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不只有眼睛体验建筑,人的一切感官都体验着建筑第1张图片


Richard England探索建筑和感官
Richard England Explores "Architecture And The Senses"

由专筑网邵红佳,王雪纯编译

马耳他建筑师、作家、艺术家、学术界和国际建筑界名誉成员Richard England,用历史和当代的建筑举例,以一系列独特的图像探索“建筑与感官”之间的关系。

文章由Richard England撰写

“无论空间和时间意味着什么,场所和时刻叙说着更多的故事。” Aldo van Eyck说。

我们都知道建筑的外观十分重要,然而更重要的是空间和环境如何影响了使用者。建筑不只是视觉体验,更是五官都参与触觉延伸的一种远远超出视网膜图像的体验。法国诗人和哲学家保尔·瓦雷里(Paul Valery)在他的书《Eupalinos or the Architect》中谈到,比起建筑的外观,更重要的是建筑如何影响他们的使用者。在古希腊,苏格拉底、斐德罗和Eupalinos之柏拉图的对话中,后者指的是“沉默”的建筑, “讲述”的建筑,还有一些能“歌唱”的建筑。

建筑会通过我们对于空间的体验反映出不同的情绪。对于空间来说,它通过操纵情绪来并影响和激发我们的感受。然而,我们仍然很难判断和定义什么是会“歌唱”的建筑,什么是让我们感动的建筑。

最古老的,同时也可能是最好的建筑定义来自罗马建筑师维特鲁威(Vitruvius)的《建筑十书》(30-20BC)中的“utilitas, firmitas et venustas”,也就是“实用、坚固、美观”。“Utilitas”指建筑物满足功能需求,而“firmitas”则指其工程稳定性;即建筑物结构良好。 然而,只满足这两个条件仅能产生建筑物而非建筑艺术。 为了将建筑物提升到建筑艺术,且成为能“唱歌”的建筑,必须添加维特鲁威定义的“venustas”(美)这个元素,现代大师勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)后来也强调了这一点, “你使用石头,木材,混凝土建造房屋......这是建筑业。 你触动我的心......这是建筑艺术”。

Maltese architect, writer, artist, academic and Honorary Member of World Architecture Community Richard England, explores "architecture and the senses" with a series of images in this exclusive essay, starting from the historic buildings to the present examples of architecture.

Text by Prof. Richard England
"Whatever space and time mean, place and occasion mean more" - Aldo van Eyck
We are well aware that the appearance of architecture is important, yet more important is how its spaces and ambiances affect us as users.  Architecture is not only experienced visually, but more so holistically through all of our five senses in a haptic manner that extends our sensations well beyond our retinal imagery.  The French poet and philosopher Paul Valery, in his book ‘Eupalinos or the Architect’ speaks of the appearance of architecture, but more of how buildings can move their users. In an Ancient Greece Platonic dialogue between Socrates, Phaedrus and Eupalinos, the latter refers to buildings which are “mute”, some which “speak” and the rarer ones which "sing".
Buildings emanate emotional intensity through our experience of their spaces; for space, being mood manipulative influences and energises our feelings and reactions.  However, establishing exactly what it is that makes a building “sing” and in turn moves us, still remains difficult to identify or define.
The oldest and perhaps best definition of architecture comes from the Roman architect Vitruvius in his ‘Ten books on Architecture’ (30-20BC) “utilitas, firmitas et venustas” i.e. utility, firmness and delight.  “Utilitas” accommodates the materialistic functional needs of a building, while “firmitas” refers to its engineering stability; i.e. that a building is well constructed structurally. These two qualities however, produce solely construction and not architecture. For construction to be elevated to the level of architecture and produce buildings which “sing”, it is necessary to add the third element of Vitruvius’ definition “venustas” (beauty), as was also emphasised much later by the Modern master Le Corbusier, “you employ stone, wood, concrete and with these you build houses …that is construction.  You touch my heart …that is architecture”.  

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然而,定义何为“美”和何为“歌唱”的建筑依旧十分困难。维特鲁威提出,为了让建筑达到美,建筑设计应该在基于自然和人体的比例上表现秩序感。然而,美本身也很难定义,陀思妥耶夫斯基辩证地指出“美是神秘的”,哲学家Roger Scruton认为美是“令人兴奋的,迷人的,鼓舞人心的,让人平静的”,同时也是包含“安慰,不安,神圣或亵渎”的复杂结合体。当我们被告知“美在旁观者眼中”时,情况进一步复杂化,我们对于美的观念随时间改变并更加复杂。忽略我们对于定义美的无力感,我们还是能充分感受到美能够给我们一种舒适和美好的感觉。

However, defining beauty and how it is applied to make a building “sing” remains difficult to identify.  Vitruvius proposes that for buildings to possess the quality of beauty, they should be designed with a sense of order and based on proportions found in nature and on those of the human body.  However, beauty itself also remains difficult to define.  Dostoevsky correctly pointed out that “beauty is mysterious” and philosopher Roger Scruton’s definition as “exhilarating, appealing, inspiring, calming” and also “consoling, disturbing, sacred or profane” is equally complex.  Complications further arise when we are told that “beauty is in the eye of the beholder” and that our concept of beauty varies and changes over time.  Despite our inability to define beauty, we are fully aware that beauty always seems to provide us with a sense of comfort and well-being.

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为了理解我们对于建筑空间的反应,我们十分有必要去研究我们如何感知和想象空间,和空间如何反过来影响我们。我们的心理状态会影响自身对于空间的反应,反过来特定空间会影响我们的情绪和感觉。很多人认为建筑只能通过视觉体验,但其实并不仅仅如此,因为我们体会到的远远超过看到的,我们的全身上下都在感知这个建筑。在时间和空间中,我们感知建筑。

五种感觉,视觉,触觉,听觉,嗅觉和味觉,是人类意识的门扉。而第六种感觉:对空间氛围的整体反应,包括了我们对感官空间的所有感官反应; 看,摸,听,闻,尝。这是我们的整体感官的反应,地理学家段义孚(Yi-Fu Tuan)在他的《Space and Place》一书中描述了“从初步感觉到明确体验”,同时创造了“Topohilia”这个词来描述对空间和地点的积极反应。

To understand our reaction to architectural space, it is necessary to examine how we sense, perceive and conceive space and how space in turn activates and influences us; i.e. how the geography of the mind and body reacts to the geography of space and place and vice versa, and how our presence in a particular space affects our moods and feelings.  While it is widely believed that architecture is sensed only visually, this is far from the truth, since we comprehend far more than what we see, as our whole body is constantly acting as a sensor.  We respond to space, in a space-time equation, through our physical movement in the passage of time.  
All of our five senses; visual, haptic, aural, olfactory and oral, act as gateways to the mind.  There is however also a sixth sense; that of our overall reaction to the atmosphere of space incorporating our total sensual response to a space with all of our senses; seeing, touching, hearing, smelling and tasting. This is our total sensory reaction which geographer Yi-Fu Tuan in his book ‘Space and Place’ describes as “ranging from inchoate feeling to explicit experience” while coining the phrase ‘Topohilia’ to describe positive reactions to space and place.

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The Great Hall of the Reich, as planned by Albert Speer. Image courtesy of Flickr/Marten Kuilman

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The destruction of Pruitt-Igoe. Image © St. Louis Post-Dispatch


建筑或许可以被当成是我们人类身体的第三层皮肤,我们本身的皮肤是第一层,衣服是第二层保温层。第三层皮肤影响着我们的思维,大脑和神经系统,有时是积极的有时是消极的。雕塑家Anthony Gormley说“当我们的身体与建筑产生共鸣时,我们感受到愉悦和安全感。”作家Alain de Botton在他的《The Architecture of Happiness》一书中强调,“一座好的建筑可以改变你的生活,一座坏的建筑则会毁了它”。菲利普·约翰逊(Philip Johnson)进一步补充道:“伟大的建筑是一种空间设计,它能够抚慰,褒奖或者振奋处在空间中的人”当人与人们所处的空间产生共鸣时,人会对空间做出积极的反应。

Architecture may be considered as the third skin of our body, our natural envelope skin, being the first and clothes the second, which provide insulation the second. As such, the third skin affects our mind, brain and nervous system either positively or negatively depending on the pulsations it receives. Sculptor Anthony Gormley says that "we feel pleasure and protection when our body resonates with a space”, and author Alain de Botton in his ‘The Architecture of Happiness’ stresses that “a good building can change your life and a bad one, ruin it". Philip Johnson further adds that "great architecture is the design of space that contains cuddles, exalts or stimulates the persons in that space”. When a space which we are in resonates with meaning that it becomes place and we then react positively to it.

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Maggie's Centre by Lily Jencks in collaboration with Harrison Stevens in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Image courtesy of Lily Jencks Studio

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Maggie's Centre by dRMM in Oldham, England. Image © Alex de Rijke


芬兰建筑师Juhani Pallasmaa的著作《The Eyes of the Skin》已经加入建筑系学生必读书目。在这本书中,他阐述了我们的身体如何感知场地,并如何对我们所处的空间做出反应。这本书是一本先驱性的著作,在理解我们身体如何对它所处的客观环境这个领域上走出了很大一步。同时,他呼应了Rasmussen和加斯东·巴什拉(Gaston Bachelard)的早期作品,后者在其经典的《Poetics of Space》中已经提到了“感官的复调”。现象学为我们的建筑体验增添了意义。虽然人们可能不一定会想到建筑,但人们仍然感觉到它,因此受到它的影响。建筑Richard Rogers证实了这一点,他说:“我相信我们建筑师可以影响人们的生活质量。”

很多人认为和谐,比例,数字,尺度和秩序是没必要的建筑品质,比如毕达哥拉斯(Pythagoras), Vitruvius, Alberti, Filarete, Palladio, 达·芬奇(Leonardo da Vinci), 勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)等人。但是并不是意味着遵守黄金分割率,斐波那契数列(Fibonacci sequence)或者魔术公式就可以创造出设计优良的建筑。设计不是一道数学题,它更需要设计师的能力,热情,责任,和热爱。把热爱投注到建筑上,然后再传递给使用者。特蕾莎修女(Mother Teresa)说:“最重要的是,做你爱的事,并投入在其中。”比利时画家Erik Pevernagie说,“爱的力量能够创造出一个宜人的空间。”

Finnish architect Juhani Pallasmaa in his ‘The Eyes of the Skin’ a publication which is now required reading in architectural schools, addresses the role of how our body, with its senses as loci of perception, reacts in relation to how we experience architectural space.  The book pioneered the understanding of the phenomenological response of our body to its physical surroundings, echoing the earlier writings of Rasmussen and Gaston Bachelard, who in his classic ‘Poetics of Space’ had already referred to “the polyphony of the senses”.  Phenomenology adds meaning making to our experience of architecture. While it is a fact that people may not necessarily think of architecture, they still feel it, and consequently are influenced by it.  Architect Richard Rogers confirms this when he says “I belie we architects can affect the quality of life of people”
Harmony, proportion, number, measure and order have for long been cited as the necessary qualities for an architecture of beauty by Pythagoras, Vitruvius, Alberti, Filarete, Palladio, Leonardo da Vinci, Le Corbusier and others. Yet no Golden Section, Fibonacci or Modulor formulae application will ensure a well-designed or soul-enhancing edifice. While the solution may not be a mathematical one, enhancing architecture may perhaps be more dependent on the capabilities of the project’s designer and on the passion, commitment and love that is put into its making. Spaces conceived with dedication, commitment and love absorb and retain these energies and then pass and convey them to their users. It was Mother Teresa who said that “more important that what you do is the love that you put in the doing” and Belgian painter Erik Pevernagie also stated that “love has the power to create an inviting space in the lives of people”.

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这一点在修道院、隐居建筑、和宗教建筑(包括史前建筑)中得到了证实,这些建筑都是用爱、奉献和宗教狂热的叠加而成的。这些建筑散发出欢乐的氛围,创造出慈悲、适合冥想、祈祷和仪式集会的气氛。古代的宗教建筑似乎拥有明显的物理和心理能量,如爱因斯坦所说,“古人知道一些我们似乎已经忘记的东西。”

史前的圣殿建筑遗址似乎拥有和散发着世界固有的能量。古代人似乎掌握了这些能量的开关,这可能是因为,人类与自然的关系在那时候更加和谐,土地对于人来说有着更深层的意义。这说明了空间不仅是一个物质实体,更有能量处在其中。

修道空间是为反思和祈祷设计的,每个房间都是孤独和沉默的守护者。在这个环境里,人会被引导着去反思和冥想。它们也是让人们对时间和空间感知认知改变的地方。Jonas Salk长期致力于解决脊髓灰质炎的难题,最终在阿西西修道院沉思的氛围中攻破了这个难题。 他后来声称,他在修道院的沉默和孤独的环境有产生了一种平静感,从而使思维变得更加敏锐。

Confirmation of this is demonstrated in the buildings of monasteries, priories, cloistered spaces and sacred buildings, including those of pre-history; all fashioned with love, dedication and an overlays of religious fervour. These are buildings which emanate convivial atmospheres, empathy and ambiances suited for meditation, prayer and ritualistic gatherings. Ancient sacred buildings seem to possess palpable, physical and psychological energies, perhaps because, as Einstein stated “the ancients knew something which somehow we seem to have forgotten”.
The sites of pre-history’s temple edifices seem to possess and emanate inherent earth energies. It seems that ancient man was able to tap these energies perhaps because, human relationship with nature in those times was a more compatible one and that for the ancients, land had more meaning. This demonstrates that space is not only a physical entity, but more so an energy filled milieu.
Monastic spaces designed to be conducive to reflection and prayer, with their cells as guardians of silence and solitude; all provide ambiances in which one is coaxed towards reflection and spiritual meditation. They are also spaces where one’s perception of time and space is altered. Jonas Salk, long struggling to solve the Polio puzzle, eventually deciphered it in the contemplative ambiance of an Assisi monastery. He later claimed that the silence and solitude of his monastic enclave were instrumental in inducing a sense of calmness which in turn, sharpened his thought process.  


Richard England的建筑

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A Garden For Myriam – St Julians, Malta

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Aquasun Lido – St Julians, Malta


与此形成鲜明对比的是,历史上的独裁者倾向于将建筑作为宣传其哲学和意识形态的工具。也许最臭名昭著的例子是希特勒和建筑师阿尔伯特·斯皮尔(Albert Speer)为宣扬纳粹党的价值观而构想的第三帝国(Third Reich),这个过于夸张、规模过大的新古典主义建筑的概念,是完全为宣传创造的。

现在,仍有一些功能失调的建筑的例子,或许不是刻意为之,但庞大的建筑物引起了冷漠、犯罪和破坏,以至于建筑物不得不被废弃并最终被拆除。1986年美国的St Louis州的Pruitt-Igoe公寓,以犯罪频发,肮脏和衰败出名,最终被不得不摧毁。1959年的Hutchesontown C镇和Glasgow Scotland 的Red Road 公寓也面临着拆迁的命运,这些野兽派的建筑在房客中很不受欢迎,很快就被安排拆除。这两个例子都是建筑如何对人产生负面影响的例子。

Cards On The Table: The Architecture Of Richard England
In stark contrast and to again manifest the power of architecture is the penchant which dictators throughout history had for architecture as a propaganda machine to promote their philosophy and ideology. Perhaps the most notorious example is the overstated, over-sized neoclassical architecture of the Third Reich conceived by Hitler and architect Albert Speer to promote the values of the Nazi party; architecture utilised strictly as propaganda.  
In more recent times there have also been non-intentional examples of dysfunctional architecture, edifices which attracted apathy, crime and vandalism to such an extent that the buildings had to be abandoned and eventually demolished. The 1956 Pruitt-Igoe apartments in St Louis USA, infamous for crime, decay and squalor, had to be eventually demolished. Demolition was also the fate of the 1959 Hutchesontown C and the Red Road Apartments in Glasgow Scotland. These Brutalist edifices proved so unpopular with their tenants that they were soon scheduled for demolition. Both buildings are clear examples of how architecture can affect its users negatively.

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Ir-Razzett Ta’ Sandrina - Mgarr, Malta

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Ir-Razzett Ta’ Sandrina - Mgarr, Malta

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Dar Il-Hanin Samaritan – Santa Venera, Malta

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Dar Il-Hanin Samaritan – Santa Venera, Malta


在今天这个世界,建筑似乎更加注重经济方面的利益,没完没了的毫无灵魂的建筑在全世界反映出“反乌托邦”理念。结果就是一个只有价格没有价值的世界。就像理查德·罗杰斯(Richard Rogers)说的“今天形式跟随利润。”

然而,有一个地方的设计是特别注重设计质量和人的情绪反应的,那就是医院和治疗中心。人们认识到,好的医院设计可以对病人的恢复产生积极的影响,这些空间影响着病人的感觉,病人的身体会持续性的产生积极的反馈。弗罗伦斯·南丁格尔(Florence Nightingale)很久以前就强调了 “视觉刺激,与自然互动和使用恰当的颜色(众所周知,颜色本身就有调整情绪的作业,红色和黄的可以促进进食,蓝色和绿色更适合放松的场景)”的重要性。

In today’s secular world architecture seems to focus more on monetary gain and profit; hence the endless soulless world-wide “dystopias”; the result of an age where we know the price of everything and the value of nothing. As Richard Rogers has said “today form follows profit”.  
There is however, one area where particular attention is given to design quality and emotional response, and that is in the planning of hospital and healing environments. It is now recognised that well designed wards in hospitals contribute positively to patients’ healing process, as these spaces influence patients’ senses and their bodies consequently react and respond positively. Florence Nightingale long ago had already emphasised the need of “visual stimulation, interaction with nature and the use of colour” (it is well-known that colour itself is mood manipulative; hence strident reds and yellows for fast food outlets and more comforting blues and greens for relaxing venues).

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Dar Il-Hanin Samaritan – Santa Venera, Malta

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Manikata Church, Malta

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Filfla Chapel, Malta

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Chapel of the Rainbow, Malta


当代最杰出的使用者友好型的医疗建筑是过去二三十年里在英国和多地建造的Maggie Centre。Maggie Centre是专门为癌症患者设计建造的疗养院,旨在使癌症患者获得尊重和安慰。最初的理念是由Maggie Keswick提出的,她自己本身也是一名癌症患者,并且信奉“建筑有影响人们生活的能力”。在她过世后,这个护理中心由她的丈夫查尔斯·詹克斯(Charles Jencks),一位杰出的建筑评论家管理。他通过与世界领先的建筑设计师接触交流,一个个小型的,病人友好型的疗养中心建成了。设计师的名单包括弗兰克·盖里(Frank Gehry), 理查德·罗杰斯(Richard Rogers),诺曼·福斯特(Norman Foster),雷姆·库哈斯(Rem Koolhaas),扎哈·哈迪德(Zaha Hadid)。这些真实的项目,说明了建筑是如何给人带来积极良好的影响。

众所周知,我们会对自然有积极的反应。柔和阳光,海洋,湖泊,森林和公园对人产生积极有利的影响。另一方面,我们被城市混乱和喧嚣的气氛影响搞得心神不宁。我们被混乱的、快节奏的生活方式压得喘不过气。城市的混乱和电子产品狂轰滥炸对我们给生活造成了压抑和失调。我们生活在一个道德和精神极度缺失的年代,建筑似乎已经放弃了它建设和谐世界的社会和文化使命,这就是为什么公众似乎失去了对建筑的兴趣。然而,建筑师仍肩负着使命,去创造身体的庇护所,更是灵魂的家园。正如Axel Munthe提醒我们的,“灵魂比身体需要更多的空间”。

The most outstanding examples of contemporary user friendly medical edifices are the numerous Maggie Centres constructed over the last two or three decades in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. These are care homes specifically designed to respect and comfort cancer patients. Originally conceived by Maggie Keswick, herself a cancer victim and a believer in “the ability of buildings to affect people’s lives”, the Centres, after her demise are now nurtured by her husband, the distinguished architectural critic Charles Jencks.  Through Jencks’ contacts with leading world architects, a number of excellently designed small-scale, patient friendly centres by such architects as Frank Gehry, Richard Rogers, Norman Foster, Rem Koolhaas, Zaha Hadid and others have been built. The projects are veritable examples of how buildings can impart positive, emotional and friendly atmospheres to their users.
We all know that we react positively to nature. Its soothing sights, seas, lakes, woods and parks confer on us beneficial and salutary affects. On the other hand, we are unsettled and disturbed by the chaos and clutter of contemporary cities and our turbulent, breathless lifestyle. Urban chaos and the frenzied assault of technological gadgets, have depressing and disorientating effects on our lives. We live in a spiritually and morally barren age and architecture today seems to have abandoned its social and cultural mission to build a better and harmonious world, which is why the public at large seems to have fallen out of love with architecture. Architecture, once a route to enlightenment, has degenerated into a road to speculation. However, it still remains the architect’s solemn duty to create, not only shelters for the body, but more so homes for the soul, for as Axel Munthe reminds us “the soul needs more space than the body”.

不只有眼睛体验建筑,人的一切感官都体验着建筑第21张图片

San Raffaele Hospital Church, Malta

不只有眼睛体验建筑,人的一切感官都体验着建筑第22张图片

Avenue Of Hope, Malta


在我的建筑生涯中,我一直试图创造一种迷人的建筑;一种诗歌化的梦境建筑;一种不仅源于实用性和实用性,更源于对人类现状的感性化和诗意化的渴望的建筑;一种神话的建筑和一种有着独特风格的建筑。它能丰富精神,触及灵魂。Tennessee Williams的“我不想要现实,我想要魔法”和豪尔赫·路易斯·博尔赫斯(Jorge Luis Borges)的“我的事业是编织梦想”,以及路易斯·卡恩的“欢乐是关键词”这句话最能定义我的设计理念。我相信一种可以把场所和记忆结合起来的建筑,一种反应时代精神和增强人类精神的建筑。

对建筑师来说,宗教空间是最难设计的,正如安东尼奥·高迪(Antonio Gaudi)所证实的那样,“建筑师最艰巨的任务是教堂的设计”。最难的就是个人要与无法估量的事物进行比较。我在创作“sacral enclaves”的过程中寻找的是一种神圣的韵律设计,用丰富的色彩装饰,营造出圣餐神秘主义的氛围。然而,要做到这一点,一个人不仅需要所有的专业素质,还需要爱、奉献和信仰的叠加。我的导师吉奥·庞蒂告诉我,“宗教建筑不是建筑问题,而是宗教问题”。C.S.路易斯的话“当其他人在瓶子里造船的时候,我在造灯塔”,这反映了我在建造许多神圣建筑方面的意图,我有幸参与其中。

On my part, throughout my architectural career I have attempted to create an architecture of enchantment; an architecture of dreamscapes which gives poetry to the pragmatic, an architecture which arises not only from utility and practicality, but more so from the desire to sensualise and poeticise the human condition; an architecture of myth and magic which enriches the spirit and enhances the soul.  Tennessee Williams’ words "I don’t want reality I want magic" and Jorge Luis Borges’ "my business is to weave dreams” together with Louis Kahn’s statement that "joy is the key word" best define my design philosophy. I believe in an architecture which relates to place and its memories, the zeitgeist of the age and one which enhances and augments the human spirit.
Zeit In the making of sacral spaces, the most difficult task for an architect, as confirmed by Antonio Gaudi who said that "the most arduous task for an architect is the design of a church”. One has the difficult task of measuring against the immeasurable. My search in the creation of sacral enclaves is for a sacred choreography mantled over by a rich chromatic palette to create ambiances of sacral mysticism. Yet, to achieve this, one needs not only all of one’s professional qualities but also an overlay of love, dedication and faith.  It was my mentor Gio Ponti who told me that “religious architecture is not a question of architecture but one of religion". The words of C.S. Lewis "while others where building ships in their bottles, I was building a lighthouse", reflect my intentions in the making of the many edifices of sacrality I have been privileged to be involved with.

不只有眼睛体验建筑,人的一切感官都体验着建筑第23张图片

A Garden For Myriam – St Julians, Malta

事实上知道人体是我们周围世界的媒介,我们的感官是通往我们心灵的通道,建筑是人类展开人生戏剧的舞台。因此,一个美丽和谐的建筑有利于更有利的生活方式。尼采是对的,他说“建筑是一个权力通过形式的演讲”,温斯顿丘吉尔也说“我们塑造我们的建筑,然后他们塑造我们”。分析心理学的创始人荣格正确地提醒我们,“人是他们身体环境的产物”,而阿根廷作家豪尔赫·路易斯·博尔赫斯(Jorge Luis Borges)也正确地说,“感觉一个地方比看它更重要”。

“地点很重要......他们描绘了我们的生活” - Rebecca Solnit

We have seen that the human body is in fact a medium for our surrounding world and that our senses act as gateways to our mind, also that architecture is the stage-set on which man unfolds the drama of his life. Therefore, an architecture of beauty and harmony is conducive to a more favourable lifestyle. Nietzsche was right when he said that "architecture is an oratory of power through form” as was also Winston Churchill who said "we shape our buildings, thereafter they shape us”. Jung, the founder of analytical psychology correctly reminded us that "people are products of their physical environments”, and the Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges was also correct when he stated that "it is more important to feel a place than to see it”.
"Places matter …they map our lives" - Rebecca Solnit


Richard England出生于马耳他,毕业于马耳他大学建筑专业,在意大利米兰理工学院学习,并在意大利建筑师设计师Gio Ponti的工作室担任学生建筑师。他还是一个雕刻家,摄影师,诗人,艺术家和作家。他的建筑作品已在国际知名期刊上发表。Richard England是马耳他大学的客座教授,1987年至1989年担任建筑学院院长。

他的建筑和设计为他赢得了许多奖项,包括十个国际建筑学院奖和两个联邦建筑协会地区奖。他还获得了2006年和2015年国际建筑学院大奖赛和2012年国际建筑学院年度奖。2016年,他是欧洲建筑奖获得者之一。Richard England曾在以下国家演讲和工作:美国、英国、前南斯拉夫、沙特阿拉伯、伊拉克、伊朗、意大利、阿根廷、波兰、保加利亚、俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦和他的祖国马耳他。

最近,Richard England对2018年的威尼斯建筑双年展进行了深入的分析和观察。

上图:私人别墅 -  Siggiewi
除非另有说明,所有图片均由Richard England提供

Richard England was born in Malta and graduated in Architecture at the University of Malta continuing his studies in Italy at the Milan Polytechnic and also worked as a student - architect in the studio of the Italian architect-designer Gio Ponti. He is also a sculptor, photographer, poet, artist and the author of several books. His architectural works have been published in leading international journals.  Richard England is a Visiting Professor at the University of Malta, having acted as Dean of the Faculty of Architecture between 1987 and 1989.
His buildings and designs have earned him numerous awards, including ten International Academy of Architecture Awards and two Commonwealth Association of Architects Regional awards. He was also awarded the Grand Prix of the International Academy of Architecture in 2006 and 2015 and the 2012 International Academy of Architecture Annual Award. In 2016 he was one of the winners of the European Architectural Awards. Richard England has lectured and worked in the following countries: USA, UK, Ex-Yugoslavia, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Italy, Argentina, Poland, Bulgaria, Russia, Kazakhstan and his native Malta.

Recently, Richard England has reviewed the 2018 Venice Architecture Biennale with in-depth analyses and observations. Read England's exclusive article on here.

Top image: Private Villa - Siggiewi
All images courtesy of Richard England, unless otherwise stated

                        
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