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景观设计师的全新设计策略——同理心第1张图片


Why Use Empathic Design in Landscape Architecture?

由专筑网孙佳,李韧编译

同理心设计在景观中的应用

在文章中,我们将了解什么是同理心设计,以及它如何解决问题。我们将结合国际大师Moshe Katz在设计过程中使用同理心设计的想法和经验,来向大家阐述。

什么是同理心设计?

同理心是指站在别人的角度去看世界,理解他人的需求、欲望和想法。

同理心也是理解自然系统固有属性的关键,它甚至都超越了其生态功能。设计者们使用同理心设计可以更好的理解相关人员和场地的最终使用者们,针对他们的需求提出更好的解决方案,同时也是对场地自然资源的内在特质的尊重。

同理心和同情心

同理心和同情心是两个相关的概念。同情与怜悯的情形有关,是观察者从自身经验之外的角度去了解主体的情况。这可能会导致先入为主的感受。然而,同理心是在没有外界的判断下把观察者放到主体之中。

在设计中应用人类的同理心

国际设计公司IDEO.org设计了一款以人为本的设计工具包,它展示了如何通过以人为本的设计方法来解决看似棘手的问题。这个理论描述了那些对很多人有很多影响的设计问题的解决方式,IDEO已经发布了以人为本设计指南,这些可以从官方网站上免费下载。在指南里,作者探讨了同理心是如何在众多项目中成为理解设计挑战的关键。他们认为传统方法试图解决不平等和贫穷的问题,而忽视了同理心心理。通过设身处地的为别人着想来进行设计,设计者可以更好地理解问题本身,并从全新的角度来看问题。同理心设计还可以挑战先入为主和过时的思考方式,带来全新的想法和解决问题的思路。

Empathic design in landscape architecture
In this article, we look at what empathic design is, and how this approach can lead to better design solutions. We are joined by international architect Moshe Katz, who shares his thoughts and experience on using empathy in the design process.

What is empathy and empathic design?
Empathy refers to the ability to see the world through the eyes of another and understand their needs, desires, and thinking. Empathy is also key to understanding the inherent properties of natural systems beyond the ecosystem services they may provide. Designers can use this empathic ability to better understand stakeholders and the end users of their spaces, to create better solutions that meet their needs, while remaining respectful of the intrinsic qualities of the natural resources of the site.

Empathy vs Sympathy
Empathy and sympathy are two related concepts. Sympathy is associated with feelings of pity, where the observer recognises the situation of the subject, but from a perspective outside of that experience. This can lead to interpretations of superiority. However, empathy places the observer in the viewpoint of the subject without external judgement.

Using human empathy in design
The international design company, IDEO.org, have produced The Human-Centered Design Toolkit which sets out how seemingly intractable problems can be overcome by a human-centric design approach. The theory describes how solutions to design problems may be sourced from the very people that the problems affect most. IDEO has published the Field Guide to Human-Centric Design, which is available as a free download on their website. In the guide, the authors discuss how empathy is key to understanding the design challenges faced in any project. They argue that a traditional approach to trying to solve problems such as inequality and poverty has disregarded empathy. By metaphorically placing themselves in the shoes of those they are designing for, designers will have a greater insight into how to solves such problems and see things from a fresh perspective. Empathic design can also challenge preconceived ideas and outmoded ways of thinking, bringing innovative ideas and solutions.

景观设计师的全新设计策略——同理心第2张图片

Sunsetarium by Moshe Katz

在设计中应用环境同理心

Moshe Katz将同理心作为分析环境、人类需求和社会的工具。“ 同理心设计师的目的不是改变人类,而是让他们在周围的环境中开发最大潜力来满足需求。“他相信,在设计中用同理心的关键是“爱”,这是一种他已经通过时间而验证的方法:” 首先人们必须获得的第一个工具是真心实意地热爱规划环境和人民的过程。“这个过程可以消除设计师的自我意识、控制欲和改变的需求。Katz问自己这个问题:“ 这个场所或者这个人梦想成为什么样的场所或人物?”

Moshe Katz的项目Sunsetarium就来源于“ 对自然和人类的高度同理心和热爱” 。他在以色列北部港口城市海法建立了一个共享空间,鼓励人们聚集在一起感受日落,” 通过自然的方式去见面、交流,并且成为社区的一份子。我们都是生活这个大舞台的观众,我们应该一起感受。“

他的方法始于“...对大自然的热爱,对人类的热爱,成为一种设计方法,成为一种新的分析方式,即这里有什么特别之处?太阳的梦想是什么?人们的梦想是什么?这种看待事物的方式创造了新的设计原则,那便是形成一种‘打破常规’的设计方法,或是一个享受日落的城市聚会场所。”

Using environmental empathy in design
Moshe Katz uses empathy as a tool for analysing the environment, human needs, and society. “The goal of the empathic designer is not to change people, but let them be who they are, free, use their maximal potentials in their surroundings.” He believes that the key to using empathy in design is ‘love’ (an approach he has developed over time): “The first tool one must acquire is an interior process of falling in love with the planning environment and people.“ He notes that this process takes away the designer’s ego, control, and need to change. Katz asks himself the question “what does this place, or this person dream to be?”
Moshe Katz’ project Sunsetarium, was born out of “a higher sensation of empathy and love towards nature and people.”He has created a shared space in Haifa, Israel, that encourages people to come together to observe the sunset and “to meet, to communicate, to be a part of the community through a natural experience- we are all an audience of a show, together.”
His approach began with “...the love of nature, the love of people, became a design approach, leading to a new form of analysis- what is special here? What does the sun dream to be? What do the people dream to be? That form of looking at things- created new design principles- leading to an ‘outside the box’ solution- an urban meeting place as a sunsetarium.”



获得同理心设计思维的提示和技巧

1. 确定目标

在早期确定目标,整个设计团队要知道这是为谁而设计,其中包括所有使用团队、个人、利益相关者。只有当设计师知道同理心是为谁而同理心时,才能正确地使用同理心来设计。

2. 扩大网络

好设计应该有很强的包容性。通过广泛地调查相关人员,从主流人群到少数群体,可以培养出更好的同理心。一些极端主义观点可能是正确的,也可能建立在不满或怀疑的基础上。

3. 激发灵感

充分参与公共和客户咨询以及现场分析。通过更好地了解和理解利益相关者,设计师可以找到一些曾未想到的灵感。

4. 沉浸式

同理心可能很难发展。但是通过将自己沉浸在文化的空间中去寻找,景观设计师可以培养出更好的同理心。

5. 了解团队

了解团队的技能和方法可以在设计的过程当中产生很好的影响。通常在设计中,可能会出现不同的意见。通过同理心的方法可以帮助解决这些不同的看法,获得更多的理解,并找到新的解决方案。

6. 交流

拥有同理心就意味着能够很好地理解他人以及和他们的沟通方式。根据针对的人群不同,可以适当地改变设计和咨询的方式。

7. 直觉

使用同理心的方法可以让本能的直觉活跃地发展。可以在设计的概念和构思阶段使用,以激发出创新的解决方案。

8. 角色模拟

当同理心难以培养时,角色模拟不同的用户或利益相关者也许能有效果。这可以帮助设计师跳出自身的视角去探索问题。

9. 同理心练习

2013年发表在“神经科学杂志”上的一项研究发现,人类天生就很擅长同理心。但是,由于个人经验,人们会随着时间的流逝渐渐失去这种能力。但是好消息是通过练习可以提高同理心。由于大脑的神经可塑性,人类可以通过不断地练习来提高。所以这也是设计师越多地练习同理心设计,他们就会做的越好的原因。

Tips and tricks to get into the empathic design mindset

1.Define your target
Make sure at an early stage the whole design team knows for whom the design is intended: all the user groups, individuals, interested parties, and stakeholders. Empathy can only be employed when the designer knows who to empathise with.

2.Widen your net
Good design should be inclusive. By consulting with a broad range of stakeholders, from the mainstream to those with more outlying opinions and minority groups, a greater empathy can be fostered. Some extremist points of view may be valid or founded in genuine grievances or scepticism.

3.Be inspired
Fully engage in public and client consultation, as well as site analysis. By getting to know and understand the stakeholders, designers can find inspiration for design solutions that might not otherwise present themselves.

4.Immersion
Empathy can be difficult to develop. By immersing oneself in the culture of those the space seeks to serve, landscape architects can foster greater empathy.

5.Get to know your team
Understanding the skills and approaches of your team can have positive effects on the design process. Often in design, differences of opinion can arise. Taking an empathic approach can help resolve disputes, come to greater understandings, and innovate new solutions.

6.Communication
Having empathy means being able to understand other people and how they communicate. It may be appropriate to alter how the design and consultation is communicated depending on the target audience.

7.Intuition
Taking an empathic approach can allow instinctive intuition to flourish. This can be exploited during the concept and ideation phases of the design process to inspire innovative solutions.

8.Roleplay
When empathy is difficult to foster, it can be useful to role-play different scenarios as different users or stakeholders. This will help a designer to explore issues from outside their immediate perspective.

9.Practise empathy
A 2013 study published in the Journal of Neuroscience found that humans are naturally good at empathising. However, due to personal experiences, we can lose this innate ability over time. The good news is that empathy can be increased through practice. Due to the neuroplasticity of the brain (and particularly the supramarginal gyrus which governs empathy), humans can get better at empathising through practising empathy. Therefore it stands to reason that the more designers practice empathic design, the better they will become at it.

景观设计师的全新设计策略——同理心第3张图片

Sunsetarium by Moshe Katz

同理心设计课程

同理心设计依赖于设计师能够从他人的角度去看待事物。通过同理心设计的不断练习,景观设计师可以设计出更好地服务于目标客群的空间。这是一种涉及到场地、用户和利益相关方的一种开放、直观、并且不受预先判断和意图影响的方法。通过上述9个步骤,设计师可以提高在设计过程中的同理心能力,从而真正找到解决问题的全新方式。

Lessons in empathic design
Empathic design relies on a designer being able to see things from another’s perspective. By practising empathic design, landscape architects can create spaces that better serve their target audience. This involves an approach to the site, users, and stakeholder engagement that is open, intuitive, and unbiased by preconceived judgements and intentions. By practising the 9 steps above, a designer can increase the level of empathy in the design process, and thus reach innovative solutions that truly solve design problems.

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