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这45个建筑专业术语,你都了解吗?第1张图片

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建筑师应该了解的45个建筑专业术语
45 Construction Terms & Concepts All Architects Should Know

由专筑网李韧,邢子编译

就大多数毕业生来说,在学校的所学远远不够,因为许多内容在学校里无法接触,那是来源于大量实践的经验。在项目现场,你甚至能够听到许多曾经闻所未闻的一些专业术语。

也许一本建筑术语大全可以帮助解决很多问题,但是在实际项目中携带起来并不方便,除非你能够对《Cyril M Harris' Dictionary of Architecture and Construction》之中25000个常用术语倒背如流。所以你不妨来看看小编为大家整理的45个建筑师必备的常见术语。

1、全部利率:在施工中,这个术语指的是项目总费用,其中包括直接成本和间接成本,同样地,这个词也运用于金融界。

2、驻场建筑师:这个词语代表的可以是一个建筑事务所,也可以是某位建筑师,但这位建筑师必须获得相应的施工许可证书。另外,驻场建筑师并不一定参与设计工作,因为有时候真正的设计者不便于来到现场,那么这时候就需要雇佣一名驻场建筑师,在现场完成相应的工作。

3、斜撑(墙体):这不是指蛋糕上的奶油,在建筑中,这是一种倾斜的构件,有的建筑师会将其用作结构的支撑部分,而有的则将其用作装饰。

4、锁闭(施工):这个词明显来源于“砌块(BLOCK)”,是指在木构建筑中运用的短木块。这里是指施工人员运用锁闭技术进行填充、连接、加固结构体系。

For most recent graduates, it quickly becomes evident that what you learn in architecture school is not necessarily enough to become a confident architect. Some things can’t be taught in classrooms at all; instead, they're acquired through years of work on site and solving construction problems first-hand. Among the many things you learn on site are the terminologies used by construction workers that can sound like absolute nonsense to architects at first.
An architecture dictionary might seem like a superb idea, but in practice wouldn't be convenient on a construction site—unless you can memorize the useful entries out of the 25,000 terms in Cyril M Harris' Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Alternatively, here’s a more manageable list of 45 construction terms and concepts every architect should know.

1. All-in Rate: In Construction, the term means the total expenses for an item, which include all the direct and indirect costs. The term is also used in the financial sector.
2. Architect of Record: This term signifies the name of the architecture firm, or architect, whose name has been listed on the issued construction permits. However, “architects of record” are not necessarily the people behind the design. There are times when high-profile architects who don't have an office near to their construction site hire “architects of record,” handing them the responsibility of working on-site or using their expertise in a specific field.
3. Batter (Walls): No, not cake batter, sadly. In architecture, batter means an inward inclination or slope of a wall or structure. Some architects choose this design to provide structural strength while others choose it for decorative purposes.
4. Blocking (Construction): Evidently, the term is derived from “blocks,” and means the use of short pieces or off-cuts of lumber in wooden-framed construction. Construction workers use the blocking technique for filling, spacing, joining, or reinforcing structures.

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Image © Wikimedia user billbeee licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

5、箱体:这就好像是堆叠游戏的最后一个步骤,但是并没有那种心理压力。箱体是一个临时构件,主要是在施工中进行结构加固,或是为较大的体量增加额外的支持。其建造材料常常是木条。由于其特殊的功能,箱体也常用于电影制作中的稳定平台和拍摄轨道。

6、建筑工程师:施工中的MVP。他们了解一切施工过程,并且为施工的每个步骤负责。就不同国家来说,建筑工程师也各不相同,一般来说,他们精通施工、技术、设计、评估、维护。

7、斜面(建筑):顾名思义,就是倾斜的线条或者表面,例如建筑的边缘倒角。这种设计方式在巴洛克建筑中应用广泛,有着很好的连贯性。

8、灾难性失败:也许这个术语表达得不够明显,“灾难性失败”的意思是突然产生且不可恢复的建筑事故。目前来说,这个术语在诸如化学、枪械、系统等领域中也常常被运用。

9、混凝土盖板:这个词与钢筋混凝土有关,并且代表了安装钢筋和混凝土外部面层之间的最小距离。混凝土盖板有着多重功能,例如保护钢筋不受腐蚀、提供隔热性能,并且有着足够的嵌入距离,可以增大钢筋强度。

10、混凝土面板:这是在大多数结构中所使用的结构构件,是指水平放置的平均10至40厘米厚的混凝土面板,主要用于地板和天花板。另外还有一些其他的板面设计,诸如波纹板、肋形板等等,不同的面板对设计和耐力都有不同的要求。

5. Box Crib: Think of this as the final steps of a game of Jenga, but without the anxiety of a collapse. Instead, box cribs are temporary elements used to reinforce and add additional support to heavy objects during construction.The material used to create box cribs are often wooden bars. Due to their practicality, box crib forms are also used in film productions for stabilizing platforms and dolly tracks.
6. Building Engineer: The MVPs of construction. They know it all, and are responsible for most of what goes on during construction. Building engineers differ from one country to another, but are mainly the experts of construction, technology, design, assessment, and maintenance, all at once.
7. Cant (Architecture): Or canted, is an oblique or angled line of a surface. Think of it as chamfering the edges of a building's plan. This design was heavily used in Baroque architecture to create a continuous feel to the composition.
8. Catastrophic Failure: If the term wasn’t obvious enough, “catastrophic failures” are abrupt, irrecoverable construction mishaps. The term has been extended to other domains, and is now used for chemical engineering, firearms, and cascading system failures.
9. Concrete Cover: The term is linked to reinforced concrete and is the least distance between the installed reinforcement and the outer surface of the concrete. The concrete cover has several vital purposes, including protecting the reinforced steel bars from corrosion, providing thermal insulation, and providing sufficient embedding for the steel bars to function as reinforcement.
10. Concrete Slab: One of the few construction elements that is used in the vast majority of all structures, a concrete slab is the thick (average of 10-40 cm) horizontal concrete platform which is created to construct the floor or ceiling. There are several slab designs (corrugated, ribbed, waffle, one-way) and each one corresponds to the design or endurance required.

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Image © Takao Shiotsuka Atelier

11、课程(建筑):这与在建筑学院所学的课程不同,这个术语主要用来描述连续的砌体。无论是石材、砖块、混凝土砌块,它们都有不同的砌筑方向和类型。

11. Course (Architecture): Other than the class you take in architecture school, a course is the term used to describe a continuous row of masonry. Whether it’s stones, bricks, or concrete blocks, a course can have several orientations and types.

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Image via pxhere (public domain)

12、交叉支撑:交叉支撑主要应用于结构构件之中,能够提升结构的强度。X形钢筋能够有效地防止建筑在经受地震等自然灾害时的坍塌。

13、随挖随填:在铁路和运河的施工中,施工人员会挖掘山坡来放置铁轨,而这些挖掘之后的土壤就会用于堤坝,这样能够减少劳动工作量。这种方法适用于任意尺寸的施工现场。

14、防潮:潮湿是常见的建筑问题,因此防潮措施也是就结构而言,目的是放置多余的水分被墙体吸收而进入室内。根据结构构件的不同性质,工人们可以在不同材料制作而成的板面上增加防潮层,从而起到防潮、防变质、防腐化的作用。

15、设计建造:在大多数项目中,由于不同团队之间的配合问题,项目的施工常常会被延迟。而设计建造的理念则来源于施工团队即设计团队。这就是一个项目交付系统,在其中设计和施工是“点对点”的责任机制,这样能够大大降低生产成本,并且按时交付项目。

12. Cross Bracing: Cross bracing is a structural component used to improve the endurance of a structure. The X-shaped reinforcement can prevent a building from collapsing completely in case of earthquakes, or a wooden chair from falling apart.
13. Cut and Fill: While creating railways and canals, construction workers would create cut slopes (like a mini valley) to install the railways. The soil that’s been moved, the fills, would subsequently create adjacent embankments, minimizing the labor. The approach is now frequently used on construction sites of any size.
14. Damp Proofing: since dampness is among the most common construction problems, damp proofing is a procedure done to the structure to prevent potential moisture from being absorbed by walls and entering the interior. Depending on the nature of the structure and the damp problems it might face, a wide variety of materials can be applied onto the slab, under the final finishing, or even as a surface to act as damp proofing and prevent any spoilage.
15. Design-build: In most projects, construction is frequently delayed due to time conflicts between two (or more) teams involved. The idea behind design-build is that the same team who designs the project constructs it as well. It is a project delivery system in which the design and the construction are considered “single-point-responsibility,” reducing costs and delivering the project on time.

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Image via Unsplash (public domain)

16、对角线网格:这个术语顾名思义,就是对角线和网格的意思。例如斜向交叉的钢梁,也可以是木梁或混凝土梁,这能够减少传统钢框架中的钢材数量。

17、装箱:在施工现场,装箱表达两个含义,其一,下水道及其他地下管道由于某些结构原因需要包裹于混凝土之中,第二,这个术语同样也应用于一些危险材料的打包过程,例如石棉。

18、脚手架:脚手架主要用于大型拱形结构和桥梁之中,这是一种临时结构,一般在施工或维修过程中起到支撑和连通作用。

19、模板:模板和脚手架常常同时应用。这是由混凝土制作而成的临时构件,通过模板的使用可以让建筑呈现预期的形态。

20、接头(建筑):接头存在于两种不同的材料之间,并且这两种结构材料之间没有其他的物理连接,它们只是相邻或重叠。

16. Diagrid: The idea behind “diagrid” is pretty simple: diagonal + grid. Diagrids are diagonally intersecting steel beams (occasionally wooden or concrete), which help reduce the amount of steel used in traditional steel framing.
17. Encasement: On a construction site, encasement might refer to one of two things: in some situations, sewers and other underground pipes may need to be enclosed in a concrete encasement for structural reasons; or, the term might be applied to the process of encasing hazardous materials already installed in a structure such as asbestos.
18. Falsework: Mostly used for large arch structures and bridges, falsework is a temporary structure constructed to support and hold the span during construction or repairs.
19. Formwork: Formwork is falsework’s best friend. It is the construction of a temporary structure into which concrete is poured for it to be settled and set in the desired form.
20. Joint (building): Joints are inserted between two distinct materials in a structure which do not have any physical connection to one another but are either aligned next to each other or overlap.

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Image by Pearson Scott Foresman via Wikimedia (public domain)

21、托梁:这是大跨度结构的关键构件,因为它能够将荷载从梁传递至支柱,这些构件垂直于梁水平放置,并且与地面的柱子相连接。

22、精益建造:对于新开发的项目进行仔细地研究,从而减少浪费不必要的材料、时间、精力,提高项目的整体效率。

23、升板施工法:也名为“Youtz-Slick”法,这种方法能够保证项目的效率和安全。混凝土面板浇筑于地面层,然后通过千斤顶将其提升到指定位置。这种方法不仅能够有效地节约时间,同时可以避免工人在较高楼层使用模板从而产生危险。

24、悬臂塔(建筑):悬臂塔由木材建造而成,通过悬臂延伸向外部,用于支撑施工中的屋顶保护层。

25、地下排水沟装置:这是使用60厘米长、6厘米宽的钢制排水系统,也是一种插入地下为管道、加热线圈、热泵系统形成空间的气动驱动装置,并且不需要多余的沟槽。

26、单层混凝土构件:单层混凝土的施工是采用预制混凝土板,通过螺栓连接在一起,然后形成混凝土构件。

27、性能差距:比如,你在周末之前希望能够完成3个方案设计,但是最终也许只能完成其中之一,这就是性能差距,也就是说某项工作最终完成程度并没有符合预期。这其中有环境、工艺、人员等多种原因。

21. Joist: Joists are crucial components of a wide-span structure, as they help transfer the load from the beams to the vertical columns and studs. These horizontal elements are connected perpendicularly to the beams (horizontally) and joined (vertically) to the columns.
22. Lean Construction: A newly developed delivery system in which a study is conducted to minimize the waste of material, time, and effort, resulting in an efficient project.  
23. Lift Slab Construction: Also known as the Youtz-Slick method, the lift slab method ensures time efficiency and safety. Basically, the concrete slabs are cast on ground level, and are then lifted through hydraulic jacks into the designated placement. This methods not only saves  time, but also does not require workers to be creating and working with formwork on high ground levels.
24. Lookout (architecture): Lookouts are wooden joists that extend beyond the exterior wall in a cantilever-like manner, to support the roof sheathing phase in construction.
25. Moling: This is the use of a 60-centimeter-long, 6-centimeter wide steel "mole," a pneumatically-driven device which is inserted into the ground to create holes for pipes, heating coils, and heat pump systems without using any trenches.
26. Monocrete Construction: The monocrete construction method is the sole use of precast concrete panels, bolted together, to create concrete structures.
27. Performance Gap: Similar to when you expect to have three design proposals delivered by the end of the week, but you end up with only one because you’re just too tired, performance gap is when the expected work progress does not meet with the result on site. This could be due to environmental, workmanship, or occupant reasons.

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Image © Wikimedia user Factfile8 licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

28、预制混凝土:这是混凝土最为常见的使用形式了,预制混凝土也是混凝土构件,它可以在项目场地之外进行制作,然后运输到场地中。它既可以是面板,也可以是混凝土砌块,并具有一定的强度。

29、檩条:檩条是运用与屋顶结构之中水平放置的纵向构件,起到结构支撑的作用。

30、数量统计:在施工开始之前,评估人员会对材料和施工人员的需求进行精准的计算,从而以适当的成本来完成整个项目,这个过程便成为“Quantity Take-off”。这能够让项目负责人充分地了解项目的具体需求。

28. Precast Concrete: One of the most commonly used forms of concrete, precast concrete is concrete elements are created off-site to be transferred or lifted to the site later on. Designs could range from blocks to panels, and create solid but maneuverable elements.
29. Purlin: A purlin is any longitudinal element implemented on the roof structure horizontally for additional structural or material support.
30. Quantity Take-off: Before beginning with the construction phase, a study is held by estimators to acquire the detailed measurements of material and labor force needed to complete the project. This process is called quantity take-off and helps the project developers have full knowledge of what to expect during the construction phase.

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Image via Wkimedia (public domain)

31、椽子:这是一系列倾斜的木质元素,主要应用于屋顶之中,其一侧附着在墙体面板的边缘,一般悬挂在屋檐上。

32、轮辋托梁:在地面系统中,轮辋托梁和地板主要托梁的一端连接在一起,侧面支撑着地面面板。但是,它们也不全是末端托梁,因为末端托梁一般位于收尾,与其他托梁相互平行。

33、碎石化:为了节约时间和成本,一些不必要的混凝土会被打碎形成小块,但仍然保留在原有位置上,成为另一层表面的底层,这样能够有效地减少材料的运输成本。

31. Rafter: Rafters are a series of inclined wooden elements that form a roof, which attach to the edge of the wall plate and often overhang to form the eave.
32. Rim Joist: In flooring systems, rim joists are attached to the ends of the floor's main joists, providing lateral support to the ends of the decking system. However, they are not the end joists, which are usually the first and last row, parallel to the other joists.
33. Rubblization: In order to save time and extra cost, unwanted existing concrete is broken down to pieces of rubbles, and left in its place to become the base layer for new surfaces, instead of transferring the material to another site.

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Image © Raul J. Garcia

34、木板槽口的接合处:木板槽口的接合处也许随处可见,它由成本较低的木板制作而成,一般固定在建筑的两侧。

35、支柱:在施工过程中,装配金属或者木制支撑结构时,常常会运用到支柱。它可以垂直、水平、斜向安装,这取决于施工时的实际需求。

36、土壤储备:这就好像孩子们在沙滩上堆金字塔,在现场挖掘时,旁边会形成一堆的土壤,但它们也不会被浪费,因为之后会运用在其他所需要的部位。

37、墙体支柱:这是木结构或者钢结构的关键要素,它们能够支撑和传递来自屋面和墙体自身的荷载。

38、上部结构:一般来说,上部结构指的是某座建筑的顶部结构,这个术语也可用来描述建筑地面以上部分,其地下部分则描述为下部结构。

34. Shiplap: You’ve probably seen shiplaps everywhere, but may have referred to them as wood panels. Shiplaps are a type of inexpensive wooden board or panels fixed onto the sides of barns, sheds, and homes.
35. Shoring: Temporarily installed on site, shoring is the method in which metal or timber props are assembled to support the structure during construction. Shores can be installed vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, depending on the support needed.
36. Soil Stockpile: The grown-up version of the sand pyramids we used to do as kids, soil stockpiles are created when bulldozers excavate the soil on site and stack them in piles.The piles never go to waste because they are used later on for level grading (see "Cut and fill").
37. Wall Stud: Wall studs are crucial members of wooden or steel wall frames, as they are the vertical elements that help support and transfer loads of bearing and nonbearing walls.
38. Superstructure: In general terms, superstructure simply means a structure built on top of another structure. Typically, this term is used to describe any part of a building that is above ground, with the parts of the building below ground conversely referred to as the substructure.

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Image © Flickr user Felipe Gabaldón via Wikimedia licensed under CC BY 2.0

39、薄壳结构:该结构系统常常运用于现代建筑之中,薄壳结构是轻质混凝土构件,一般用于屋面。另外,这种结构系统可以利用结构的性能来减少其厚度,而一般呈现为弯曲形态。

40、连接(空腔墙体):有时候,建筑的两个要素无法直接连接在一起,那么这时候就需要用上连接体,空腔连接体一般由金属或塑料制作而成,放置在两个要素之间,然后将它们连接起来。

41、Topping Out:这种描述能够追溯到古代斯堪的纳维亚,最初,在施工人员在建筑的顶部安装木梁时会运用到这种方式。而现在,这仅仅是指建筑结构的最上层部分的安装时刻,它通常也代表着施工某个阶段的完成。

42、Trombe墙体:Trombe墙体由法国工程师Felix Trombe和建筑师Jacques Michel于上世纪60年代设计开发,主要用作寒冷国家的太阳能建筑构件。其中的原理与温室类似,施工人员在建筑外墙上设置玻璃面层,然后在冬天充分吸收阳光的热量,然后通过开口,这些吸收的热量能够在晚上被逐步释放。

43、基础托换:这是一种对现有结构基础的加固方式。如果该项目建造于原有建筑的基础之上,那么原有的地基也许无法承受新建筑的全部荷载,那么就可以通过混凝土、梁、基础等方式,为原有结构进行加固,根据每个项目的特征,其加固方式也各有不同。

39. Thin-Shell Structure: Frequently used in modern-day architecture, thin-shell structures are lightweight concrete elements, typically used on roofs. These large elements are usually curved, making use of the structural performance of certain forms to allow reduced material thickness.
40. Tie (Cavity Wall): There are times when two elements of a building can not be merged together, and this is when ties come to the rescue. Ties in cavity walls are typically made of metal or plastic wires, and are placed in between the two materials, “tying” them together to create a homogenous body.
41. Topping Out: A ceremonial practice that traces back to ancient Scandinavia, topping out originally referred to when the builder installs a wooden beam on top of the structure to indicate its completion. These days, it is simply the moment when the uppermost structural element is installed and is often heralded as a major construction milestone.
42. Trombe Wall: Developed by French engineer Felix Trombe and architect Jacques Michel in the 1960s, a trombe wall is a solar building element that is designed for cold countries. Similar to the greenhouse principle, it is when a glass external layer is built outside walls with openings, absorbing the heat during sunlit hours of winter. The heat is then slowly released overnight to provide warmth through the openings.
43. Underpinning: Underpinning is the act of strengthening an existing structural foundation. If the project is being done on a previously built structure, the foundation might not be strong enough or new enough to carry the new building. Underpinning can be mass concrete, beams and base pinning, or mini-piled pinning, depending on the suitable solution to each structure.

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44、虚拟设计与施工:这种方式又名VDC,其中包括项目的多学科模型,以及诸如产品、过程等工程模型、分析方法、模型设计、项目规划、成本计算等,以及建筑可视化。

45、双轴中空面板:为了能够降低大跨度钢筋混凝土面板的成本和重量,Joseph-Louis Lambot在混凝土砌块之间设计了中空层,这样能够在保持面板整体外观性能不改变的前提下,有效减少混凝土用量,而这些面板则被称为双轴中空面板,它们在当前建筑施工中的运用非常广泛。

44. Virtual Design & Construction: or VDC, includes all the multi-disciplinary models of a project. The list includes, but is not limited to, engineering modeling (product, process), analysis methods, model-based designs, scheduling, costs, and visualizations.
45. Voided Biaxial Slab: To be able to reduce the cost and weight of large-spanned reinforced concrete slabs, Joseph-Louis Lambot decided to create voids inside the concrete blocks, reducing the amount of concrete used but maintaining the overall endurance and external appearance of the slabs. These slabs are called voided biaxial slabs and are heavily used in construction nowadays.

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