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景观设计的关键要素:空间规划与植物布局
Key Elements of Landscape Design: Spatial Planning and Tree Layouts

由专筑网李韧,王雪纯编译

就像是建筑元素通过楼板、墙体、天花板来围合空间那样,自然元素也同样能够在大型、中型、小型区域中创造空间。

巴西景观设计师Benedito Abbud说:“景观是人类感官参与的唯一艺术表达方式。建筑、绘画、雕塑等其他视觉艺术只是应用了视觉系统,而景观则包含嗅觉、听觉、味觉,以及触觉,人类通过应用丰富的感官来拥有极佳的体验。愈能激发感官系统的花园,那么其作用也愈大。”[1]

在下文,小编列出了景观空间规划与设计的主要元素。了解其原理,就知道该如何在设计中放置植物。

Just like the architectural elements that make up built space - floor, walls and ceilings - natural elements are also capable of creating spaces in large-, medium- and small-scale areas, in places like public and residential gardens.
According to Brazilian landscape architect Benedito Abbud, "Landscaping is the only artistic expression in which the five senses of the human being participate. While architecture, painting, sculpture and other visual arts use and abuse only the vision, landscaping also involves smell, hearing, taste and touch, providing a rich sensory experience by adding the most diverse and complete perceptual experiences. The more a garden can sharpen all the senses, the better it fulfills its role. " [1]
Below we list some of the key elements of landscape planning and design. See the principles and learn why you should never randomize the placement trees!

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如同建筑元素的自然要素

就如同建筑的构成要素一样,树木、灌木等不同种类的植物同样能够成为空间的限定要素。树木的应用与空间质量直接挂钩,因为树干和树冠看起来就如同建筑的屋顶。而灌木则让人感觉有安全感,不同类型的植物也可以应用在不同的地面之中。

景观设计中,植物、岩石可以应用在不同的水平空间之中,其中包括地板、天花板等等,从而创造空间的限定感。

Nature as Architectural Elements
As with architecture’s constructive elements, vegetation can also provide equivalent spatial conditions with a specific use of trees, shrubs and different species of plants. Trees can be associated with similar spatial qualities as pillars and tree crowns can relate to conditions provided by roofs and ceilings. Shrubs tend to establish a protective feeling and different types of grass and rocks relate to flooring.
A specific use of vegetation or rocks and stones in landscaping will create different delimitations of the spaces in horizontal planes (such as the floor and ceiling) as well as in a vertical plan (walls, fencing or pillars).

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开放空间和自由区域

虽然有些区域会利用植物来构成屏障,但仍然需要多种植物配置方式将自由区域结合在一起,让使用者有充分的场地放松、运动、野餐、遛狗。

大型自由空间会有阳光直射的问题,因此利用小型湖泊或是水域就能够稍微调节小气候。同时通过植物来引导自然通风,也可以保证更有利的环境。

植物的配置方式

景观设计的重点是构成不同功能的活动区域。元素的利用会构成不同的空间氛围,同时可以将某些区域转变为目的明确的空间,同时也可以为公共公园的活动预留场地。

以下是植物的不同排布方式及其影响。

线性布局:如果以线性方式进行布局,那么相同高度的树木种类就会构成垂直平面,就像一系列的支柱或是墙体。因此设计师可以通过配置不同密度或者高度的植物来形成不同的空间效果。

针对大型植物,其空间感就类似于天花板,能够覆盖大面积区域,但是支柱就少一些。如果希望植物形成更加丰富且自然的效果,那么就可以应用不同类别和不同高度的植物来富于变化。

Open Spaces and Free Areas
While some areas will use vegetation to provide shade or to act as a barrier, it is essential to incorporate free areas (clearings) that can be activated by the users in a variety of ways, giving people the freedom to relax, play sports, picnic or spend time with their pets.  
Large free spaces will present solar challenges, so the use of wet areas such as small lakes or water mirrors can help. Shaping the vegetation masses to influence or channel predominant winds can also ensure more favorable conditions.

Alignment and arrangement of trees   
One of the key points of landscape projects is the creation of areas for different use and activities. A determined placement of the elements will create different atmospheres and may transform a determined zone into a clear and defined space with a particular use, or as well can leave the space open for the improvisation of activities like most public parks do.
Here are some standard templates of tree layouts and their effects.
Linear layout:  If used in a linear way, trees or species of the same height tend to create vertical planes, acting like a succession of pillars or walls. You can play with the foliage density of the trees and their heights to have different spatial results.
In the case of species with larger treetops, this configuration can resemble natural ceilings and may cover large areas with less “pillars”. If a less monotone result is desired -or a more natural feel- the use of several species of trees and different heights will tend to create variations in the perception of the space.

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三角布局:三角形布局,顾名思义,是将两行以上的植物按照60°进行排布,以此形成宽阔的景观墙,植物的枝干会形成视觉上与物理上的天然屏障。这种方式一般应用在城市公园之中,因为它还能形成天然的隔音体系。

Triangular layout: If positioned triangularly, two (or more) rows of trees should aligned together and interspersed in a 60o angle. The result is a wide wall that can provide lateral barriers (visually and physically) through the mass of trunks and canopies. Frequently used in the perimeter of urban parks, this layout also gives a natural acoustic barrier, depending on height and density.

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曲线布局:这种布局方式让空间充满了动感,这种模式一般应用在水域旁侧,亦或是一些需要运动元素的地区,其结构感较薄弱一些,人们可以在其中漫步。

Curved layout: Curves and the creation of serpentine lines in tree arrangement creates a sense of ​​movement. This model is often used on the edges of water surfaces or in the creation of key areas of interest with a less structured display that invites to take a walk through.

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Z字型布局:这种布局方式则是将植物按照60°进行排布,这样看起来更加动感一些,在中央的空间可以放置一些景观小品与设施。

这样排布可以通过分隔和封闭空间来减少声学影响,同时也能扩大植物的投影范围。

ZigZag layout: This alignment consists in a single row of trees arranged at a 60o angle. This layout transmits the idea of ​​movement and creates center spaces where furniture and equipment can be placed.
While decreasing the acoustics of the place by separating and enclosing, it can also broaden the projected views.

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不要随机地摆放植物,因为这样的方式可能会给施工和种植过程中造成一些问题。

图片:Matheus Pereira

Make sure you never randomize the placement trees, as it may cause problems during the construction and planting process and also, in the final intention of the project.

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注释:
[1] ABBUD, 2006, p.15

参考书目:
ABBUD, Benedito. Criando Paisagens – guia de Trabalho em Arquitetura paisagística. São Paulo: Editora Senac, 2006.

Notas:
[1] ABBUD, 2006, p.15

Bibliographic References:
ABBUD, Benedito. Criando Paisagens – guia de Trabalho em Arquitetura paisagística. São Paulo: Editora Senac, 2006.

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