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ANTI-DRAWING:一种能够真正表达建筑空间的绘图方式第1张图片

Le Corbusier - Ronchamp. Image Courtesy of Atelier RZLBD

ANTI-DRAWING / a medium

由专筑网邢子,王雪纯编译

建筑图纸的历史和建筑本身一样古老,而且同样是通过建筑时间线发展起来的。如果在现场以一比一的比例用图纸表现出来,它们会像塔庙和金字塔一样大。相比之下,图纸作为有形的物体实际上却是不存在的,它们只能作为存储在虚拟空间中的数字和数据而存在。不管图纸在古老的历史怎样激烈的演变,有一个事实从未改变:那就是无论过去还是现在,它们都是一种媒介,一种将想法可视化并在实现之前经历一段冒险旅程的中间媒介。然而,风险总是存在这样的,同一种由建筑师绘制的图纸可能有多种不同的解读。

The history of architectural drawings is as old as architecture itself and has been developed through the architectural timeline. Once diagrams, they were as big as Ziggurats and Pyramids and drawn at the scale of one to one on site. Now in contrast, drawings are practically nonexistent as tangible objects. They only exist as digital data saved in virtual space. Regardless of their old history and drastic evolution, one single fact about them has never changed; they were and still are a medium: an intermediate device that visualizes an idea and goes through a journey of adventures before being realized. And yet, there is always a risk that the same set of drawings by an architect may be translated into different architectural interpretations.

ANTI-DRAWING:一种能够真正表达建筑空间的绘图方式第2张图片

Peter Eisenman - Memorial. Image Courtesy of Atelier RZLBD

图纸能够传达和表达建筑师的理念,它们正越来越多地被认为是一种通用语言,是一种为建造者和工程师提供基本指导的工具。如今,建筑师早期草图的重要性并没有被忽视,但是随着技术的进步,建筑公司试图同时处理更多的项目,对于建筑师来说,图纸能够表达的想法是非常有限的。图纸会更多受到工具的影响,而不是建筑师的想法。绘图被看作是独立的对象,人们更多看到的是计算机程序的复杂性,而不是其背后想法的清晰性。

Drawings are capable of communicating and representing architects’ conceptions; however, they are being established more and more as a common standard language, a vehicle that provides essential guidelines for builders and engineers. Today the significance of architects’ early sketches is not disregarded, but as technology advances and architectural firms try to handle more projects simultaneously, there is very limited time for architects to produce the early drawings that represent the ideas behind the projects and their conceptions. Drawings are more affected by tools rather than by the architects’ statements. They are viewed and praised as separate objects recognized for the complexity of the computer programs and not for the clarity of the ideas behind them.

ANTI-DRAWING:一种能够真正表达建筑空间的绘图方式第3张图片

Peter Zumthor - Bruderklaus. Image Courtesy of Atelier RZLBD

结果就是,我们已经逐渐熟悉了这些惯例,以至于不需要考虑建筑是包围空间的墙,还是墙与墙之间的空间,就能画出建筑图纸。当传统图纸只显示围护结构、边界和连接点时,少量的线条不一定能定义空间的真正质量。传统图纸对于建造来说可能已经足够了,但如今我们认识到一个空间的信息并不局限于三个几何维度,从图纸中很去难想象这个房间到底是舒适的、令人怀旧的,还是能够激发人们情感的。

As a result we have gradually become so familiar with the very conventions that we produce architectural drawings without asking: Is architecture the walls that enclose the space or the space between the walls? When conventional drawings only show enclosures, boundaries, and the points of connections, few lines do not necessarily define the true quality of space. Conventional drawings might be good enough to build a place, but today we know that information about a space is not limited to the three geometrical dimensions. It might not be easy to envision from drawings whether a room is cozy, creates nostalgia, or has a light quality that inspires a kiss.

ANTI-DRAWING:一种能够真正表达建筑空间的绘图方式第4张图片

Tadao Ando - Church of Light. Image Courtesy of Atelier RZLBD

如果我们认为我们所欠缺的品质不仅仅是建筑的效果,而是建筑本身,那么我们就有理由质疑那些既限制设计师和观众想象力,又影响建筑思维的传统。建筑就是不断创造和改变空间的体验需求,而不是仅仅满足一种惯例,也许它需要一种适应这种变化的新的语言。

我欣赏珍视并且理解建筑这门学科表现出的在空间相遇的过程,这是来自于空间(内部)和实体(容器)之间对比的重要体验。我们通过虚实来理解空间,我们使用的是空间而不是容纳空间的实体。实体的真正有用的部分存在于虚体的内部。我认为建筑是一个没有附加构件的实体,是一个整体结构,是从实体内部雕刻出的空间。事实上,建筑就是实体内的空间,而不是仅仅限制空间的墙壁。建筑就是关于如何处理虚实,尊重空间,而不是将它填满。

If we believe that the qualities we fall short to present are not just architectural effects, but architecture itself, then it is reasonable to question the conventions that both limit the imagination of designers and viewers and affect architectural thinking. Architecture that is constantly creating and changing spatial experiences needs more than one convention; perhaps it requires a language adaptable to that change.  
I appreciate, value, and comprehend architecture as a discipline that manifests itself in the course of spatial encounter: the very essential experience that arises from the contrast between void (contained) and solid (container). We understand space through the voids; we consume the emptiness not the solid. The real effectiveness of a container lives inside the emptiness. I value architecture as an entity without attachments, a monolithic structure that is carved from inside a solid creating the space. Indeed, architecture is the space in between the solids not the walls that confine the place. Architecture is all about how to treat the emptiness, to respect the space, and not to fill it up.

ANTI-DRAWING:一种能够真正表达建筑空间的绘图方式第5张图片

Shigeru Ban- MDS Gallery. Image Courtesy of Atelier RZLBD

如果我们呈现的是空间(内部)而不是它的外围(容器)会怎么样?提出Anti-drawing的概念并不是要忽略传统,而是建议我们重新思考处理和呈现建筑理念的方式。传统的建筑绘图往往通过界定边界来定义空间,让我们觉得建筑就是围护结构,而Anti-drawing则会将我们的注意力引向空间内部,并使我们区分出建筑与空间。当然,Anti-drawing不会完全真实地反映空间的质量,但它有助于改变我们的感知。Anti-drawing颠覆了我们从前对建筑的理解,它将建筑内部呈现为我们行走、呼吸、生活以及接触到的重要空间。

What if we present the space (contained) instead of its periphery (container)? Proposing the Anti-drawing does not intend to ignore the conventions, but rather suggests s rethinking of the way architectural ideas are processed and presented. While conventional architectural drawing tends to translate space by defining the boundaries and makes us perceive architecture as enclosure, anti-drawing will draw our attention to voids and makes us distinguish architecture as emptiness. Of course an anti-drawing will not be fully truthful to the quality of space, but it may be helpful in changing our perceptions. Anti-drawing inverts our predictable architectural reading; it presents voids as significant spaces where we walk, breathe, live, and encounter space.

ANTI-DRAWING:一种能够真正表达建筑空间的绘图方式第6张图片

Pyramids. Image Courtesy of Atelier RZLBD

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