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七座为大型体育赛事设计的伸展型体育馆
7 Tensile Stadiums for the Big Game

由专筑网丁康杰,王雪纯编译

相信大家已经了解过一些具有新兴设计的体育场和一些具有伸缩效果的立面设计,那么,这两个主题融合会碰撞出怎样的火花呢?由于“张力结构”具有质量轻,性价比高的特点,它可以较容易的产生较大的覆面,所以尤其适合体育场馆的设计。“张力结构”通过一些构件来产生伸展效果,不需要弯曲或压缩,非常便捷。

以下列举的七个项目展示了各种规模的在建体育场和建成体育场,它们将拉伸的概念付诸实践,展示了这些敏捷的操控体系如何适应、伸展并且随着时间的推移而变化。尽管它们在外观上具有显著的相似点,但是这些项目都通过其特有的材料、形式或结构测试找到了其自身的伸展特色。

We’ve previously explored a variety of innovative stadia and a number of structures with tensile façades; now we look at the intersection of these two themes. Because lightweight, affordable elements can easily span large distances, tensile structures — which carry only tension throughout the various elements without bending or compression — are particularly suited to sports venues.
The following seven projects showcase both speculative and built stadiums of a variety of scales that put tensile ideas to the test, showing how these flexible systems can adapt, expand and change over time. Although they are conspicuously similar in their appearance, the following projects each find their own tensile expression through material, formal or structural experimentation.

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Vélodrome Stadium by SCAU architects, Marseille, France
Tensile roof manufactured by Taiyo


这座别具一格的体育场是由法国马赛的维洛德罗姆球场(Stade Vélodrome)改建而成。这项设计的魅力在于此起彼伏的波浪型覆面。半透明的覆面伸展覆盖住整体结构,使得室内活动免受天气影响。

This unique stadium was created via a reconstruction of the Stade Vélodrome in Marseille. The power of the design lies in the undulating cover. The translucent skin is stretched across the underlying structure, allowing access, views and protection from the weather.

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Stadium Maracanã by Fernandes Arquitetos Associados, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

马拉卡纳体育场(Stadium Maracanã)是2014年FIFA世界杯(FIFA World Cup)的举办地,近年来体育场在着重注意保护文化价值的基础上进行了现代化改造。改建后的体育场通过一个压缩环和三个张力环,使得体育馆顶棚能够轻轻的漂浮在碗状的体育馆上。一层玻璃纤维薄膜覆盖住了整个屋顶,屋顶下方是重建的看台区域。

Housing the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Stadium Maracanã was modernized in recent years, with careful attention paid to its cultural value. Combining one compression ring and three tension rings, the roof was designed to lightly float above the stadium bowl. A fiberglass membrane covers the entire roof with rebuilt stands below.

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Brasília National Stadium by Schlaich Bergermann Und Partner, Brasília, Brazil

巴西利亚国家体育场(Brasília National Stadium)也为2014年FIFA世界杯而建,并且是巴西利亚最大的建筑。它包括一个可伸缩的含雨水收集系统的双层屋顶结构。体育馆的设计依据遵循的是平衡悬架轮原理。

Also created for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brasília National Stadium is the largest building in the city. It includes a rainwater collection system with a double-layer roof structure that is retractable. It follows a balanced suspension wheel principle as a design basis.

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Arena da Amazônia by Schlaich Bergermann Und Partner, Manaus, Brazil

巴西的另一个体育场,亚马逊体育场(Arena da Amazônia)创造了一种独特的立面设计和传递结构负载的方法。压缩环和张力环都是球面轴承支撑的结构的一部分。这种设计创造了一个非常稳固的屋顶和立面,当屋顶在碗状的体育馆中伸展开来的时候,就像花朵在地面盛开一样。

Another stadium in Brazil, the Arena da Amazônia creates a unique façade and method for transferring structural loads. Both a compression ring and tension ring are part of a structure supported by spherical bearings. The design creates a cohesive roof and façade that opens up in the stadium bowl as it meets the ground level.

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Allianz Riviera Stadium by Wilmotte and Associés SA, Nice, France

安联里维埃拉体育场(Allianz Riviera Stadium)是一个集多功能一体的生态体育场。这项设计将ETFE(ETFE是一种坚韧的材料,各种机械性能达到较好的平衡——抗撕拉极强、抗张强度高、中等硬度、出色的抗冲击能力、伸缩寿命长。)拉伸面料覆盖在钢铁纯木复合结构框架上。这种设计的核心理念是保持建筑的透明度,淡化场馆内部和外部之间的明确界限。待体育馆建成后,ETFE薄膜将漂浮在观众的头顶。

The Allianz Riviera Stadium was created as a multipurpose eco-stadium. It is designed with an ETFE tensile fabric covered over a wood-steel frame. The concept was transparency, with the hope of eliminating the clear boundary between inside and outside. The membrane was conceptualized to float above the spectators below.

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Addis Ababa National Stadium and Sports Village by LAVA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

这个概念性的设计和总体规划还没有被LAVA(Laboratory for Visionary Architecture)完全实现,亚的斯亚贝巴国家体育场(Addis Ababa National Stadium)的设计方案包括一个可容纳6万人的奥林匹克体育场、宿舍、球场、大厅和商业区。智能化薄膜和轻质拉伸结构将覆盖主体育场和景观。这项设计充分考虑了该地区的地质因素和火山地质条件。

A speculative design and master plan never fully realized by LAVA (Laboratory for Visionary Architecture), the Addis Ababa National Stadium proposal combines a 60,000-seat olympic stadium, dormitories, pitches, halls, and commercial zones. An intelligent membrane and lightweight tensile structure covers the main stadium and landscape. The design plays off of tectonics and the volcanic geology of the region.

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Mersin Stadium by Bahadır Kul Architects, Icel, Turkey        

梅尔辛体育场(Mersin Stadium)是为了满足多种用途而建造的,但其主要目的是作足球场使用。该体育馆下方为碗状结构,上方为具有伸展性的椭圆状外壳。设计师将外壳的材料加倍使用,以适应梅尔辛的气候,同时通过伸展半透明的外表面,允许人们在一天的不同时间内欣赏不同的风景。

The Mersin Stadium was created to accommodate a variety of uses but primarily operates as a soccer field. It is designed as a tensile elliptical shell over the bowl below. The material of the shell doubles to suit the climate of Mersin while allowing shifting views through its translucent skin during the different hours of the day.

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