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天灾无情,建筑暖心丨斯里兰卡湖畔学校第1张图片


School by the Lagoon / Chinthaka Wickramage associates

由专筑网李韧,蒋晖编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:2004年的海啸让斯里兰卡损伤惨重。这个国家已经经历了25年的战乱,而这次的海啸无疑是雪上加霜。在斯兰卡东部、南部沿岸大约有40000人伤亡,同时道路网络、桥梁、港口、学校等建筑也损失严重。

Text description provided by the architects. Two thousand Four (2004)  boxing day tsunami was the worst natural disaster to hit Sri Lanka in living memory. For a country already reeling from a two and a half decade old war the timing of the tsunami could not have been worse. East and South coast of Sri Lanka was totally devastated with 40,000 human causalities in addition to the colossal damage caused to the road network, bridges, harbors, schools etc.

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大约有100万人在一夜之间无家可归,成百上千所公立学校被损毁,在这里求学的是一些社会底层的学子,他们享受着国家的教育津贴。而学校成为了这些学子们的唯一希望,是他们通过努力学习来改变命运的地方。在海啸之后,各界的援助纷纷来到。Bartleet学校的一位校友是爱尔兰国际非政府组织的合作伙伴,他与建筑师沟通,希望能够修复斯里兰卡Eastern Ampara地区的21所损失惨重的学校。而建筑师当然义不容辞。

Close to a million people became homeless overnight. Among the buildings destroyed were hundreds of public schools where students of the under privileged sections of the society were enjoying the fruits of free education subsidized by the state. It was one of few ‘social ladders’ available to the poorer sections of the society to climb up the social strata of the country.  Outpouring of aid after the tsunami disaster was overwhelming. An alumni of the Bartleet School of graduate studies , who came as the shelter coordinator of an Irish INGO GOAL  inquired from us whether we are interested in design& supervision to rebuild 21 schools in the worst hit Eastern Ampara district of Sri Lanka.  We jumped at the opportunity to help our motherland at its greatest hour of need.

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“湖畔学校”项目便是其中之一。这所学校的56位学生在海啸中丧生。海啸过后,海水侵蚀了曾经学校的所在地,因此重建工作变得十分复杂,因为没有足够的场地进行施工了。那么建筑师便选择了一片位于湖畔的场地,在这里重建学校。

‘School by the Lagoon’ was one of the schools totally destroyed by the boxing day tsunami. Fifty Six students of the school perished due to the tsunami while they were at home. There was no land to rebuild the school as the sea claimed the land where the school once stood due to sea erosion after the tsunami.  As an alternative land a stretch of land along a lagoon reclaimed using tsunami debris was selected to rebuild the school totally destroyed by the tsunami.

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学校的一些幸存学生都临时安置在湖畔的帐篷之中,这些帐篷由爱尔兰国际非政府组织安放。学校也即将在这附近重建。在Eastern Ampara地区,泰米尔以及穆斯林社区同僧伽罗社区数量相当,因此这一地区有着复杂的宗教与民族关系,而在当时该省也成为了战争的中心地区。在24个地区之中,Ampara最为贫穷与落后。大部分幸存的学生由于长时间经历战乱与自然灾害甚至食不果腹,因此免费的教育机会便是社会给他们的援手。

Surviving students of the school were temporarily housed in makeshift tents built by the GOAL Ireland Irish INGO along the banks of the lagoon while reconstruction of the school  was carried out in close proximity.  In the Eastern Ampara district, minority Tamil and Muslim community lived in almost equal percentages to the majority Sinhalese community. Due to the pickle of this multi ethnic and multi religious composition, the Eastern province it was in the ‘centre of a storm’ of the war ravaging in the country at that time. Out of the twenty four districts of the country, Ampara was one of the most backward, poverty stricken and down trodden districts of Sri Lanka compared with other districts. Most of the surviving students come to school ‘barefoot’ due to the poverty engulfing the society suffering from a long lasting war and natural disasters. Free education was one of the tools used to ‘empower’ these sections of the society.

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该项目的用地位于“Karachchi Thona”湖泊的旁侧,建筑师也进行了场地的调查,从而保证土地具有足够的承载力。调查结果表明,该地区的土地承载力较弱,因此需要用柱脚由粗砂制作而成的支柱进行支撑,并且挖掘的深度也较大。这里的几乎所有学生都感受过海啸的威胁,同时也受到了身心的创伤。因此建筑师需要通过这座湖畔学校为这些学生们带来足够的安全感。建筑师构思了退台式体量,建筑的每个楼层都向后退5’-0”英尺(约1.5米),这样一来,学校就不存在视线死角,而学生们也会感受到团结的气息。

As the land allocated to reconstruct the school was a reclaimed stretch of land reclaimed along the ‘Karachchi Thona’ lagoon, a thorough soil investigation was carried out as an initial step to identify the bearing capacity of the soil. The resultant soil investigation recommended a method of soil improvement by digging deep and filling the column base footings with coarse sand due to the low bearing capacity of the existing soil. As almost all students have gone through the terrifying experience of facing the tsunami and surviving almost all of them were heavily traumatized.  Task at hand to the architects was providing a ‘sense of security’ through the school building to the students who were severely traumatized and afraid to attend school lying close to a body of water. As a solution the cross section of the school was designed using a ‘step back section’ with each floor stepping back by 5’-0” feet (1.5 meters), so that the whole school will be visible from every nook and corner of the school so that the students feel secure due to the ‘togetherness’ created by this.

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巨大的单坡屋顶覆盖着建筑的三个楼层,构成面向湖畔的三层通高走廊和面向后方道路的双层通高走廊。教室区域的面积为25X20英尺(约8X6米),平行于湖泊排布,构成线性的布局方式,促进了交叉通风。

The single mono pitched over powering roof encompassing all three levels of the school, creating a triple height corridor veranda on lagoon side and double height passage at the rear road side. The 25 feet by 20 feet (8 meter by 6 meter) classroom blocks were arranged parallel to the lagoon generating narrow linear ‘thin’ section encouraging cross ventilation.

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湖畔的保留地和道路一侧的区域只有着一片狭长的区域。而建筑师也充分地利用了这些限制优势,最大程度地满足了自然通风,从而构成了狭长的建筑。由于该地区的公共学校后期维护力度较为低下,因此建筑师精心挑选了一些材料,让其足够地经久耐用,同时后期维护成本很低。例如,建筑师选用的是性价比较高的水泥外墙白涂料,而不是价格稍微贵一些的乳胶漆,这样在后期重新粉刷时就不需要花费高额的费用,因为这些费用必须学生与老师共同承担,当地政府不会对此进行资助。另外,项目的排水管道也很少得以维护,因此原有建筑几乎没有设置足够的排水管道,从而造成了各种堵塞,滋生蚊虫。于是,建筑师设计了一条6英尺(约2米)宽的排水沟,其中填充着石材,从而将雨水引导至湖泊之中。

The reservation on the lagoon side and the road reservation on the road side left only a narrow stretch of land to build. Above restriction was taken as an advantage and a one classroom deep ‘thin’ building encouraging through drafts maximizing cross ventilation was designed. Due to poor maintenance of public schools in the state sector, materials used were carefully selected, so that they were long lasting materials with low maintenance. Example in point was the selection of cost effective cement based ‘snowcem’ paints selected as opposed to comparatively expensive emulsion paint  as paint cover so that parents and teachers have to bear minimum cost when painting the school again, since state will not intervene in terms of repairs to the building. Building was designed without gutters and rain water down pipes as maintenance of these items are almost non-existent in public schools, resulting in blocked gutters serving as breeding grounds for dengue mosquitoes. As an alternative a two meter wide (6 feet) ‘spanish shoe drain’ filled with pebble was introduced along front veranda corridor to drain storm and surface water to the nearby ‘karachchi thona’ lagoon.

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建筑有着独特的退台式剖面,悬挑至后方道路一侧,因此在湖畔一侧构成了三层高的走廊,以及路旁两层高的走廊,而这里也成为了孩子们的操场。建筑的基座高出地面大约3’-0”英尺(约1米),可以抵御小规模的洪水。而湖畔一侧的走道向上抬高,这样孩子们能够坐在这里俯瞰运动场,学校的运动场位于湖泊与建筑之间。上部楼层的600人多功能厅在海啸来临时成为师生们的临时避难场所,人们可以通过后方道路的悬臂楼梯而进入,而这座楼梯将成为了未来人们的逃生通道。

This unique ‘ step back’ cross section of the building, cantilevering to the rear road side created a triple height verandah corridor on lagoon side and a double height passage at the rear road side which was used  as a pebble court play area for the school children. The whole building plinth was raised by one meter (3’-0” feet) above existing ground level to with-stand a future flood from the lagoon. This raised plinth of the veranda corridor on lagoon side was tiered (stepped) so that school children can sit overlooking the playground which was located between the lagoon and the school building.  The uppermost floor multi-purpose hall serve as a tsunami shelter for the village in case of a future tsunami, with access from rear road side via a sculptural cantilevering staircase. This cantilevered staircase on rear road side was provided as a means of access up-to the 600 people capacity multi- purpose hall to the village community in case of future unforeseen natural disaster.

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该地区的气候较为潮湿,因此建筑的单坡屋顶有着能够透气的屋面砖。建筑沿南北轴线的开口而排布,面向湖泊的一侧开口较大,后方公路一侧开口则较小,因此建筑的后方立面看起来较为坚实一些,而前侧的立面则较为开阔。在东西轴线上,建筑师尽量缩小开口尺寸,三层通高的走廊位于湖畔一侧,因此学校的学生们能够充分地享受自然交叉通风,同时也享受到很好的热舒适性能。学校的教室面向湖畔,学生们能够欣赏湖泊的美景。而湖畔的操场也让孩子们那受伤的内心更加贴近平静的自然。悬臂式混凝土遮阳棚遮盖着上部楼层的后侧窗户,起到了遮风避雨的作用,同时也让建筑有着一定的现代美学基础。这座学校建筑色彩并不多,呼应了该地区的主要学校色彩搭配,主要为橘黄色与水泥灰。教室与走廊的楼板应用了浮动混凝土,防止家具搬动时所造成的损伤,而这些家具也应用于当地的公立学校。

The all overpowering singular mono pitched lean to roof was clay tiled with a breathable roof tiles, due to its climatic suitability to the hot humid climate of the region. Orientation of the building was done with openings placed along north –South axis with larger openings on lagoon side and smaller openings on rear road side giving a more solid appearance to the rear elevation and more open appearance to the lagoon elevation. Minimal openings were placed on East- West axis.  As the triple height corridor verandah was located on lagoon side the school children enjoy high level of thermal comfort due to high cross ventilation through the building. All classrooms were located facing the lagoon so that each kid will have an uninterrupted view of the lagoon and its surroundings. Positioning of the playground along the lagoon also enhances the ‘view’ the kids get of the lagoon in close proximity to the nature of this traumatized school kids. Cantilevering concrete cube sunshade canopies shade uppermost floor rear side windows giving ample protection from sun and rain, in the process giving an interesting composition and a certain contemporary modern aesthetic to the building. A limited palette of colours were used for the school building in keeping with the colour schemes of most of the public schools of the area with the use of saffron yellow and cement grey. Floors of the classrooms and corridor verandahs were power floated concrete to prevent damage caused due to use of ‘steel legged’ chairs  mostly used in government schools of the ministry of education.

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建筑设计:Chinthaka Wickramage associates
地点:斯里兰卡东部
主创建筑师:Chinthaka Wickramage, Nileeka Senerath
助理建筑师:Sampath Ratnayake
施工技术:Kulani de Costa
工程设计:Upcountry Consultant Engineers
建筑协调:Maggie Stevenson, Dyfed Aubrey
城镇负责人:John Wain
客户:GOAL Ireland
面积:22750.0 平方英尺(约2113平方米)
项目时间:2007年
摄影:Waruna Gomis
建筑类型:学校
制造商:American Standard, Bluescope, Grohe

Architects: Chinthaka Wickramage associates
Location: Beach Rd, Maligakadu, Karaitivu, Ampara District, Eastern Sri Lanka
Lead Architects: Chinthaka Wickramage, Nileeka Senerath
Architectural Assistant: Sampath Ratnayake
Quantity Surveyor: Kulani de Costa
Engineers: Upcountry Consultant Engineers
Shelter Coordinators: Maggie Stevenson, Dyfed Aubrey
Country Director: John Wain
Client: GOAL Ireland
Area: 22750.0 ft2
Project Year: 2007
Photographs: Waruna Gomis
Category: Schools
Manufacturers: American Standard, Bluescope, Grohe

        
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