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能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第1张图片

Windermere码头是英国湖区最新的文化旅游景点/The Windermere Jetty is the latest addition to the Lake District scultural offerings. Photography: Christian Richter

Windermere码头
Windermere Jetty by Carmody Groarke pushes the boat out

由专筑网小满,李韧编译

如果提到英格兰湖区(Lake Strict),人们自然而然会联想到宏伟的湖滨别墅、英式的夏日假期、雪峰下盈盈郁郁的林木……湖区的英伦风光很难一言以概之。“Windermere的如画风景、绘画、诗歌都由来已久。”伦敦公司Carmody Goarke所属建筑师Andy Groarke如是说。他还谈到,Cumbria诸如采石场、造船厂等丰厚的工业遗产赫赫有名,而风景如画的田园风光却鲜为人知。这就是需要改变的地方。

温德米尔汽船博物馆(Windermere Steamboat Museum)最初展览些私藏的船只,沿用其结构改建而成的WIndermere 码头,是一座为湖区船只专设的博物馆。Lakeland艺术公司是运营这家博物馆的慈善机构,首席执行官Gordon Watson直到2018年退休前,一直在负责这个项目的报批和推进。他说:“George Pattinson是当地的一位建筑开发商,他一直在收集和保存Windermere的船只。他发现船只设计巧妙,制造精良,却没能得到应有的重视。”1977年,第一家关于船品收藏的博物馆开放了。

30年弹指一挥间,老博物馆建筑结构的某些部分,对于公众而言存在安全隐患,急需修护,终因缺乏资金而不得不停业。一年后,Lakeland艺术公司接管了老博物馆,为了让它能再次面向公众开放,Lakeland举办了一次国际竞赛,为40艘船只藏品设计新居。

If mention of the Lake District conjures up images of grand waterfront villas, Great British summer holidays, and lush, greenery against a backdrop of snowy peaks – that would be correct. Yet that’s not all this scenic part of the UK has to offer. ‘Windermere has this incredible tradition of the sublime and the picturesque, paintings and poetry’, says architect Andy Groarke, one-half of London based firm Carmody Groarke. He continues talking about Cumbria’s strong industrial heritage – where quarries and shipbuilding featured heavily; an aspect of this idyllic part of the world that remains lesser known. But that’s about to change. Enter, the Windermere Jetty.
The newly completed Windermere Jetty (a museum entirely dedicated to lake boats) sits on the grounds of an older structure and institution – the Windermere Steamboat Museum, which started off as a private collection. ‘George Pattinson was a local builder and developer who started collecting boats from Windermere and saved them’, says Gordon Watson, former chief executive of Lakeland Arts’ (the charity running the museum), who was there when the project was awarded and developed (he retired at the end of 2018). ‘He recognised they were beautifully designed and made, and they were not being valued’. The first museum based on that collection opened in 1977.
Fast forward about 30 years and the museum had to close due to lack of funds – the existing structures were in dire need of maintenance, parts becoming virtually unsafe for the public. Lakeland Arts took over the museum a year later and led the launch of an international competition for a new home for the 40-boat-strong collection, so that it can open to the public once again.

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第2张图片

引人注目的新建筑群由伦敦建筑事务所Carmody Groarke设计/The striking complex is designed by London based architects Carmody Groarke. Photography: Christian Richter

馆藏中有划艇、快艇、steam launchers、货船,还有一艘非常豪华的游艇,多数船只都是按照本地木材造船的传统建造而成。“从某种意义上来说,整个项目关于不同的速度周期,时间对于船只、建筑、景观和此地会产生怎样的重大影响。”Groarke说。

毫无疑问,风景是这里绝对的主角。“我们就在湖的中心。”Groarke继续说道,“这里是除市中心以外最大的开放河岸,也是Windermere最美的场所。”同时,博物馆离市中心很远,周边建筑较少,且相隔很远。在这样的背景下,如何设计一座可视又自然的建筑呢?

建筑师们决定将博物馆设计为由七座建筑组成的建筑群,化整为零。这些简洁的坡顶体块,设计手法经典、稍带夸张,看起来就像一个小村庄。建筑群在大悬挑、处理室内外关系的手法、整体造型、屋脊线和地形高程变化等方面,都体现出了湖区乡土建筑的特征。铜表皮触感很好,也让建筑形象更加现代和抽象。

“人们很容易只关注到博物馆周边如画的风光和附近的高层建筑。”Groarke解释说,“其实基地原先是一个砾石开采场,有工业文化的历史记忆。所以新博物馆的远景,就是并重如画风景和工业元素,并保持平衡。”

There’s rowing boats, speed boats, steam launchers, a cargo boat, as well as a very grand luxury yacht – most built in the region’s time-honed tradition of timber boatbuilding. ‘In a sense the whole project is, in design terms, about these different periods of speed, moving fast and moving slow, and how time has a great impact on this place, the boats, the buildings and the landscape’, says Groarke.
The landscape is without a doubt a protagonist here. ‘We are half-way up the lake here’, continues Groarke. ‘It is the biggest open shore that is publicly accessible, apart from the town centre. And it’s the best view of Windermere.’ At the same time, the museum is a ways off from the town centre, with buildings around it being few and far between. How to go about building in such a visible, and natural, spot?
The architects decided to treat the museum as a low cluster of seven buildings, breaking down its overall size. They read as a little village, using slightly oversized, archetypal forms – simple, clean boxes topped by a pitched roof. These buildings bear many of the characteristics of the lake’s vernacular, such as big, pronounced, overhanging eves, the inside/outside relationship, the overall shape and roofline and the topographic change in level. Clad in copper, they feel tactile, adding a certain grounding to their modern, abstract forms.
‘It would have been easy to just focus this museum in the region’s picturesque tradition and the high architecture nearby’, explains Groarke. ‘But this original site was based on a gravel extraction plant, so has a working history. What was important for the vision of this museum was to hold those two histories, the picturesque and the industrial element, in equal balance.’

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第3张图片

Windermere Jetty博物馆收藏了大量的湖区船只/The Windermere Jetty houses an extensive lake boat collection. Photography: Christian Richter

博物馆的正中心是一座建在水面上的木码头,其他几座建筑绕其四周,大多都建在远离洪水危险区的地方。中心博物馆的两侧立有两座更大的建筑,右侧是一家餐厅兼咖啡厅,左侧则为展览空间。

七座建筑中,更多的体块是交通空间和博物馆的配套用房,比如商店、仓库和学习工坊等。一座建在临水斜坡上的独栋建筑,地势较低,是修复船只的地方,游客们可通过大开口参观内部。基地另一端的池塘目前仍在施工中,未来将在那里修复模型船只。

“核心设计理念是我们希望人们可以与船只、湖泊和风景都有所交集。”Watson说,“Carmody Groarke事务所不仅能为游客带来良好的参观体验,还非常了解这些藏品的价值和需求。”藏品中约一半会用于展览,其余的则存放在基地之外,一些泊于水上,一些放在陆上。所有的船头都指向湖面、对环境湿度进行调节,这些小细节都能让游客更好地感受沂水而居的生活。

本周末,“村庄式”博物馆将面向公众开放。随着建筑表面铜绿的增多和周围林木的生长,博物馆将更好地融入环境背景中。博物馆的码头长短不一,让游览客船入坞时,和游客参观内部一样妙趣横生。参展和参观船只都能泊在船坞里,这对游客很有吸引力。毕竟还有什么比在博物馆内外都能体验这些宏伟船舶更好的设计思路呢?

A section built on the water covers the wooden wet dock that sits at the very heart of the museum – while everything else huddles around it, mostly built on a plinth and out of the flood risk zone. This central space is flanked by two larger structures, one housing a restaurant and cafe to its right, and the other containing the exhibition space to its left.
More volumes host circulation spaces and museum facilities, such as the shop, storage and room for learning workshops. A separate structure, slightly further down, on the slope leading towards the water, is home to the restoration workshop, which visitors can peek into through large openings. On the site’s other end will soon be a restored pond for model boats (currently still in construction).
‘A key part of the brief was that we wanted people to relate the boats to the lake and the landscape’, says Watson. ‘[Carmody Groarke] really understood the needs of the collection, as well as of creating a really great visitor experience’. About half the collection is on display (the rest is stored off-site), some pieces on the water and some on dry land. Small details, such as the fact that the boats are all pointing towards the lake, fine-tune the atmosphere, ensuring the visit conveys this life-by-the-water’s-edge feel.
The museum’s little ‘village’ opens to the public this weekend; but it will change and mature in time, blending even more into its surroundings as the copper surfaces takes on patina and change colour, and the landscaping around it grows. A series of jetties of different lengths make arrival at the museum just as fun as the visit itself. The plan is for locals and tour boats to be able to dock here, bringing visitors in; and what better way to experience these majestic vessels than in their element, both in the museum, and out.

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第4张图片

项目的设计理念是建筑群/The project was concieved as a constellation of structures. Photography: Christian Richter

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第5张图片

船坞是项目的中心,用于展示藏品中的精良船只/A wet dock sits at its heart, showcasing some of the museum collection’s finest pieces. Photography: Christian Richter

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第6张图片

图示建筑是展览空间和修复车间/The structures house exhibition spaces, a restoration workshop... Photography: Christian Richter

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第7张图片

一家能欣赏绝妙湖景的餐厅/as well as a restaurant with striking views of the lake. Photography: Christian Richter

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第8张图片

大挑檐是地域乡土建筑的特征借鉴/Large overhangs reference the region’s vernacular architecture. Photography: Christian Richter

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第9张图片

建筑的铜表皮形成铜绿后,会带来不同观感/The structures are clad in copper, which will change appearance in time as patina sets in. Photography: Christian Richter

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第10张图片

七座建筑组成的建筑群,通过室内的木质元素彼此呼应/The cluster of seven buildings is interconnected by timber areas. Photography: Christian Richter

能开船进入的“村庄式”船舶博物馆第11张图片

交通空间里设有如储藏室等博物馆必要的功能区/Those circulation spaces also host necessary museum facilities, such as storage. Photography: Christian Richter


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