s architectural practice did not include the design of Islamic buildings, and he had limited personal experience of the Australian Islamic community. When invited by the committee to discuss designing the new mosque, his response was one of surprise:  “Of course I was excited by the possibility, but working outside one’s city and experience of designing a mosque, for a sole practitioner, had its special difficulties. Knowing how difficult it is to achieve the level of architecture that makes a new project worthwhile, excitement can easily be overtaken by nervousness. I wanted to work with an architect from an Islamic background, in equal collaboration. Hakan Elevli was suggested, a meeting took place and he joined the project”.

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在项目的初始阶段,Murcutt就理解,清真寺应该保留伊斯兰的设计传统,并且结合澳大利亚社区的当地精神,建筑应该包容与尊重人们的信仰。因此,建筑师结合了传统清真寺建筑的功能与设计语言,应用了其中一些基本要求,其中包括壁龛、大型中央祈祷大厅、水体、祈祷设施,以及男士与女士的独立空间。

From the outset, Murcutt understood that the mosque should simultaneously embrace Islamic design traditions and address the spirit of local and Australian communities; it was to be inclusive and respectful of people of all faiths. His design for the building draws from the functional and semiotic language of traditional mosque architecture, considering fundamentals such as the orientation towards Mecca of a mihrab (niche) within a qibla wall; a large hypostyle (columned) central prayer hall; bodies of still water; provision of facilities for ablutions completed prior to prayer; and separate spaces, as required culturally, for men and women.

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建筑通过一系列相互交错的空间来布局,这些空间分布在两个楼层之中,在地面层设置有入口大厅、图书馆、咖啡厅、公共厨房、运动大厅,人们会通过楼梯来到一层,这里有一系列专为女士而设计的抬高空间。Murcutt的设计有时会与一些传统设计原则相反,因为建筑师并没有使用高大的圆形屋顶,取而代之的是透明的完整立面,并且重塑了宣礼塔的形式,一般情况下,宣礼塔用于祈祷,但是在这座建筑里,建筑师将其设计为一面抬高的墙体,划分了院落空间。Murcutt解释了他在对建筑进行功能排布以及历史元素的结合时的思考策略。

The building is organised as a set of interconnecting spaces arranged across two levels. A congregational hall, library, cafe, commercial kitchen, and sporting hall occupy the ground level, and the first floor, accessed via dedicated arrival stairs, provides a set of elevated spaces for women. Murcutt’s design also deviates from time-honoured design principles in important ways: it negates the need for a high domed roof, instead offering a facade that favours transparency over enclosure, and reimagines the form of the minaret – the tower from which the call to prayer was traditionally announced – as an elevated wall demarcating an arrival courtyard. Murcutt comments on how he considered historical precedents and functional requirements when making these design decisions:

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在设计过程中 ,其实存在有一些问题,这些问题存在于尖塔与穹顶之中。当地人们会质疑尖塔建筑的消失,因为传统来说,这是信仰的象征,这代表了祈祷,但是在澳大利亚,这些问题并不会存在。其他的一些清真寺同样也取消了宣礼塔,所以这并不是一个完全创新的做法。朝向东侧的地面层院落和下部走廊构成了清真寺的入口区域,设有男士与女士的不同入口。宽敞的走廊构成了宽阔的集散区域,这代表着传统清真寺的院落,同时还给诸如开斋节等大型节日构成了活动场所。在南面,一条细长的水池成为了院落和走廊的界限,另一侧则是高大的墙体。玻璃门向祈祷主大厅的通高体量开放,从清真寺的外部,到祈祷大厅,再到主要的壁龛、墙体、水池花园,构成了一系列的视觉轴线。

A number of questions arose during the design process, particularly those that related to the minaret and the dome. Some community members questioned our proposal to eliminate the minaret on the grounds it is a symbol of the faith. Traditionally it was the place for the calling of prayers but today, in Australia, this was not likely to happen. There are other mosques that eliminated the minaret, so the proposition was not new. A large east-facing ground-floor courtyard and undercover verandah form the mosque’s entrance zone, including different access points for men and women. The expansive verandah offers a generous gathering space reminiscent of traditional mosque sahn courtyards and provides additional space for large congregations, such as those that gather during Eid prayer. To the south, the courtyard and verandah are bordered by a slender water pond and shielded on one side by the expansive minaret wall. Beyond the verandah, glass doors open directly onto the double-height volume of the main prayer hall. A clear line of sight is maintained from outside the mosque right through the prayer hall to the main mihrab, qibla wall, and water gardens

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穆罕默德的家往往被认为是世上第一座清真寺,是一座位于沙特阿拉伯的经典阿拉伯风格建筑,这座建筑有着大型庭院,周围环绕着大型房间,而这些房间由支柱所支撑。Murcutt在澳大利亚伊斯兰中心的设计中,同样应用了24根钢柱,由东向西、由北向南构成了三个如港湾般的空间,这表达了传统的清真寺几何形态。反射水池面向西侧,这里还有55个3米高的屋顶照明设备照亮给祈祷主大厅。玻璃的色彩也呼应了传统伊斯兰的色调,其中有黄色、绿色、蓝色,以及红色,这些灯具面向四个方向,根据阳光的朝向,在建筑中构成了不断变幻的图案。

The home of the Prophet Muhammad, considered the first mosque, was a seventh-century Arabian-style house in Medina (now Saudi Arabia) with a large courtyard surrounded by long rooms supported by columns. Murcutt’s design for the Australian Islamic Centre arranges twenty-four steel columns to create three bays from east to west and three from north to south, reflecting traditional mosque geometry. A reflective water courtyard to the west and fifty-five three-metre high roof-mounted lanterns naturally illuminate the main prayer hall. Glazed in colours symbolic to Islam (yellow, green, blue and red), these lanterns face the four points of the compass, drawing triangles of coloured daylight into the building in an ever-changing pattern determined by the sun’s movement.

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第一座澳大利亚清真寺建造于1861年,这座建筑结构简单,但却十分重要,因为它代表着澳大利亚的伊斯兰礼拜场所。而这座澳大利亚伊斯兰中心则结合了清真寺的悠久历史,成为了澳大利亚多元文化城市肌理的重要组成部分。这座建筑代表了当地社区的成熟与活力,同时也为伊斯兰建筑带来了全新的视觉与空间感受。

The first Australian mosque was built in Marree, South Australia, in 1861 – a simple yet important structure marking the arrival of the Islamic place of worship in Australia. Drawing upon the long history of mosques as part of the built fabric of Australia’s multicultural and multidenominational society, the Australian Islamic Centre has deep significance for its community. It symbolises the maturity, vibrancy and permanence of their congregation while also offering a physical and visual manifestation of a new dialect for Islamic architecture.

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建筑设计:Elevli Plus, Glenn Murcutt
地点:澳大利亚
类别:宗教建筑
主创建筑师:Glenn Murcutt, Hakan Elevli
面积:10000.0 ㎡
项目时间:2019年
摄影:Anthony Browell
结构与土木工程:Dome Consulting
服务工程:NJM Design Consulting
景观设计:Tract Consultants
客户:Australian Islamic Center
建筑勘察:Code Control
交通工程:Cardno
声学顾问:Renzo Toning
能量顾问:GHD

Architects: Elevli Plus, Glenn Murcutt
Location: 23 Blenheim Rd, Newport VIC 3015, Australia
Category: Worship
Lead Architects: Glenn Murcutt, Hakan Elevli
Area: 10000.0 ㎡
Project Year: 2019
Photographs: Anthony Browell
Structural and Civil Engineers: Dome Consulting
Services Engineers: NJM Design Consulting
Landscape Architects: Tract Consultants
Client: Australian Islamic Center
Building Surveyor's: Code Control
Traffic Engineers: Cardno
Accoustic Engineers: Renzo Toning
Energy Consultants: GHD

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