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极光之旅:北极风暴中的温暖驿站第1张图片


Hammerfest徒步旅行小屋
Hammerfest Hiking Cabins / SPINN Arkitekter

由专筑网丁康杰,李韧编译

2015年夏天,挪威徒步协会(简称DNT)的Hammerfest分会决定建造两座简单而温暖的徒步旅行小屋,以带动城镇周围山区的徒步旅行产业发展。小屋的设计理念简洁明了:“我们设想的是在一座带有良好窗型的徒步旅行小屋内,置有供暖的燃木炉和舒适简洁的长椅,小屋位置靠近山顶,设计符合地形要求即可。”

In the summer of 2015, the Hammerfest chapter of The Norwegian Trekking Association (DNT) decided to build two simple warming huts to promote hiking in the mountains around town. The brief was simple - “we imagine a small hiking cabin with good windows that has a wood burning stove and simple benches, placed near the top of the mountain and designed such that it suits the terrain”.

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Cross-Laminated Timber Structure

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交错层压木材结构:交错层压木材是一种新型木建筑材料,采用窑干的杉木经分拣和切割成木方,垂直叠放后,使用高强度材料胶合成实木板材;其特点是将横纹和竖纹交错排布的规格木材胶合成型,强度可替代混凝土材料,测试表明:以该材料组合成的木建筑物抗震性能良好,具有很强的承重能力。

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SPINN Arkitekter事务所接受了这项挑战,并于2015年夏天完成了设计草图。“Varden”是一种适合当地地形条件的有机木结构,可以承受该地区极端严酷的极地冬季条件,为徒步旅行者提供一个温暖而舒适的休息站点,这种设计十分引人注目。为了让这种有机木壳设计从草图变为现实,建筑师联系了他们的长期合作伙伴FORMAT Engineers,帮助他们将这种双曲面木制“岩石”转变成可以精准组装的结构,以便由一群当地志愿者自行建造在山顶上。

SPINN took up the challenge and produced a sketch design in the summer of 2015. “Varden” was conceived as an organic wooden structure that fits in with the local terrain, could withstand the harsh polar winter conditions of the area, provide hikers with a warm and inviting rest stop, and be an attraction in itself. To translate sketches of an organic wooden shell into reality, SPINN contacted their longtime collaborators FORMAT Engineers to help them transform a double-curved wooden «rock» into a structure that could be manufactured precisely enough to be built on top of a mountain by a group of local volunteers.

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设计师使用无人机和摄影测量软件将预计建设小屋的位点情况通过三维测绘模拟出来,以此得到地形表面的详细参数,作为小屋“找形分析”(即形状确定)的基线。建筑师用Sketchup和Rhino软件制作了初始模型,而工程师用Kangaroo 和Grasshopper以及FORMAT开发的一些定制脚本工具对模型进行了进一步的优化和转换。最终的成品是木制的交错层压木材外壳,由77块特制的面板拼凑而成,类似3D拼图。

The sites were mapped in 3D using a drone and photogrammetry software to give a detailed map of the surface which was used as a baseline for form-finding. The initial shapes made by the architects in Sketchup and Rhino were further optimized and transformed by the engineers using Kangaroo and Grasshopper, together with some customized scripting tools developed by FORMAT. The result was a wooden cross-laminated timber shell with 77 unique panels that fit together like a 3D puzzle.

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这项设计对其即将面临的风力环境进行了模拟测试,确保小屋能够承受冬季北极风暴和极端的风力条件。小屋也模拟了降雪环境,保证小屋入口能够按照预期设计保持无雪状态。建筑师还测算了面板之间的结构作用力,用于确定和选择最合适的螺钉、螺杆等紧固件。另外,3D打印技术也广泛运用其中,测试面板的最佳组合方式和选择小屋的外包层材质。

The design was tested against simulated wind conditions to make sure that it would withstand winter arctic storms and extreme wind conditions. Snow simulations were performed to ensure that the entrance will remain snow-free as intended. Structural forces between the panels were determined to specify the correct type of screws and fasteners for the construction. 3D printing was used extensively to test out how the construction would fit together and to test cladding options for the exterior.

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SPINN和FORMAT事务所提出的设计与客户的预期存在较大的出入,预算较高,但是他们下定决心找到解决办法来完成这个项目。他们采用了众筹的方法,制作了项目的可视化效果图和动画来筹集实现这个项目所需要的资金。另外,当地企业自愿免费提供了材料和服务,Kebony公司也捐赠了小屋外部包层的材料。根据计划,徒步协会成员将负责协助搬运面板至施工现场。

The design proposed by SPINN and FORMAT was something very different than the client expected and had a higher budget, but they were determined to find a way to get the project built. A visualization and animation were made as part of a crowdfunding effort to raise the money necessary to realize the project. Local businesses volunteered materials and services, and Kebony donated materials for the exterior cladding. According to the plan, the hiking association members would be responsible for raising the structure and transporting it to a site.

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最终,建筑事务所决定在一个便于控制操作的仓库环境中构建小屋的结构,在那里,面板将组装在一起,并进行测试,然后卸载部分组件进行运输。一群热心的志愿者在4个工作日内完成了预制交错层压木材面板的主体结构安装。另一组志愿者根据SPINN绘制的 1:1的图纸对外包层框架和面板进行了切割和测量。志愿者们共花费了1500多个小时建造了一个小屋和两个小屋的外层。该项目唯一的专业工作是外壳的双层防水沥青浇筑,以及现场地基的浇筑工作。

In the end, it was decided to build the structure in a controlled warehouse environment, where it would be put together and tested, then partially demounted for transport. One group of enthusiastic volunteers got the main structure of prefabricated CLT panels mounted together over a period of 4 workdays. Another group was responsible for cutting and measuring the frames and panels for the outer cladding based upon 1:1 drawing from SPINN. The volunteers used over 1500 hours on the construction of one cabin, plus the outer cladding for both. The only professional work on the project was the two-layer bitumen waterproofing of the shell, and pouring of the foundation on site.

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第一间小屋被拆成两半,装上了一辆平板卡车,前往Storfjellet山。抵达安装位点后,小屋的各个部分被抬到了适当的位置,用绞车组装到了一起。窗户、壁炉、坡道和室内家具都已安装到位。到目前为止,第一间小屋取得了巨大的成功,前往Storfjellet山徒步旅行的客流量增加了不少。第二间小屋将建在Hammerfest另一侧的Tyven山顶,这样两间小屋就可以在Hammerfest美丽的北极风景中相互眺望,俯瞰整座城市。

Split into two pieces, the first cabin was loaded onto a flatbed lorry and driven to. It was then lifted into place and winched together. The window, fireplace, ramp, and interior furniture were all fitted into place on site. Thus far the first cabin has been a great success and has increased the traffic to Storfjellet significantly so far. The second cabin will be built on Tyven, a mountain on the other side of Hammerfest such that the two cabins will stand watch over the city and look over to each other across the beautiful arctic landscape of Hammerfest.

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建筑设计:SPINN Arkitekter
项目地点:挪威
建筑类别:客栈
面积:15平方米
项目年份:2018年
摄影:Tor Even Mathisen
制造厂商:Kebony, Aanesland Limtre AS
结构工程师:Format Engineers
客户:Hammerfest og Omegn Turlag
预算:每间客房10万欧元(包括志愿施工时间耗费)

Architects: SPINN Arkitekter
Location: Storfjellet, Hammerfest, Norway
Category: Cabins & Lodges
Area: 15.0 m2
Project Year: 2018
Photographs: Tor Even Mathisen
Manufacturers: Kebony, Aanesland Limtre AS
Structural Engineers: Format Engineers
Client: Hammerfest og Omegn Turlag
Budget: 100,000 EUR per cabin (includes a great deal of volunteer hours for construction)

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