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苏格兰著名建筑师Mackintosh遗留人间的完整作品第1张图片


柳树茶室是查尔斯·马金托什(Charles Rennie Mackintosh)最完整的室内设计
Willow Tea Rooms is Charles Rennie Mackintosh's most complete interior design

由专筑网缕夕,王帅编译

为了纪念查尔斯·马金托什(Charles Rennie Mackintosh)诞生150周年,我们一起来回顾他的五个项目,这些项目决定了他的职业生涯。下面,我们用格拉斯哥的柳树茶室来进行详细介绍。

作为Mackintosh最完整的室内设计,柳树茶室代表建筑师设计的最好的茶室。

1903年,Mackintosh已经在Argyle街,Buchanan街和Ingram街为Catherine Cranston设计过茶室,Catherine Cranston要求Mackintosh监督Sauchiehall街上一个新建筑设计。

与以前的Cranston的项目不同,这次建筑师能够解决建筑物的外部和内部——这是一个梯田式房子,其中大部分已被烧毁,准备改造成茶室。

To mark 150 years since the birth of Charles Rennie Mackintosh, we're looking back at five influential projects that defined his career. We round off our celebration with the Willow Tea Rooms in Glasgow.
Regarded as Mackintosh's most complete interior design, Willow Tea Rooms is the best surviving example of a tea room designed by the architect.
Having already worked on the interiors for Catherine Cranston's tea rooms at Argyle Street, Buchanan Street and Ingram Street, in 1903 Mackintosh was asked to oversee every aspect of the design for a new premises on Sauchiehall Street.
Unlike previous projects for Cranston, this time the architect was able to address both the exterior and interior of the building – a terraced house that was largely gutted to allow for its transformation into the tea rooms.

苏格兰著名建筑师Mackintosh遗留人间的完整作品第2张图片

Charles Rennie Mackintosh为柳树茶室设计了室内装饰、外立面和装饰陈设/Charles Rennie Mackintosh designed the interiors, exteriors and furnishings for the Willow Tea Rooms

Mackintosh将所有造型从建筑外墙上移除,然后将其涂成白色,形成一种大胆的现代效果,将其与传统的周边建筑区分开来。

他在二楼和三楼增加了一个弯曲的部分,突出上面的深窗户,并在地面和一楼设置了景观窗户。

Mackintosh与他的妻子Margaret Macdonald共同设计了这个空间,从家具和灯具,到地毯和墙饰,无一不亲自操刀。甚至诸如餐具、招牌和员工制服等细节都是定制设计,为客户提供一致的体验。

在建筑首层的前面是一间女士茶室,后面有一间午餐室。一楼的拱形房被改成了Salon de Luxe,而楼上的更多房间成为男士台球和吸烟室。

Mackintosh had all the mouldings removed from the building's facade, which was then painted white to create a bold, modern statement that set it apart from its more traditional neighbours.
He added a curved section to the second and third floors that accentuated the unusually deep window reveals, and introduced landscape windows on the ground and first floors.
Internally, Mackintosh worked with his wife, Margaret Macdonald, to create every aspect of the space, from the furniture and light fittings, to carpets and wall decorations. Even details such as cutlery, signboards and staff uniforms were bespoke creations, developed to ensure a consistent experience for customers.
The interior plan saw a ladies' tea room situated at the front of the ground floor, with a lunch room to the rear. A vaulted room on the first floor was transformed into the grand Salon de Luxe, while further rooms upstairs became the men's billiards and smoking rooms.

苏格兰著名建筑师Mackintosh遗留人间的完整作品第3张图片

柳树茶室目前正在翻新,并于2018年7月重新开放/The Willow Tea Rooms are currently being refurbished and are set to reopen in July 2018

柳树茶室结合了Mackintosh和Macdonald以前在其他项目设计中的经验,包括使用深色和浅色材料来装饰男性或女性用的房间。

在Mackintosh为Cranston设计的所有空间中,Salon de Luxe拥有最完整和最华丽的装饰。其主要亮色内饰以银色,灰色和粉红色为主,沿墙顶设有镜面饰带,有助于增强明亮宽敞的感觉。

柳树的主题灵感来源于一支名为欧叶(O Ye)的舞曲,曲子描述的是在Dante Gabriel Rossetti柳树林中的一切。由此引发设计了应用于彩绘玻璃的有机装饰品,镜像楣板和一扇通往Salon de Luxe的门。

如同他曾经设计的Ingram街和Argyle街的茶室一样,Mackintosh设计了高背椅来细分空间。 八把椅子被涂成银色并用紫色天鹅绒装饰,围在房间中央的两张桌子上,为食客营造出隐私感。

椅背上采用粉红色的玻璃方格突破了单调,与房间中央灰色地毯的几何装饰相呼应。

The Willow Tea Rooms incorporated many of the ideas Mackintosh and Macdonald had applied previously in the design of other projects, including the use of dark and light materials to lend different rooms a more masculine or feminine character.
Of all the spaces Mackintosh designed for Cranston, the Salon de Luxe was the most complete and lavishly decorated. Its predominantly light interior featured accents of silver, grey and pink, with a mirrored frieze running along the tops of the walls helping to enhance the bright and spacious feel.
The theme of the willow tree was influenced by a sonnet called O Ye, All Ye That Walk in Willow Wood by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. This informed the organic decorations applied to the stained-glass windows, a mirrored frieze and a door leading to the Salon de Luxe.
As he had at previous premises including the Ingram Street and Argyle Street tea room, Mackintosh designed high-backed chairs to subdivide the space. Eight chairs that were painted silver and upholstered in purple velvet surrounded two tables at the centre of the room, creating a sense of privacy for the diners seated there.
The chair backs were punctured by a pattern of pink-glass squares, which was echoed in the geometric decoration of the grey carpet at the centre of the room.

苏格兰著名建筑师Mackintosh遗留人间的完整作品第4张图片

Mackintosh设计了围绕茶室装饰的紫色构件/Mackintosh designed a mirrored frieze to run around the tea room. Image courtesy of The Willow Tea Rooms Trust

他还为柳树茶室设计了他最著名的家具——大型的雕塑椅子,根据柳树的风格化形状。

管理人员使用椅子在前台和后台之间建立了一个建筑分区。其弯曲的形状软化了刚性的几何设计,并成为一个环绕拥抱的围栏。

柳树茶室以及Cranston的其他沙龙都取得了巨大的成功,并因其新颖的室内设计而受到世人喜爱。

在接下来的几年中,Mackintosh将修改他在这些空间的设计,在受维到也纳纳分裂派艺术家影响后,他开始尝试新的想法,例如引进明亮的色彩。

1917年第一次世界大战期间,Mackintosh在格拉斯哥完成了他的最后一次设计——柳树茶室地下室扩建工程,并以第一次世界大战的战壕命名。

“战壕”的地下空间使用了原色几何图案,铬黄色的装饰搭配紫色面料布置,与Margaret充满活力的绘画作品形成鲜明对比。

Cranston的丈夫在1917年去世后,她卖掉了她的不动产,包括柳树茶室。但茶室继续运营,于1928年被并入百货公司,直至20世纪80年代初关闭。

茶室于1983年重新开放,并继续运营至2014年,当时它的业主破产,该建筑后来被柳树茶室信托公司购买。继遗产彩票基金支持1000万英镑的翻新后,茶室将于2018年7月在柳树的名下以Mackintosh的名义重新开放。

除另有说明,图片均由Annan Photographs提供。

Mackintosh also designed another of his best-known pieces of furniture for the Willow Tea Rooms – a large, sculptural chair with a latticework back based on the stylised shape of a willow tree.
The chair was used by the manageress to created an architectural division between the front and back salons. Its curved form softened the otherwise rigid geometric design and formed an embracing enclosure around the sitter.
The Willow Tea Rooms, along with the rest of Cranston's salons, were a huge success and were lauded for their innovative interiors.
Over subsequent years, Mackintosh would revise his designs for these spaces and experiment with new ideas including the introduction of bright colours influenced by the artists of the Viennese Secession.
In 1917, Mackintosh completed his final commission in Glasgow – a basement extension for the Willow Tea Rooms, named The Dug Out in reference to the trenches of the first world war that was being fought at the time.
The subterranean spaces of The Dug Out featured geometric patterns in primary colours, with a chrome-yellow settle upholstered in purple fabric creating a bold statement alongside a pair of vibrant paintings by Margaret.
Following the death of Cranston's husband in 1917, she sold her businesses including the Willow Tea Rooms. The tea room continued to operate, being incorporated into a department store in 1928 until its closure in the early 1980s.
It was reopened in 1983 and continued to operate until 2014 when its owners went into receivership and the building was purchased by the The Willow Tea Rooms Trust. Following a £10 million renovation supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund the tea rooms will reopen in July 2018 under the name of Mackintosh at the Willow.
Images are courtesy of Annan Photographs unless stated otherwise.


Charles Rennie Mackintosh

Mackintosh也许是苏格兰最著名的建筑师。他于1868年出生于格拉斯哥,身兼建筑师、艺术家和设计师,也是现代主义的先驱,他将苏格兰和日本艺术与新艺术风格融为一体,创造出自己独特的审美元素。

虽然有影响力,但Mackintosh建成的项目相对较少,他最著名的设计有格拉斯哥艺术学院、希尔之家和柳树茶室,这些作品大多集中在1895年至1905年间的短短十年内。

在他的许多项目中,Mackintosh不仅设计了建筑物,还与他的妻子 Margaret Macdonald一起设计的家具,其中有Argyle椅子。

由于缺乏佣金,到50多岁时,他放弃了建筑专注于水彩绘画。1928年,Mackintosh因癌症逝世,享年60岁。

近年来,对Mackintosh的设计得到了认可,其中有两栋未建造的房屋——艺术家的小屋和艺术爱好者的房屋,目前正在落实,该建筑将用于举行了大型巡回展览,并用于保护他的遗产。

格拉斯哥艺术学校在火灾后正在进行翻新,柳树茶室耗资1000万英镑进行翻新后将于7月份重新开放,Ingram街茶室目前正在翻新作为隈严吾设计V&A Dundee的展览。

Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Mackintosh is perhaps Scotland’s most famous architect. Born in Glasgow in 1868, the architect, artist and designer was a pioneer of Modernism, blending Scottish and Japanese influences with Art Nouveau to create his own unique aesthetic.
Although influential, Mackintosh built relatively few projects, with his best known commissions – including the Glasgow School of Art, Hill House and Willow Tea Rooms – coming in a short ten year period between 1895 and 1905.
At many of his projects Mackintosh designed not only the building, but also, working with his wife Margaret Macdonald, the furnishings and items of furniture, including the Argyle Chair.
Due to a lack of commissions, by his 50s he had abandoned architecture to concentrate on painting watercolours. Mackintosh died of cancer aged 60 in 1928.
In recent years interest in Mackintosh been revived, with two unbuilt houses – The Artist's Cottage and The House for An Art Lover  – being realised, major retrospectives being held, and investment being made to secure his legacy.
The Glasgow School of Art is undergoing a £32 refurbishment following a fire, the Willow Tea Rooms will reopen after a £10 million renovation in July, and the Ingram Street Tearooms is currently being rebuilt as an exhibition in the new Kengo Kuma-designed V&A Dundee.

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